Skip to main content

Full text of "The Victoria history of the county of Durham"

See other formats


33. 



Dfctoda Ibtetorie of the 
Counties of Englanb 

EDITED BY WILLIAM PAGE, F.S.A. 



A HISTORY OF 
DURHAM 



VOLUME I 



THE 

/ICTORIA HISTORY 

OF THE COUNTIES 
OF ENGLAND ^)' 

DURHAM 




LONDON 

ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE 

AND COMPANY LIMITED 




This History ts issued to Subscribers only 

By Archibald Constable & Company Limited 

and printed by Eyre & Spottiswoode 

H.M. Printers, London 



INSCRIBED 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

HER LATE MAJESTY 

QUEEN VICTORIA 

WHO GRACIOUSLY GAVE 

THE TITLE TO AND 

ACCEPTED THE 

DEDICATION OF 

THIS HISTORY 



THE ADVISORY COUNCIL 
OF THE VICTORIA HISTORY 



His GRACE THE LORD ARCH- 
BISHOP OP CANTERBURY 

His GRACE THE DUKE OP 
BEDFORD, K.G. 

President of the Zoological Society 

His GRACE THE DUKE OP DEVON- 
SHIRE, K.G. 

Chancellor of the University of Cam- 
bridge 

His GRACE THE DUKE OP 
RUTLAND, K.G. 

His GRACE THE DUKE OP 
PORTLAND, K.G. 

His GRACE THE DUKE OP 
ARGYLL, K.T. 

THE RT. HON. THE EARL op 
ROSEBERY, K.G., K.T. 

THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF 
COVENTRY 

President of At Royal Agricultural 
Society 

THE RT. HON. THE VISCOUNT 
DILLON 

Latf President of the Society of 
Antiquaries 

THE RT. HON. THE LORD LISTER 

Late President of the Royal Society 

THE RT. Hon. THE LORD 
ALVERSTONE, G.C.M.G. 

Lord Chief Justice 

THE HON. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, 
M.P. 



SIR FREDERICK POLLOCK, BART., 
LL.D., F.S.A., ETC. 

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S., ETC. 

SIR EDWARD MAUNDE THOMP- 
SON, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.S.A., ETC. 

Director of the British Museum 

SIR CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

President of the Royal Geographical 
Society 

SIR HENRY C. MAXWELL-LYTE, 
K.C.B., M.A., F.S.A., ETC. 

Keeper of the Public Records 

COL. SIR]. FARQUHARSON, K.C.B. 

SIR Jos. HOOKER, G.C.S.I., M.D., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., ETC. 

SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, LL.D., 
F.R.S., ETC. 

REV. J. CHARLES Cox, LL.D., 
F.S.A., ETC. 

LIONEL Cusr, M.V.O., M.A., 
F.S.A., ETC. 

Director of tbi National Portrait 
Gallery 

CHARLES H. FIRTH, M.A., LL.D. 

Regius Professor of Modern History, 
Oxford 

ALBERT C. L. G. GUNTHER.M.A., 
M.D., F.R.S., PH.D. 

l^ate President of the Linnean Society 



F. HAVERPIELD, M.A., LL.D., 
F.S.A. 

COL. DUNCAN A. JOHNSTON, C.B., 
R.E. 

Late Director General of the Ordnance 
Survey 

PROF. E. RAY LANKESTER, M.A., 
F.R.S., ETC. 

Dirtttor of the Natural History 
Museum, South Kensington 

REGINALD L. POOLE, M.A. 

University Lecturer in Diflomaric, 
Oxftrd 

J. HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. 

WALTER RYE 

W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, M.A. 

Assktant Secretary of tbt Society of 
Antiquariei 



Among the original members of 
the Council were 

THE LATE MARQUESS OP SALISBURY 

THE LATE DR. MANDELL 
CREIGHTON, BISHOP OP LONDON 

THE LATE DR. STUBBS, BISHOP 
OF OXFORD 

THE LATE LORD ACTON 

THE LATE SIR WILLIAM FLOWER 

and 
THE LATE PROFESSOR F. YORK 

POWELL 



General Editor \V HUM* PACE, F.S.A. 



GENERAL ADVERTISEMENT 

The VICTORIA HISTORY of the Counties of England is a National Historic Survey 
which, under the direction of a large staff comprising the foremost students in science, history, 
and archaeology, is designed to record the history of every county of England in detail. This 
work was, by gracious permission, dedicated to Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, who gave it 
her own name. It is the endeavour of all who are associated with the undertaking to make it 
a worthy and permanent monument to her memory. 

Rich as every county of England is in materials for local history, there has hitherto been 
no attempt made to bring all these materials together into a coherent form. 

Although from the seventeenth century down to quite recent times numerous county 
histories have been issued, they are very unequal in merit ; the best of them are very rare 
and costly ; most of them are imperfect and many are now out of date. Moreover, they were 
the work of one or two isolated scholars, who, however scholarly, could not possibly deal 
adequately with all the varied subjects which go to the making of a county history. 



VII 



In the VICTORIA HISTORY each county is not the labour of one or two men, but of many, 
for the work is treated scientifically, and in order to embody in it all that modern scholarship 
can contribute, a system of co-operation between experts and local students is applied, whereby 
the history acquires a completeness and definite authority hitherto lacking in similar 
undertakings. 

The names of the distinguished men who have joined the Advisory Council are a 
guarantee that the work represents the results of the latest discoveries in every department 
of research, for the trend of modern thought insists upon the intelligent study of the past 
and of the social, institutional, and political developments of national life. As these histories 
are the first in which this object has been kept in view, and modern principles applied, it is 
hoped that they will form a work of reference no less indispensable to the student than 
welcome to the man of culture. 



THE SCOPE OF THE WORK 

The history of each county is complete in itself, and in each case its story is told from the 
earliest times, commencing with the natural features and the flora and fauna. Thereafter 
follow the antiquities, pre-Roman, Roman, and post-Roman ; ancient earthworks ; a new 
translation and critical study of the Domesday Survey ; articles on political, ecclesiastical, social, 
and economic history ; architecture, arts, industries, sport, etc. ; and topography. The greater 
part of each history is devoted to a detailed description and history of each parish, containing 
an account of the land and its owners from the Conquest to the present day. These manorial 
histories are compiled from original documents in the national collections and from private 
papers. A special feature is the wealth of illustrations afforded, for not only are buildings of 
interest pictured, but the coats of arms of past and present landowners are given. 

HISTORICAL RESEARCH 

It has always been, and still is, a reproach that England, with a collection of public 
records greatly exceeding in extent and interest those of any other country in Europe, is yet 
far behind her neighbours in the study of the genesis and growth of her national and local 
institutions. Few Englishmen are probably aware that the national and local archives contain 
for a period of 800 years in an almost unbroken chain of evidence, not only the political, 
ecclesiastical, and constitutional history of the kingdom, but every detail of its financial and 
social progress and the history of the land and its successive owners from generation to 
generation. The neglect of our public and local records is no doubt largely due to the fact 
that their interest and value is known to but a small number of people, and this again is 
directly attributable to the absence in this country of any endowment for historical research. 
The government of this country has too often left to private enterprise work which our con- 
tinental neighbours entrust to a government department. It is not surprising, therefore, to find 
that although an immense amount of work has been done by individual effort, the entire 
absence of organization among the workers and the lack of intelligent direction has hitherto 
robbed the results of much of their value. 

In the VICTORIA HISTORY, for the first time, a serious attempt is made to utilize our 
national and local muniments to the best advantage by carefully organizing and supervising 
the researches required. Under the direction of the Records Committee a large staff of experts 
has been engaged at the Public Record Office in calendaring those classes of records which are 
fruitful in material for local history, and by a system of interchange of communication among 
workers under the direct supervision of the general editor and sub-editors a mass of information 
is sorted and assigned to its correct place, which would otherwise be impossible. 

THE RECORDS COMMITTEE 

SIR EDWARD MAUNDE THOMPSON, K.C.B. C. T. MARTIN, B.A., F.S.A. 

SIR HENRY MAXWELL-LYTE, K.C.B. J. HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. 

W. J. HARDY, F.S.A. S. R. SCARGILL-BIRD, F.S.A. 

F. MADAM, M.A. W. H. STEVENSON, M.A. 

F. MAITLAND, M.A., F.S.A. G. F. WARNER, M.A., F.S.A. 

viii 



FAMILY HISTORY 

Family History is, both in the Histories and in the supplementary genealogical volumes 
of chart Pedigrees, dealt with by genealogical experts and in the modern spirit. Every effort 
is made to secure accuracy of statement, and to avoid the insertion of those legendary 
pedigrees which have in the past brought discredit on the subject. It has been pointed out 
by the late Bishop of Oxford, a great master of historical research, that ' the expansion and 
extension of genealogical study is a very remarkable feature of our own times,' that ' it is an 
increasing pursuit both in America and in England,' and that it can render the historian most 
useful service. 

CARTOGRAPHY 

In addition to a general map in several sections, each History contains Geological, Oro- 
graphical, Botanical, Archaeological, and Domesday maps ; also maps illustrating the articles on 
Ecclesiastical and Political Histories, and the sections dealing with Topography. The Series 
contains many hundreds of maps in all. 



ARCHITECTURE 

A special feature in connexion with the Architecture is a scries of ground plans, many 
of them coloured, showing the architectural history of castles, cathedrals, abbeys, and other 
monastic foundations. 

In order to secure the greatest possible accuracy, the descriptions of the Architecture, 
ecclesiastical, military, and domestic, are under the supervision of Mr. C. R. PEERS, M.A., 
F.S.A., and a committee has been formed of the following students of architectural history 
who are referred to as may be required concerning this department of the work : 



ARCHITECTURAL COMMITTEE 

J. BILSON, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, M.A. 

R. BLOMFIELD, M.A., F.S.A., A.R.A. W. H. KNOWLES, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

HAROLD BRAK.SPEAR, F.S.A., A.R.I.B.A. J. T. MICKLETHWAITE, F.S.A. 

PROF. BALDWIN BROWN, M.A. ROLAND PAUL, F.S.A. 

ARTHUR S. FLOWER, F.S.A., A.R.I.B.A. J. HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. 

GEORGE E. Fox, M.A., F.S.A. PERCY G. STONE, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

J. A. GOTCH, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. THACKERAY TURNER. 



GENEALOGICAL VOLUMES 

The genealogical volumes contain the family history and detailed genealogies of such 
houses as had at the end of the nineteenth century seats and landed estates, having enjoyed 
the like in the male line since 1760, the first year of George III., together with an intro- 
ductory section dealing with other principal families in each county. 



IX 



The general plan of Contents and the names among others of 
those who are contributing articles and giving assistance are as 
follows : 

Natural History 

Geology. CLEMENT REID, F.R.S., HORACE B. WOODWARD, F.R.S., and others 
Palaeontology. R. L. LYDEKKER, F.R.S., etc. 

/'Contributions by G. A. BOULENGER, F.R.S., H. N. DIXON, F.L.S., G. C. DRUCE, M.A., 
Flora I F.L.S., WALTER GARSTANG, M.A., F.L.S., HERBERT Goss, F.L.S., F.E.S., R. I. POCOCK, 
Fauna j REV. T. R. R. STEBBING, M.A., F.R.S., etc., B. B. WOODWARD, F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 

\ etc., and other Specialists 

Prehistoric Remains. SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., W. BOYD DAWKINS, D.Sc., LL.D., 
F.R.S, F.S.A., GEO. CLINCH, F.G.S., JOHN GARSTANG, M. A., B.Litt., F.S.A.,and others 

Roman Remains. F. HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Anglo-Saxon Remains. C. HERCULES READ, F.S.A. , REGINALD A. SMITH, B.A., F.S.A., and others 

Domesday Book and other kindred Records. J. HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D., and other Specialists 

Architecture. C. R. PEERS, M.A., F.S.A., W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, M.A., and HAROLD BRAKSPEAR, 
F.S.A., A.R.I.B.A. 

Ecclesiastical History. R. L. POOLE, M.A., and others 

Political History. PROF. C. H. FIRTH, M.A., LL.D., W. H. STEVENSON, M.A., J. HORACE ROUND, 
M.A., LL.D., PROF. T. F. TOUT, M.A., PROF. JAMES TAIT, M.A., and A. F. POLLARD 

History of Schools. A. F. LEACH, M.A., F.S.A. 

Maritime History of Coast Counties. Prof. J. K. LAUGHTON, M.A., M. OPPENHEIM, and others 

Topographical Accounts of Parishes and Manors. By Various Authorities 

History of the Feudal Baronage. J. HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D., and OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A. 

Agriculture. SIR ERNEST CLARKE, M.A., Sec. to the Royal Agricultural Society, and others 

Forestry. JOHN NISBET, D.CEc., and others 

Industries, Arts and Manufactures ) 

. ... > By Various Authorities 

Social and Economic History ) 

Ancient and Modern Sport. E. D. CUMING and others 
Hunting \ 

Shooting > By Various Authorities 
Fishing, etc./ 
Cricket. HOME GORDON 
Football. C. W. ALCOCK 




FIGURE OF JONAS THE PROPHET EMBROIDERED ON BISHOP FRITHSTAN'S STOLE 
(A.D. 909 TO 913) FOUND IN ST CUTHBERT'S COFFIN. 



M'Lagan & dimming, Litho. Etlinr. 




THE 

VICTORIA HISTORY 

OF THE COUNTY OF 

DURHAM 



EDITED BY 

WILLIAM PAGE, F.S.A. 

VOLUME ONE 




LONDON 

JAMES STREET 

HAYMARKET 




DA 

670 



, I 



Counts Committee for Durbam 



THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF DURHAM 

Lord Lieutenant, Chairman 



THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF STRATHMORE 

AND KlNGHORNE 

THE RT. REV. THE LORD BISHOP OF 

DURHAM 

THE RT. HON. THE LORD BARNARD 
THE HON. FREDERICK W. LAMBTON, M.P. 
THE HON. ARTHUR ELLIOT 
SIR WILLIAM EDEN, BART. 
SIR WILLIAM H. E. CHAYTOR, BART. 
SIR HENRY S. M. HAVELOCK-ALLAN, BART. 

SlR POWLETT C. J. MlLBANK, BART. 

SIR CHARLES M. PALMER, BART. 

SIR DAVID DALE, BART. 

SIR LINDSAY WOOD, BART. 

SIR JONATHAN BACKHOUSE, BART. 

THE VERY REV. G. W. KITCHIN, D.D., 

F.S.A., Dean of Durham 
THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF DURHAM 
THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF JARROW- 

ON-TYNE 

CHARLES W. BELL, ESQ., D.L., J.P. 



ROBERT CAMERON, ESQ., M.P. 

LT.-COL. J. C. FiFE-CooKsoN, D.L., J.P. 

THE REV. CANON FOWLER, D.C.L., F.S.A. 

JOHN SCOTT Fox, ESQ., K.C. 

THE REV. HENRY GEE, D.D., F.S.A. 

THE REV. CANON GREENWELL, D.C.L., 

F.S.A. 
ARTHUR HENDERSON, ESQ., M.P. 

F. B. JEVONS, ESQ., D.Lrrr. 

G. A. LEBOUR, ESQ., M.A., F.G.S. 
WILLIAM G. MORANT, ESQ. 

THE REV. CANON NORMAN, D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

JOHN S. G. PEMBERTON, ESQ., M.P. 
RALPH SIMEY, ESQ., D.L. 
SAMUEL STOREY, ESQ., D.L., J.P. 
THE REV. CANON TRISTRAM, D.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

VICTOR A. WILLIAMSON, ESQ., C.M.G., D.L. 
JOHN WILSON, ESQ., M.P. 



XIII 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE 



Dedication . .... 

The Advisory Council of the Victoria History 
General Advertisement .... 

The Durham County Committee 

Contents ...... 

List of Illustrations ..... 

Prefcce 

Table of Abbreviations .... 
Natural History 

Geology 

Paleontology ..... 

Botany ...... 

Zoology 

Marine ...... 

Marine Molluscs .... 

Non-Marine Molluscs 

Insects 

Spiders 

Crustaceans ..... 

Fishes 

Reptiles and Batrachians . 
Birds . . . 

Mammals ..... 
Early Man 

Anglo-Saxon Remains .... 
The Contents of St. Cuthbert's Shrine 

Introduction to the Boldon Book 

Text of the Boldon Book 

Ancient Earthworks .... 

History of Schools ..... 

Index to the Boldon Book 



By G. A. LEBOUR, M.A 

By R. LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S. 

By M. C. POTTER, M.A 

By the Rev. A. M. NORMAN, D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S., Hon. Canon of Durham 

n n n 

By B. B. WOODWARD, F.G.S., F.R.M.S. 

By the Rev. W. J. WINGATB, and J. E. ROBSON, 
F.E.S. (LepiJoptero) 

By the late F. O. PICKARD-CAMBRIDCE, M.A. . 

By the Rev. T. R. R. STBBBING, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.Z.S 

By ALEXANDER MEEK, M.Sc., F.Z.S. 

By E. LEONARD GILL, B.Sc 

By the Rev. H. B. TRISTRAM, LL.D., F.R.S., 
Canon of Durham ..... 

By E. LEONARD GILL, B.Sc. 

By the Rev. WM. GREENWHLL, D.C.L., F.R.S., 
F.S.A., Minor Canon of Durham, and 
GEO. CLINCH, F.G.S 

By CHARLES C. HODGES .... 

By the Very Rev. G. W. KITCHIN, D.D., 
F.S.A., Dean of Durham .... 

By G. T. LAPSLEY, M.A., PH.D. (Harvard) . 

n n n 

By I. CHALKLEY GOULD .... 
By A. F. LEACH, M.A., F.S.A. . 



PAGI 
V 

vii 
vii 

xiii 
xv 

xvii 

xix 
xxi 

i 

31 
35 



3 

8? 
90 

93 
'4' 

150 

1 68 

'74 

'75 
191 



199 

211 



59 
3*7 
343 
365 
4'S 



xv 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Portion of Bishop Frithstan's Stole found in St. Cuthbert's Coffin ..... Frontispiece 

Articles found in Heathery Burn Cave ..... .... 201 

,, ............. 203 

205 

Drinking Cup from Sacriston : Bronze Rapier-blade from River 
Tyne at Newcastle : Bronze Sword from River Tees opposite 
Middlesbrough : Bronze Spear-head from River Tyne above 



Newcastle : Bronze Rapier-blade from River Tyne at New- 



full-page plate, facing 206 



castle : Bronze Dagger from River Tyne above Newcastle : 
Bronze Rapier-blade from River Wear at Claxheugh 

Late Celtic Sword and Sheath found at Bannston, near Sadberge, co. Durham .... 209 

Hartlepool Gravestones ......... full-page plate, facing 2 1 2 

Iron Weapons found at Hurbuck, near Lanchester . . . . 214 

Bishop Tidfirth's Stone from Monkwearmouth : Three Spear-\ 
heads from Darlington : Anglian Brooch from Darlington : I 

Earthenware Vessel containing Coins from Hcworth: Brooch f " " " 

or Buckle from East Boldon . . . . . ) 

Glass Vessel found at Castle Eden ,,,,216 

Auckland : Parts of Cross-shaft ,,,,218 

Aycliffe : Cross and Cross-shaft in Churchyard 220 

St. Oswald's, Durham : Portion of a Cross-shaft . . . x 

Billingham : Fragment of Gravestone, now in British Museum 

Jarrow : Fragment of Cross-shaft in North Porch . 

Durham : Coped Grave Cover in Cathedral Library . . > 

Front and Back of Portions of Cross from the Chapter House, Durham . . . . .226 

Fronts of Portions of Crosses from the Chapter House, Durham . . . . . .227 

Back of Portion of Cross from the Chapter House, Durham . . . . . . .228 

Portion of Cross-shaft from Gainford . . . . . . . . . . .230 

Portion of Base Stone of Cross from Hurworth . . . . . . . . 2 33 

Monkwearmouth: Gravestone of Herebericht ..... full-page plate, facing 234 

Sockburn : 

Portion of Cross-shaft . . | 

Upper Part of Cross-shaft . 

Stone with Two Warriors on Horseback/ 

Portions of Cross-shafts 238 

Hog-backed Stones . ...... 240 

Sundial at Darlington . .......... 240 

Sundial at Pittington . ......... 240 

St. Cuthbert's Coffin : 

Outer Lid 2 43 

Inner Lid. ... . .... 243 

Fragments of Wood showing Arcading . . 243 

Model Restored ; Grooves for Cross-pieces supporting the Inner Lid . . 144 

Right Hand Side . *4S 

Left Hand Side *45 

Groove and Rebates ... 246 

Head with Figures of St. Michael and St. Gabriel . . . . 247 

Foot with Figures of Virgin and Child ..... ... 247 

Iron Ring .... 248 

Inscriptions on the Coffin ..... . . 249 

xvii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

St. Cuthbert's Cross . , . . .) full-page plate, facing 254 

St. Cuthbert's Comb . . . . j 

St. Cuthbert's Portable Altar . . .\ 

Bracelet of Gold Thread and Silk found in 

St. Cuthbert's Coffin . . . .> ..... 2 5 6 

Portion of Maniple found in St. Cuthbert's I 
Coffin ....... ' 

Portions of Bishop Frithstan's Stole . \ 

Ends of Bishop Frithstan's Stole . . . j- . . , . . 258 

Bishop Frithstan's Maniple . . .) 

Ancient Earthworks 

Stockley Beck Camp, Brancepeth . . . . . , . , , . 347 

Maiden Castle, Durham . . . . . . . . . . . -348 

The Castles, North Bedburn ........... 349 

Shackerton Hill, Heighington . . . . .... 349 

Jarrow .... .......351 

Lanchester . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 

Castle Steads,' Rowley Gillet ........... 352 

Piercebridge . . . . . . . . . . , . -353 

Castle Hill, Bishopton . . . . . . . . . . . -353 

Durham Castle . . . . . . . . . . . . -354 

Barnard Castle . . . . . . . . . . . . . -355 

Brancepeth ..... ........ 356 

Shipley Moat, Hamsterley . . . . . . . . . . . -356 

Holmside Hall, Lanchester. . . . . . . . . . , .356 

Langley Hall, Lanchester . . . . . . . . . . -356 

Castle Wood, Wolsingham . . . . . . . . . . . -356" 

Bradley Hall, Wolsingham . . . . . . . . . . . -357 

Dawdon Tower ............. 357 

Low Dinsdale .............. 353 

Summerhouse, Gainford . . . . . . . . . . . -358 

Low Throston . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358 

WardleyHall .............. 3S9 

Ludworth Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . -359 

Raby Castle .............. 359 

Stockton Castle . . . . . . . . . . . . -359 

Middle Friarside, Tanfield . . . . . . . . . . -359 

Chapel Walls, Wolsingham ............ 360 

Archdeacon Newton ............. 360 

Cockfield ............. . 361 

Park Pasture, Stanhope . . . . . . . . . . . .362 

LIST OF MAPS 

PAGE 

Geological Map . . between xxvi, I 

Orographical Map ............ 14, 25 

Botanical Map. . . ,,34,35 

Pre-Historical Map . ........ 198, 199 

Anglo-Saxon Map . ... ,,210, 211 

Ancient Earthworks Map . * A *.* 

34 Z > 343 

xviii 



1 



PREFACE 



fact that the county of Durham was a palatinate, and there- 
fore more than other counties a separate district, may be the 
reason why it has been peculiarly fortunate in having attracted 
men of culture and leisure to study its history seriously and 
enthusiastically. Although he never attempted anything in the form of 
a county history, George Allan, a solicitor of Darlington, during the latter 
half of the eighteenth century collected and added to the manuscripts 
which had been prepared by many earlier workers. This vast store of 
material he freely placed at the disposal of historical students, thus 
enabling them to give a thoroughness to their work which otherwise 
could not probably have been attained. It was by this means that 
William Hutchinson was able to write his History and Antiquities of the 
County Palatine of Durham, the first volume of which appeared in 1785. 
Hutchinson was a man of many parts, a lawyer, a politician, a play- 
wright and a novelist, but his history is nevertheless good, and will 
compare favourably in a few points with that of his rival Surtees. 

Without doubt, however, the principal historian of the county was 
Robert Surtees. From his boyhood Surtees was a student of history, and 
conceived the idea of writing a history of his native county while an 
undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford. He retired to his family seat 
at Mainsforth in 1805, and there at the age of twenty-six began what 
became his life's work. But The History and Antiquities of the County 
Palatine of Durham was delayed on account of his health, and the first 
volume was not published till 1816. Beyond the care and accuracy 
which he gave to his task there is a quaint humour in his style of 
writing, unusual in works of this nature, which adds a charm to what 
otherwise might often prove dry reading. The attraction of this 
quaint humour, exhibited as well in conversation as in writing, together 
with a generous disposition, surrounded him with those congenial com- 
panions and devoted friends who may be said to have founded a school of 
local historical research which has attained a standard that has never been 
reached elsewhere in this country. Among those influenced by this 
movement occur the names of Rev. James Raine, Canon Raine, his son, 
J. Hodgson Hinde, Sir Cuthbert Sharpe, W. H. D. LongstafF, Canon 
Greenwell, and Canon Fowler. Surtees died in February, 1834, leaving 
the fourth volume of his history, which remained unpublished till 1840, 
to be completed by his colleague, Rev. James Raine. Within a few 
months of his death the Surtees Society, which has done so much to 



XIX 



PREFACE 

elucidate the history of the north of England, was founded as a memorial 
to him. The prime mover in the formation of this Society was Rev. 
James Raine, D.C.L., author of The History and Antiquities of North 
Durham, a most scholarly work relating to the detached parts of Durham 
locally situated in Northumberland, the first part of which was issued in 
1830, and the second in 1852. Raine was a man of great learning and 
indefatigable industry, to whose works all historians of the north of 
England are indebted. With such rivals as these it seems bold to com- 
pete, but it may perhaps be claimed that the aims of the Victoria County 
History differ in many respects from those of the existing county 
histories. 

The editor desires to express his thanks to Rev. Canon Greenwell, 
for valuable advice and assistance ; to Rev. Dr. Gee, for help in many 
ways ; to Dr. Kitchin, Dean of Durham, for the use of plates ; and to 
the Society of Antiquaries of London, the Yorkshire Archaeological 
Society, and the Surtees Society, for the use of blocks for illustrations. 



XX 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. 

Com.) 

Acts of P.C. . . 
Add ...... 

Add. Chart. . . 
Admir ..... 

AgarJe .... 

Anct. Corresp. . . 
Anct. D. (P.R.O.) 

A 2420 

Ann. Mon. . . . 
Antiq ..... 



Arch 

Arch. Cant. 
Archd. Rec. 
Archil 
Assize R. 
Aud. Off. . 
Aug. Off. . 
Ayloffe . 

Bed 

Beds 

Berb . . 

Bdle 

B.M 

Bodl. Lib. . 

Boro 

Brev. Reg. . 

Brit 

Buck 

Bucks . 



Cal 

Camb 

Cambr 

Campb. Ch. . . 

Cant 

Cap 

Carl 

Cart. Antiq. R. 
C.C.C. Camb. . . 

Certiorari Bdles. 

(Rolls Chap.) 
Chan. Enr. Decree 

R. 

Chan. Proc. . . 
Chant. Cert. . . 



Chap. Ho. . . . 

Charity Inq. . . 

Chart. R. 20 Hen. 

HI. pt. i. No. 10 



Abbreviatio Placitorum (Re- 
cord Commission) 

Acts of Privy Council 

Additional 

Additional Charters 

Admiralty 

Agarde's Indices 

Ancient Correspondence 

Ancient Deeds(Public Record 
Office) A 2420 

Annales Monastic! 

Antiquarian or Antiquaries 

Appendix 

Archzologia or Archaeological 

Archzologia Cantiana 

Archdeacons' Records 

Architectural 

Assize Rolls 

Audit Office 

Augmentation Office 

Ayloffe's Calendars 

Bedford 

Bedfordshire 

Berbhire 

Bundle 

British Museum 

Bodley*s Library 

Borough 

Brcvia Regia 

Britain, British, Britannia, etc. 

Buckingham 

Buckinghamshire 

Calendar 

Cambridgeshire or Cambridge 

Cambria, Cambrian, Cam- 
brensis, etc. 

Campbell Charities 

Canterbury 

Chapter 

Carlisle 

Cartae Antiquae Rolls 

Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge 

Certiorari Bundles (Rolls 
Chapel) 

Chancery Enrolled Decree 
Rolls 

Chancery Proceedings 

Chantry Certificates (or Cer- 
tificates of Colleges and 
Chantries) 

Chapter House 

Charity Inquisitions 

Charter Roll, 20 Henry III. 
part i. Number 10 



Chartul 

Chas 

Ches 

Chest 

Ch. Gds. (Exch. 
K.R.) . . . 

Chich 

Chron 

Close .... 

Co 

Colch 

Coll 

Com 

Com. Pleas 

Conf. R. . . . 

Co. Plac. . . . 

Cornw 

Corp 

Cott 

Ct. R 

Ct. of Wards . . 

Cumb 

Cur. Reg. . . . 

D 

D. and C. . . . 
De Bane. R. . . 
Dec. and Ord . . 
Dep. Keeper's Rep. 

Derb 

Devon .... 

Dioc 

Doc 

Dods. MSS. . . 
Dom. Bk. . . . 

Dors 

Duchy of Lane. . 
Dur 

East 

Ecd 

Eccl. Com. . . 

Edw 

Eliz 

Engl 

Engl. Hist. Rev. . 

Enr 

Epis. Reg. . . . 
Esch. Enr. Accts. . 
ExcerptaeRot.Fin. 

(Rec. Cora.) 
Exch. Dep. . . 
Exch. K.B. . . 
Exch. K.R. . . 

Exch. L.T.R. 



Chartulary 

Charles 

Cheshire 

Chester 

Church Goods (Exchequer 

King's Remembrancer) 
Chichester 

Chronicle, Chronica, etc. 
Close Roll 
County 
Colchester 
Collections 
Commission 
Common Picas 
Confirmation Rolls 
County Placita 
Cornwall 
Corporation 
Cotton or Cottonian 
Court Rolls 
Court of Wards 
Cumberland 
Curia Regis 

Deed or Deeds 

Dean and Chapter 

De Banco Rolls 

Decrees and Orders 

Deputy Keeper's Reports 

Derbyshire or Derby 

Devonshire 

Diocese 

Documents 

Dodsworth MSS. 

Domesday Book 

Dorsetshire 

Duchy of Lancaster 

Durham 

Easter Term 
Ecclesiastical 

Ecclesiastical Commission 
Edward 
Elizabeth 

England or English 
English Historical Review 
Enrolled or Enrolment 
Episcopal Registers 
Escheators Enrolled Accounts 
Excerpta e Rotulis Finium 

(Record Commission) 
Exchequer Depositions 
Exchequer King's Bench 
Exchequer King's Remem- 
brancer 

Exchequer Lord Treasurer's 
Remembrancer 



XXI 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



Exch. of Pleas, Plea 

R. 

Exch. of Receipt . 
Exch. Spec. Com. . 



Feet of F. . . . 
Feod. Accts. (Ct. of 

Wards) 
Feod. Surv. (Ct. of 

Wards) 
Feud. Aids . . . 

fol 

Foreign R. . . . 
Forest Proc. 



Exchequer of Pleas, Plea Roll 

Exchequer of Receipt 
Exchequer Special Commis- 



Feet of Fines 

Feodaries Accounts (Court of 

Wards) 
Feodaries Surveys (Court of 

Wards) 
Feudal Aids 
Folio 

Foreign Rolls 
Forest Proceedings 



Gaz Gazette or Gazetteer 

Gen Genealogical, Genealogica, 

etc. 

Geo George 

Glouc Gloucestershire or Gloucester 

Guild Certif.(Chan.) Guild Certificates (Chancery) 
Ric. II. Richard II. 



Hants 

Harl. 

Hen. 

Heref. 

Hertf. 

Herts 

Hil. . 

Hist. 



Hist. MSS. Com. 

Hosp. 

Hund. R. . . 

Hunt. . . . 

Hunts . 



Inq. a.q.d. 
Inq. p.m. 
Inst. . . 
Invent. . 
Ips. . . 
Itin. . . 



Journ. . 

Lamb. Lib. 

Lane. 

L. and P. 

VIII. 
Lansd. 

Ld. Rev. Rec. 
Leic. 

Le Neve's Ind. 
Lib. . . . 
Lich. . . 
Line. 
Lond. 



Hen. 



m. 
Mem. 



Hampshire 

Harley or Harleian 

Henry 

Herefordshire or Hereford 

Hertford 

Hertfordshire 

Hilary Term 

History, Historical,Historian, 

Historia, etc. 

Historical MSS. Commission 
Hospital 
Hundred Rolls 
Huntingdon 
H untingdonshire 

Inquisitions ad quod damn um 
Inquisitions post mortem 
Institute or Institution 
Inventory or Inventories 
Ipswich 
Itinerary 

James 
Journal 

Lambeth Library 
Lancashire or Lancaster 
Letters and Papers, Hen. 

VIII. 

Lansdowne 

Land Revenue Records 
Leicestershire or Leicester 
Le Neve's Indices 
Library 
Lichfield 

Lincolnshire or Lincoln 
London 

Membrane 
Memorials 



Memo. R. . 

Mich 

Midd 

Mins. Accts. 
Misc. Bks. (Exch. 

K.R., Exch. 

T.R. or Aug. 

Off.) 



Mon. 
Monm. . 
Mun. 
Mus. . . 

N. andQ. . 

Norf. . . 
Northampt. 
Northants . 
Northumb. . 
Norw. . 
Nott. 



N.S. 



Memoranda Rolls 

Michaelmas Term 

Middlesex 

Ministers' Accounts 

Miscellaneous Book (Ex- 
chequer King's Remem- 
brancer, Exchequer Trea- 
sury of Receipt or Aug- 
mentation Office) 

Monastery, Monasticon 

Monmouth 

Muniments or Munimenta 

Museum 

Notes and Queries 
Norfolk 
Northampton 
Northamptonshire 
Northumberland 
Norwich 

Nottinghamshire or Notting- 
ham 
New Style 



Off. Office 

Orig. R. . . . Originalia Rolls 

O.S Ordnance Survey 

Oxf. Oxfordshire or Oxford 



Palmer's Ind. . 
Pal. of Chest. . 
Pal. of Dur. . 
Pal. of Lane. . 

Par 

Parl. . . . 

Parl. R. . . 
Parl. Surv. . . 
Partic. for Gts. 
Pat. . . . 

P.C.C. 



Pet. ...'.. 
Peterb ..... 
Phil ..... 
Pipe R ..... 
Plea R ..... 
Pop. Ret. . . . 
Pope Nich. Tax. 

(Rec. Com.) 
P.R.O ..... 
Proc ..... 
Proc. Soc. Antiq. . 



Pub. 



R 

Rec. . . . 
Recov. R. . . 
Rentals and Surv. 

Rep 

Rev 

Ric. . 



Page 

Palmer's Indices 

Palatinate of Chester 

Palatinate of Durham 

Palatinate of Lancaster 

Parish, parochial, etc. 

Parliament or Parliamentary 

Parliament Rolls 

Parliamentary Surveys 

Particulars for Grants 

Patent Roll or Letters Patent 

Prerogative Court of Canter- 
bury 

Petition 

Peterborough 

Philip 

Pipe Roll 

Plea Rolls 

Population Returns 

Pope Nicholas' Taxation (Re- 
cord Commission) 

Pubic Record Office 

Proceedings 

Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries 

Part 

Publicationi 

Roll 

Records 

Recovery Rolls 

Rentals and Surveys 

Report 

Review 

Richard 



xxu 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



Roff. .... Rochester diocese 
Rot. Cur. Reg. . Rotuli Curix Regis 
Rut. . Rutland 



Topog. 



Sarum .... 

Ser 

Sess. R 

Shrews 

Shrops .... 

Soc 

Soc. Antiq. . 

Somcrs 

Somers. Ho. 

S.P. Dom. . . . 

Staff. .... 

Star Chamb. Proc. 

Stat 

Steph 

Subs. R. . . . 

Suff. 

SUIT 

Suss 

Surv. of Ch. Liv- 
ings (Lamb.) or 
(Chan.) 



Salisbury diocese 
Series 

Sessions Rolls 
Shrewsbury 
Shropshire 
Society 

Society of Antiquaries 
Somerset 
Somerset House 
State Papers Domestic 
Staffordshire 

Star Chamber Proceedings 
Statute 
Stephen 
Subsidy Rolls 
Suffolk 
Surrey 
Sussex 

Surveys of Church Livings 
(Lambeth) or (Chancery) 



Trans. 
Transl. 
Treas. 
Trin. 



Topography or Topographi- 
cal 

Transactions 
Translation 
Treasury or Treasurer 
Trinity Term 



Univ University 

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Valor Ecclesiasticus (Record 

Com.) Commission) 

Vet. Mon. . . . Vetusta Monumenta 

V.C.H Victoria County History 

Vic Victoria 

vol Volume 



Warw. . 
Westm. . 

Westmld. 
Will. . 
Wilts . 
Winton. 
Wore. 



Warwickshire or Warwick 

Westminster 

Westmorland 

William 

Wiltshire 

Winchester diocese 

Worcestershire or Worcester 



York* .... Yorkshire 






XXIII 



A HISTORY OF 

DURHAM 



HISTORY OF DURHAM 



GEOLOC 




THE VI CTORIA HI STORY 



AL MAP. 



BASED ON THE INDEX MAPS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



EXPLANATION OF COLOURING 
Blown SanJ 
Alluvium 



TEES RA Y 




County Boundary shown thus, 



1UNT1ES OF ENGLAND 



GEOLOGY 



FROM the mouth of the Tyne to that of the Tees the county of 
Durham is bounded by the sea, and the long coast-line is for the 
most part one of fine and instructive cliff-sections. This coast- 
line forms the broad base of the rough triangle in which the 
county is shaped. The apex of this triangle is situated among the high 
hills of the Pennine range to the west not far from Cross Fell. From 
this point the northern boundary follows generally the valleys of the 
Derwent, Stanley Burn and the Lower Tyne ; and the southern limit is 
practically the River Tees from Crook Burn, near Caldron Snout, to the 
sea. From the Pennine highlands to the coast about midway between 
Tyne and Tees the valley of the Wear, somewhat irregular in its trend, 
divides the entire area into two fairly equal portions, one northern and 
one southern, whilst the tributaries of the three main rivers, most of 
them deeply sculpturing the surface, afford numberless exposures by 
means of which an insight into the rocky structure of the region may 
be readily gained. Here, as elsewhere, it is this structure which has 
determined the main topographical features. Thus the highest ground, 
to the west, consists of the hard rocks of the Lower Carboniferous Series, 
the comparatively low ground between Gateshead and the Aucklands is 
occupied by the outcrops of the less resisting Coal Measures, and the 
bold, though not very high, undulating country which fringes the coast 
as far south as the Hartlepools is due to the remarkable development of 
the Permian Magnesian Limestone in that district. The low, red- 
soiled country between Darlington and Seaton Carew owes its soft out- 
lines and striking colour to the easily crumbled salt-bearing strata of the 
Upper Permian and Trias. 

There are thus four topographical and geological regions in Dur- 
ham equally distinct as to surface features and vegetation, as to their 
stratigraphical constituents, and, one may add, also as to the chief occu- 
pations which are followed within them. They may be briefly defined as 
follows : 

A. The Lower Carboniferous Region, including the upper vale of 
Derwent as far as Shotley Bridge, Weardale as far as Witton-le-Wear, 
and Teesdale as far as Piercebridge. This is the lead mining country. 

B. The Coal Measure Region, including the lower portion of the 
Derwent Valley, the whole of the Team Valley, and the valley of the 
Wear from Witton-le-Wear, past Durham and Chester-le-Street to Clax- 
heugh. This is the chief coal district. 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



C. The Magnesian Limestone Region, between the last-named and 
the sea and bounded on the south by an ill-defined line curving from a 
little west of Darlington to the Hartlepools. Until about the middle of 
last century this was a purely pastoral district, but now many collieries 
have been opened out in it. 

D. The Red Region, between the Lower Tees and the Magnesian 
Limestone Region. This is the salt district. 

TABLE OF STRATA IN DURHAM 



Period 



Recent 



Formation 



River Alluvium, Peat 



Marine Alluvium . 



Character of Material 



Mud, silt, gravel, peat : border- 
ing streams and in hollows 
(old lakes) 

Shingle, beach sand, blowing 
sand, mud 



Approximate 

thickness 

in feet 



up to 30 
up to 50 



Old River Drift 



Pleistocene 
(Drift) 



Old Marine Alluvium 
Later Glacial Deposits 

Older Glacial Deposits 



Gravel, sand, loam, clay, etc., 
of ancient river terraces . 

Raised beaches 

Gravel, sand, ' leafy ' clays, 
cave-earth (?) 

Boulder clay, some rare thin 
sands and gravels .... 



up to 50 
up to 30 

up to 250 
up to 200 



Salt-Mea- 
sures (Trias 
above, Up- 
per Permian 
below) 



Keuper Red Sandstones and 
Marls passing downwards in- 
to similar Permian Sandstones. 



etc. 



Mostly red rocks with deposits 
of rock salt, gypsum, anhy- 
drite, and thin magnesian 
limestones towards the base 



Magnesian Limestone 
Marl Slate . 



Often concretionary 
Flaggy calcareous beds 
fish remains 



with 



Permian 



Yellow Sands (' Quicksands ') . 



Generally yellow but some- 
times dark-coloured, more or 
less incoherent, water-bear- 
ing sandstones .... 



up to 800 

up to 15 
(usually 3) 



up to 104 



Carbonifer- 
ous 



Coal Measures : down to the 
Hutton Seam inclusive 

Coal Measures : down to the 
Brockwell Seam inclusive 

Lower Coal Measures or Gan- 
nister Beds. Millstone Grit 



Bernician or Carboniferous 

Limestone Series 
Basement beds (so-called) . . 



Sandstones, shales, coals and 
fire-clays 

Sandstone, shales,' coals and 
fire-clays 

Sandstones, shales, few coals, 
occasionally beds of 'gan- 
nister,' sandstones, shales, 
rare coals 

Sandstones, shales, fire-clays, a 
few thin coals, limestones . 

Coarse breccia 



together up 
to 5,500 



variable 



Silurian 



Exact horizon unknown (Stock- 
dale Shales [?]) . 



' Slate-pencil ' Shales 



thickness 
unknown 



The scenery of these regions is as characteristic in each case as the 
industries which each supports, and will be noted under separate heads 



GEOLOGY 

later. Here it will suffice to say that A is a treeless moorland tract in 
which bogs and crags abound, B an area of wooded and, here and there, 
gorge-like valleys or ' denes ' with good open arable land between them, 
C a broad zone of grass-covered billowy down-like ground bounded by 
a marked rounded scarp on its western side and by bold sea-cliffs to the 
east, and D a thick-soiled ruddy quarter devoid of striking features. 

It is needless to add that both A and B, and in a minor degree C 
also, are now much disfigured by the mining operations which have been 
for so long a time carried on within their limits. 

SILURIAN SYSTEM 

The most ancient deposits to be seen in the county probably, but 
by no means certainly, belong to the Stockdale Shale group of the 
Silurian System. Only the upturned edges of these beds are visible, and 
that too only in a very small inlier laid bare by the erosive action of the 
Upper Tees close to the fine basaltic crags of Cronkley Scar, above the 
High Force, at the old Pencil Mill. Long ago the late Professor John 
Phillips had noticed these rocks and had noted their resemblance to the 
' Grauwacke ' of the older Palaeozoic formations, but without assigning 
any geological date to them. 1 It was not however till 1875 that the 
exposure was carefully studied by Messrs. Gunn, Clough and Dakyns, and 
the approximate age of the strata ascertained.* The natives had for 
centuries used the soft clay-slate of which the beds consist for slate- 
pencils, and the name of the old mill standing by the river at the point 
of their outcrop testifies to this. The uptilted position of the layers 
and their denudation before the deposition of the lowest over-lying 
Carboniferous material sufficiently prove the pre-Carboniferous age of 
the pencil beds ; their lithological characters are those of the Stockdale 
Shales as they occur in the Lake District. Some dykes of mica-trap 
(minette) accompany them here as in their typical area of development, 
and so far give confirmatory (though in the absence of fossils still incon- 
clusive) evidence as to their age. 

CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM 

There are no Old Red Sandstone or Devonian rocks cropping out 
in the county. The feebly developed brecciated deposits which occur 
at and towards the base of the Carboniferous Series in the Pencil Mill 
inlier already mentioned do not even represent the true basement beds of 
the system, since they are merely the fragmental shore accumulations of 
a portion of the Lower Carboniferous considerably younger and higher 
than the oldest and lowest horizon of that period. This is a point not 
always clearly understood. There is a base to the Carboniferous in Dur- 
ham but it is not the base of the system. Of anything corresponding 
to and truly contemporaneous with the chocolate-coloured breccias 
which occur in pockets on the face of the Pennine escarpment not 

Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkihire, pt. 2, 1836, p. 78. 

1 nart. Joum. Geol. Sac. xxxiv. and Geol. Mag. (December 1 1), iv. 58, 59, 139, 140. 

3 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

many miles to the west in Westmorland and Cumberland, between the 
regularly bedded Roman Fell Series (Lower Carboniferous, beneath the 
Scar Limestone Series) and the denuded older Palasozoic rocks, there is 
here no trace. The Ordovician and Silurian rocks on which the Car- 
boniferous were deposited stood out as islands during the earliest Car- 
boniferous times, and pseudo-basal beach formations were formed at 
several horizons at various stages in the gradual submergence and bury- 
ing of the ancient sea-floor. It is some of these old shingle beaches 
which have, naturally enough, been not unfrequently regarded as base- 
ment beds. 

Neither is the series of flaggy sandstones and quartzose conglomer- 
ates known on the Pennine escarpment as the Roman Fell Series 
continued into Durham. This thick set of beds thins away very 
rapidly to the east, and wedges out before reaching the western 
boundaries of the county. 

From the lowest known Durham Carboniferous stratum to the Mill- 
stone Grit division, the rocks exhibit the remarkable characters of the 
Bernician Series. They consist of oft-repeated alternations of grits, 
sandstones, shales, fire-clays and limestones, with a few (far fewer than 
in Northumberland, though more than in Yorkshire) thin and gener- 
ally inconstant coal seams of small commercial value. The nature of 
the series is in fact intermediate between that of the Lower Carbon- 
iferous rocks of Derbyshire and Yorkshire and that of the cor- 
responding set of strata in Northumberland and Scotland. There are 
here no huge thicknesses of limestone such as obtain in this stratigraphi- 
cal division further south, thicknesses which there fully justify the term 
c Mountain Limestone ' so often applied to it, a term quite inapplicable 
to the thin layers of calcareous rock which represent them in Durham. 
On the other hand the number of limestone beds is rather smaller and 
their individual thickness rather greater (not their total thickness) than 
in Northumberland. Indeed the entire group so closely resembles that 
upper portion of the Carboniferous Limestone Series which, as it is 
represented in the Yorkshire dales, goes by the name of ' Yoredale 
Rocks ' that the Geological Survey have used that term to denote the 
whole of the Lower Carboniferous strata of Durham beneath the Mill- 
stone Grit. This is somewhat unfortunate, since only the upper portion 
of these beds really corresponds to the typical Yoredales, the lower portion 
representing the massive Scar limestones which form the base of Ingle- 
borough, Pen-y-ghent, and the other great hills of the West Riding. 
The thickness of the whole in Durham varies from about 1,100 to 
1,250 feet, the series thickening gradually towards the north and north- 
west, until in some parts of Northumberland it attains the enormous 
thickness of 8,000 feet or, in places, even more. It is to be noted that 
with increased total thickness in the direction stated there coincides an 
increase in number of both limestones and coals, the former thinner, as a 
rule, than in Durham, but the latter thicker and much more constant 
so much so indeed as, in Northumberland and in a still greater degree in 

4 



GEOLOGY 

Scotland, to give the value of a workable coalfield to the area occupied 
by the Carboniferous Limestone or Bernician Series. 

Although, as has been explained above, all the lower beds of this 
important division are not to be seen cropping out at the surface in the 
county, yet all have been proved within its boundaries by mining opera- 
tions. Long before geologists had begun to survey the district scientifi- 
cally the lead-miners had become familiar with every stratum between 
the Millstone Grit and the floor of denuded Silurian and Ordovician 
rocks. To each stratum a name had been given by them, and the 
changing characters which they displayed from place to place had been 
carefully observed and often recorded in the plans and sections connected 
with the mines. It is to these early lead-miners, and more especially to 
Mr. Westgarth Forster, who in 1817 gathered their observations and 
his own in a complete and singularly able treatise, that we owe our first 
knowledge of these strata. 1 About 120 well marked beds or sets of 
beds are recognizable in the series, and have been measured over and over 
again in countless shafts and levels. The best known and most char- 
acteristic of these may now be enumerated, beginning with the lowest 
and denoting them by the numbers used in Forster's classical section. Be- 
fore proceeding, however, it will be well to state that special prominence 
is given to the limestone beds, because, though by no means the thickest, 
they are much the most constant and serve as datum lines of great value 
in correlating the deposits present in one shaft or region with those found 
in another. Besides it is in the limestone layers that the lead veins have 
as a rule been found to be richest in ore. 

No. 2 1 7. The Melmerby Scar Limestone. This, the thickest lime- 
stone in the county, on an average 132 feet thick, comes nowhere 
within it to the surface. It has been proved in several mine-shafts 
however. It is the nearest approach to the true ' Mountain Limestone' 
type to be found in Durham, but being only known underground it 
cannot form * mountains ' in any true sense. Miners frequently call this 
mass of limestone * the Great Limestone,' but as that name is given more 
generally to another much better known horizon considerably higher 
up this practice should not be adopted. This thick limestone is not 
continued as a separate bed into Northumberland, but is there repre- 
sented by shales and sandstones, and even by a few thin seams of coal 
with occasional thin bands of limestone only. 

After a small interval of shale and sandstone comes 

No. 214. Robinson's Lime. A limestone 20 or 21 feet thick. 

More shale and sandstone of no great thickness separates this from 

No. 208. The Smiddy Limestone. About 3 1 feet thick or a few 
inches more at its maximum. 

Shale and sandstone again, then 

No. 204. T6e Tenth or Little Limestone. The latter name may, 
as in the case above referred to, lead to some confusion, as another 

1 Treatitt of a Section oftht Strata from Nnofaitle-ufon-Tyne to the Mountain! t/Crou Fill Cumbir- 
lanJ, by Wetgarth Forster. 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

higher and better known bed is usually also known as the Little Lime- 
stone. This one is about 1 8 feet thick. 

Another group of shale and sandstone, then 

No. 200. The Ninth or Jew Limestone. Amongst the lead-miners 
an idea (without foundation in many cases) has long prevailed that 
profitable mining could not be carried on beneath this bed. Several of 
the most paying lead deposits have been worked to the west in lower 
strata. The Jew Limestone is about 24 feet thick. 

Some eight or nine alternations of shale and sandstone occur 
beneath 

No. 190. The Tyne-bottom Limestone. This is one of the best 
known named limestones in the series, but the name has often been 
misapplied. This is due to the fact that over a considerable tract of 
country the bed properly so called lies next above the great sheet of 
basalt known as the Great Whin Sill in the north of England and to 
the consequent inference quite a mistaken one that the first limestone 
above this intrusive and horizon-shifting mass of igneous rock must 
everywhere be the same. Many miners still refuse to regard the Whin 
Sill as intrusive because of the supposed constant position (as they think) 
of the Tyne-bottom Limestone above it, arguing in a vicious circle 
thus : The Tyne-bottom Limestone is next above the Whin Sill at A, 
the limestone lying upon the Whin Sill at B or C must therefore be the 
Tyne-bottom Limestone also, and the Whin Sill has therefore not 
changed its horizon and is not intrusive. An instructive example of 
bad logic and worse geology. That the lower courses of the lime- 
stone are commonly baked, and the shales which often lie between it 
and the basalt indurated into porcellanite or ' whetstone ' by the heat 
of the once molten sheet, is evidence of intrusion which they do not 
take into consideration. For some four miles the river South Tyne 
runs upon this limestone, hence its name. In Durham it is one of the 
lowest of the Bernician limestones to crop out at the surface ' to the 
day,' as it is termed locally. It is usually about 24 feet thick. Shales 
and sandstones follow as usual, then comes 

No. 1 86. The Eighth or Single Post Limestone. This is a thin but 
very constant bed, about 6 feet in thickness only. Single Post means 
single course, i.e. the bed consists of one layer or course of limestone, 
most of the thicker limestones comprising several posts individually 
seldom so thick as this. The word * post,' as met with in records of 
mining sections, more often means ' sandstone,' the latter word being 
in practice very commonly omitted from the full description which 
should be Sandstone Post or Freestone Post = Sandstone Bed or Course. 

Next come shale and sandstone, then 

No. 181. The Cockle-shell Limestone. A still thinner but well- 
known bed, seldom exceeding 3 feet in thickness. It is usually full 
of Productus giganteus, the ' cockle-shell ' of the miners, but though it 
takes its name from this circumstance it must not be supposed that 
this fossil is in any degree specially characteristic of this horizon. It is 

6 



GEOLOGY 

found in varying abundance in every one of the limestone beds 
enumerated. 

The usual shale and sandstone interval is succeeded by 

No. 1 69. The Sixth or Scar Limestone. This must not be con- 
founded with the previously described No. 217, which sometimes is 
also known as the * Scar Limestone,' the qualifying word ' Melmerby ' 
being omitted. It is an important horizon in the lead measures, since 
many of the richest ore- deposits have been found associated with it. 
There are within it three thin bands of shale (locally ' famp ' in the 
lead districts only) which separate the limestone into three posts or 
courses. As lead veins of small faulting capacity traverse this bed, the 
ore is apt to extend in great horizontal lateral masses along the ' famp ' 
partings and to form those exceedingly valuable masses of ore known 
amongst the lead-miners as ' flats.' Though only about 30 feet thick 
this limestone has in many a mine yielded not only a thick vertical 
main vein but a ' high,' a ' middle ' and a * low ' flat of thick ore 
of great value in the days before Free Trade. 

More shale and sandstone, and then 

No. 1 66. The Fifth or Five-Tar d Limestone. Notwithstanding its 
name, this bed is only 7 or 8 feet thick, and is not very constant at 
that. 

Shale and sandstone as before, then 

No. 162. The Fourth or Three-Yard Limestone. True to its name 
this bed is generally about 1 2 feet thick. 

Shale and sandstone, with usually a good deal of clay ironstone 
(formerly worked before foreign iron ore was imported on a large scale) 
associated with the shale, then 

No. 1 60. The Four-Fathom Limestone. This bed again justifies its 
name, being about 24 feet thick on an average. Although not restricted 
to this horizon, yet the large Foraminifer Saccammina carteri occurs in 
such special abundance in it that the limestone is often spoken of as the 
* Saccammina Limestone.' Long before the nature of the fossil was 
recognized by the late Dr. H. B. Brady the miners and quarrymen knew 
the band in the stone which is made up of the little spindle-shaped 
tests as the ' spotted post,' though it must be added that they some- 
times gave the same name to certain portions of other limestones with 
' spots ' or sections due to other fossils, especially corals of the genera 
Lithostrotion and Syringopora transversely cut. The Four-Fathom and 
the other limestones above it are among those which are most obvious 
and 'feature-making' in the upper dales of the Tees and Wear. They 
appear as long continuous short-grass covered zones running across the 
country and contrasting strikingly with the ranker vegetation on the 
shales and sandstones between them. Sheep congregate specially on 
these deep green bands ; houses, where possible, are built on them, and 
when the snow melts it is from them that it is first completely cleared 
a hint to house-builders and others that the conductivity for heat of a 
rock is not an element to be neglected in selecting building sites. 

7 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Shales, sandstones (often including a specially thick set of beds) and 
a thin 3 foot thick limestone, No. 156, known as The Small Limestone 
and very constant, bring us to 

No. 153. T'he Great or Main Limestone ', the thickest (about 72 
feet thick) and by far the most important of the higher (or true ' Yore- 
dale ') limestones of the Bernician Series. As an ore-bearing horizon it 
is second to none, and the same may be said of it as regards quarrying. 
For centuries a large population has been supported by the work neces- 
sitated by it, specially in the Stanhope district of Weardale. Between 
Wolsingham and Frosterley this great calcareous formation is to be seen 
dipping beneath the bed of the Wear, and its outcrop can be followed 
thence for miles, forming a clear feature dotted with quarries as far as 
the eye can reach both to the north and to the south. Considering 
the extreme variability of most of the beds of limestone from the 
midlands northwards the regular constancy of this horizon is remark- 
able. It can be traced with certainty from west Yorkshire to north 
Northumberland, and even, if recent correlations be accepted, to the 
central valley of Scotland between the Forth and the Clyde. Its thick- 
ness is greatest in the Durham area, from which it thins away south, 
west and north. Whether it thickens or thins to the east it is not yet 
possible to say, though the Chopwell boring, which will be referred to 
again further on, seems to show that it will prove to thin away in that 
direction likewise. Naturally so thick a limestone is made up of many 
layers, and to these names have of course been given by the generations 
of quarrymen who have been engaged in destroying them. The names 
adopted in the Frosterley quarries are quaint and sometimes descriptive. 
They are perhaps worth citing. They are as follows, in ascending 
order : 

(1) THE BOTTOM POST. This layer is frequently entirely made 
up of the fossil Monticuliporid coral Chaetetes byperboreus. 

(2) THE NEWCASTLE POST. 

(3) THE JACK POST. 

(4) THE YARD POST. 

(5) WHALEY. 

(6) STIFF DICK. 

(7) DUN JIM. 

(8) DUN KIT'S BASTARD. It may be noted that the term 
' bastard ' in the sense of inferior or impure is common in the north in 
connexion with workable stone. 

(9) THE DUN KIT POST. 
(10) THE FIVE THIN POSTS. 

(n) THE BLACK BEDS. It is in this part of the Great Limestone 
that the rich ' middle ' flat of lead ore occurs. 

(12) THE TOMS or TWEE TOMS. 

(13) THE THICK COCKLE POST. 

(14) THE THIN COCKLE POST. These two fossiliferous courses are 
perhaps the most valuable of the whole mass. One of them is full 

8 



GEOLOGY 

of large horn-shaped corals of the Clisiophyllum type, and the other is 
equally full of Productus giganteus, the largest of Brachiopod shells. 
These layers are quarried, where the fossils are most crowded, for orna- 
mental purposes, as the stone takes a good polish, and many are the 
churches and other public buildings throughout the kingdom in which 
the Stanhope and Frosterley marbles, as they are called, display their 
beautifully preserved organic remains from the old Upper Bernician or 
Yoredale sea. 

(15) ELSIE. 

(16) ROSE-MARY, or THE PEA POST. This layer is a mass of 
Litbostrotion corals in their original position of growth. The sections of 
the corallites are the ' peas.' 

(17) THE MUCKY POSTS. 

(18) CRABBY. A ' crabbed ' or difficult stone to work. 

(19) TOBY GILES. And finally 

(20) THE FINE POSTS. 

The topmost portion of the Great Limestone is often irregularly 
bedded, presenting the aspect of ellipsoidal blocks of stone with inter- 
vening calcareous shale. This appearance may be due to what Mr. J. G. 
Goodchild has called the * dwindling ' of the limestone, or its gradual 
decay under the effect of solvents. To this structure is no doubt owing 
the name of ' Tumbler Beds,' often given to this part of the formation, 
the word c Tumbler ' meaning * boulder ' in the local dialect. The ex- 
traordinary persistence of the Great Limestone makes it without excep- 
tion the best and most convenient datum-line in the Lower Carboniferous 
deposits of the north of England. 

Sandstones and shales, together with a very thin and by no means 
constant representative of what to the north and west is, under the name 
of The Little Limestone Coal, perhaps the most continuous seam of coal in 
Britain (as it certainly is the most constant of the Bernician seams, 
stretching from the northernmost portions of Northumberland to the 
Craven district), separate the Great from 

No. 145. The Little or Second Limestone. This is the Little Lime- 
stone proper referred to under No. 204. In it the lead veins have fre- 
quently been found to yield very abundant ore, but it is a thin and, in 
this county, not very regular bed. 

Sandstones and shales, the last of these non-calcareous intervals, 
lead to 

No. 121. The Fell Top Limestone, a still thinner and more variable 
limestone, sometimes duplicated by means of intercalated thin shales and 
sandstones, and sometimes absent altogether (though in that case usually 
represented by a calcareous shale full of ordinary limestone fossils, amongst 
which trilobites are common). This is the highest marine limestone in 
the Carboniferous Series of Durham ; and although the Geological Sur- 
vey, owing to the necessity of carrying on lines of division decided on 
further south, have been compelled to fix the upper boundary of the 
Limestone Series a little above this horizon, there is no such necessity 
i 9 2 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

here, and the Fell Top may well be taken as the obvious termination of 
the Carboniferous Limestone or Bernician, the shaly beds immediately 
following being grouped with the Millstone Grit. 

Perhaps the most striking point in connexion with the Bernician 
Beds as developed in Durham is the marked disappearance of the coals 
which characterize them further to the north. This disappearance is 
not however complete. One seam (which sometimes is represented by 
two) has already been mentioned as occurring beneath No. 145, another 
is sometimes found beneath the Fell Top Limestone (No. 121), but of no 
value; and one beneath the Scar Limestone (No. 169). Indeed it is 
clear that the many Bernician seams which crop out in west North- 
umberland have a general tendency to thin away to the south-east, that 
is towards Durham. It is, of course, possible that there may be a re- 
crudescence of these seams beneath the Upper Carboniferous strata to 
the east, but nothing but actual boring to very considerable depths can 
prove whether this be so or not. Such rare borings bearing upon this 
point as have been put down recently are decidedly in favour of a nega- 
tive answer to this question. One at Sherburn, which went some way 
beneath the Millstone Grit into the Upper Limestone horizons, struck 
upon no seam approaching a workable thickness. The same result was 
obtained by an extremely interesting and deeper boring put down in the 
Chopwell Woods on the banks of the Derwent, and described by Mr. 
J. B. Simpson in the ' Transactions of the North of. England Institute ot 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers in 1902.'* 

THE MILLSTONE GRIT AND COAL MEASURES 

The middle division of the Carboniferous Series is a very marked and 
well individualized one in the midlands. On following it towards the north 
it loses much of its individuality, and this loss of specialization is accom- 
panied by very considerable thinning. The coarse grits which form the 
fine bold escarpments or ' edges ' of the Peak district of Derbyshire, or 
the silicious scars of west Yorkshire, have not disappeared altogether in 
Durham, but they have sadly dwindled both in coarseness of texture and 
in the relative importance which these beds bear to the rest of the strata 
associated with them. In fact the grits of the Millstone Grit in this 
county are scarcely in any way different from many of those of the 
Limestone Series below or of the Coal Measures above them. It is true 
that grits and sandstones are still the predominant rocks, and that the 
quartz grains of the grits are often found to have been augmented in 
size by the addition to each grain of crystallographically orientated 
secondary quartz. On the other hand the shales which intervene be- 
tween the grits are absolutely identical with those of the great forma- 
tions above and below, and no fossils have so far been met with which 
can be said to characterize the division palasontologically. It may be 

1 Published in the Transactions of that Society in 1904. It appears from this boring that several 
limestone beds which, in south Northumberland, are intercalated between the Great and the Little 
Limestones, persist in north Durham, as indeed might well have been expected. 

10 



GEOLOGY 

asserted that had the Millstone Grit not been known and mapped in the 
more southern counties, its representatives in Durham (and still less in 
Northumberland) would probably not have been recognized as forming 
a separate stratigraphical group. They would no doubt have been re- 
garded simply as a set of rather coarse, irregular and variable gritty sand- 
stones, with some shales and one or two thin local coal-seams, forming the 
basal portion of the Coal Measures : as the introduction in fact to the huge 
non-marine set of strata to which the term Coal Measures is properly 
applied. However, as the division is generally recognized it is best to 
retain it, bearing in mind the want of special features which is its only 
noticeable, if negative, character. In Durham these beds, though no- 
where more than 400 or 500 feet thick, and often much thinner, by 
reason of the orographical features of the country occupy a considerable 
area. The hills covered with heathery moorland, which rise between 
the deep dales dug out of the Bernician rocks, are capped with this de- 
based Millstone Grit, and much of the wild crag, ling and peat scenery 
on these high grounds is due to the unyielding nature of these silicious 
deposits. It should be stated however that in most of the geological 
maps of this part of England published before the sheets of the Geolo- 
gical Survey the area coloured as Millstone Grit is very much exaggerated, 
partly owing to a real misconception as to the distribution of the strata, 
but partly also to the fact that the older geologists were in the habit of 
grouping a good deal of the Bernician Series (even including the Great 
Limestone in some cases) under the appellation Millstone Grit. 

After what has been said above it will be readily understood that 
between the Millstone Grit and the overlying Coal Measures no violent 
break is to be expected in this county. Not only is this the case, but it 
can be truly said that none but a purely arbitrary and non-natural 
boundary can be drawn between the two. One can go still further than 
this and state that even such an arbitrary line of demarcation can scarcely 
be drawn with any confidence. Thus it has repeatedly happened that 
the writer has been called in by coal owners to decide whether in the 
bore holes which they had put down below the known workable coal 
seams of the Coal Measures the Millstone Grit had been reached or not, 
and he has been quite unable to give more than a tentative and generally 
a very doubtful opinion. There is in fact nothing but a perfect passage 
between the two, a passage unmarked by any datum line recognizable 
over any but the most limited areas. This-difficulty is intensified by the 
entirely artificial divisions which, for mere convenience, have been usually 
accepted in classifying the Coal Measures. These divisions are, as re- 
gards the upper two, taken as including certain well-known coal seams, 
and for the practical purposes of the miner this is no doubt a useful 
arrangement. But the lowest division known as the Lower Coal Mea- 
sures or Gannister Series though sufficiently limited at the top by this 
method of classification, lacks any similar means of fixing its bottom 
limit, as there are thereabouts no coal seams at all. 

The Lower Coal Measures then (which must in no wise be con- 

ii 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

founded with the beds grouped under that name in the Scottish coal- 
fields, which are equivalent to the Bernician Series) as usually accepted 
may be defined as comprising the 200 or 300 feet of strata which 
graduate upwards from the perfectly similar rocks of the Millstone 
Grit, and come to an end immediately beneath the well-known lowest 
continuous and valuable coal-seam known as the Brockivell or Main Seam, 
which is regarded as the bottom bed of the so-called Middle Coal 
Measures. 

These strata consist of sandstones, shales and a few sometimes work- 
able but never quite constant coal-seams, together with ordinary fire- 
clays accompanying such seams (or some of them), and a few beds, not 
very continuous, of that hard white, compact, root-traversed and highly 
silicious sandstone known as Gannister, and used for lining Bessemer 
converters, etc. This singular rock is certainly more prevalent in these 
beds than elsewhere in this region, but it is unfortunately by no 
means restricted to them, as is the case in the Lower Coal Measures of 
the Yorkshire and Lancashire coalfields for instance. Beds of the same 
stone, sometimes quite as typical, are occasionally found in the Bernician 
Series, where, here and there, they are even worked as Gannister, and 
also in the higher Coal Measures, though to a less extent. Thus this 
special deposit, though somewhat characteristic of the so-called Lower 
Coal Measures (sufficiently so to justify the name Gannister Series, 
sometimes applied to the division), can scarcely be used especially as it 
occurs in non-continuous beds as a criterion of solid value. Again in 
the more southern coalfields certain marine organisms of special types are 
found which are restricted to some horizons in the Lower Coal Measures 
and the Millstone Grit. This is not the case in Durham, though it is 
possible, indeed probable, that further investigation may to some extent 
put an end to this difficulty. This hope is held because in the adjoining 
county of Northumberland casts of some of these fossils have been found 
in these beds (in the neighbourhood of Stocksfield). More recently, in 
shale cores from a deep bore in the Coal Measures in the north- 
western portion of the Durham coalfield, from an horizon considerably 
below that of the Brockwell seam, and either in the Lower Coal Mea- 
sures or in the upper portion of the Millstone Grit, the writer detected 
a small Productus^ a Discina and some annelid tubes allied to Serpulites. 
These are of course marine fossils, but not specially of the kinds charac- 
teristic of the Gannister Series of Yorkshire or Lancashire. 

The entire thickness of the Coal Measures is on the average some- 
thing under 2,000 feet, but it must be remembered that denudation has 
removed an unknown series of beds from the upper portion and that the 
original thickness of the whole was certainly greater, and in all proba- 
bility much greater than this. 

Just as in the Lower Carboniferous rocks the limestones are the 
most persistent, and therefore, as datum lines, the most important beds, 
so in the Coal Measures the thicker coal-seams are the deposits most to 
be relied on in a survey of the strata. Insignificant individually as to 

12 



GEOLOGY 

thickness when compared with the enormous mass of rapidly alternating 
sandstones and shales with which they are interbedded, they are yet much 
more constant than any of these, and the accurate knowledge of them 
derived from the innumerable spots at which they are, or have been, 
worked throughout the coalfield gives them a commanding position as 
stratigraphical units such as no other deposits associated with them can 
claim. It is not necessary here to enter into the interesting, and at the 
present day rather controversial, question of the origin of coal generally, 
especially as the seams of Durham are most of them of a kind which 
does not give rise to much difference of opinion. With very few ex- 
ceptions these seams, each provided with its regular seat-earth or 'under- 
day' which is also almost in every case a fire-clay are obviously 
accumulations of vegetable matter in low-lying swampy flats of great area, 
and most of this vegetable matter is doubtless in its carbonized or coaly 
state much in the place where it grew and flourished when living ; the 
under-clays in which the strange tree-roots known as Sftgmarue are 
found quite undisturbed representing the soil beneath the heaped up de- 
cayed plant remains of the watery marsh. That these plants, some of 
them gigantic in size, were chiefly allied to the club-mosses, horse-tails 
and ferns of the present day is clear from the many well-preserved speci- 
mens which not the coals themselves but the shales and other beds 
accompanying the coals yield throughout the Coal Measures. The 
animal remains which are also, though less often, found tell the same 
tale. They are the exuviae of fishes whose rare recent allies inhabit 
fresh or at least estuarine waters, of alligator-shaped amphibia fitted for 
similar conditions, and of shells (chiefly bivalves) which apparently lived 
the life of our river and pond mussels. Occasionally some of the animal 
forms are consistent with existence in brackish waters, but instances of 
frankly marine forms such as those which obtain in the Carboniferous 
Limestone Series, though not absolutely unknown, are yet of great 
rarity, and suggest, when they do occur, brief episodes only during which 
quite occasional incursions of the sea may have invaded the delta-like 
swamps. 

The Durham coals are almost all of the ordinary or so-called ' bitu- 
minous ' type and furnish some of the best examples of household, cok- 
ing and gas coals known. A few deposits of cannel coal occur, but they 
are all of very limited extent and small thickness. They moreover as 
a rule form part of the ' bituminous ' seams, occurring usually towards 
the upper portions of such seams over small areas. Microscopic exam- 
ination shows that these sporadic cannel beds (which sometimes are 
locally thick enough for working separately, and then yield gas of ex- 
ceptional illuminating power) largely consist of minute freshwater alga? 
which lived, presumably, in shallow pools dotted here and there upon 
the surface of the forest swamps. True anthracite is not found in the 
county, though as a trade term the use of the word ' anthracitic ' is not 
unknown in prospectuses describing coals with a somewhat smaller pro- 
portion of volatile matter than is usual in the common coals. Some- 

13 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

times also the altered coal met with near intrusive dykes or sheets of 
igneous rock is miscalled ' anthracite.' 

It is a kind of impure stony coal, useless for industrial purposes, and 
locally known as 'cindered coal' (a good descriptive name), but it is in 
no sense anthracite. The amount of ' ash ' or non-coaly mineral mat- 
ter of the ordinary Durham coals is small in quantity seldom indeed 
more than the percentage of silica which the tissues of the coal-making 
plants originally contained. In the cannel seams, especially towards 
their outer limits (i.e. near the edges of the ancient ponds), the amount 
of ash is often great, so much so that the cannels frequently pass later- 
ally into shales (indurated and laminated mud). In the ' cindered coal' 
above referred to the percentage of ash is also very large, which would 
not be the case were these metamorphosed coals akin to true anthracite. 

Before proceeding to enumerate the principal coal seams it will 
be well to draw attention to the fact that the correlation of the seams 
of one portion of the coalfield with those of another is often rendered 
difficult by the frequent splitting up and reunion to which they are 
subject. Mr. M. Walton Brown it was who first pointed out, by a 
critical examination of all the evidence available a few years ago, how 
all but universal is this division of the seams in the Great Northern 
Coalfield. To this phenomenon, one which has not yet received a per- 
fectly satisfactory explanation, it is largely due that the nomenclature 
of the coal beds is so confusingly local and that there are so many 
synonyms. 

Most of the seams to be now mentioned, in ascending order, are 
under 6 feet in thickness and not less than 2 ft. 6 in. Thinner seams, 
unless of some special interest, are omitted. 

Nos. i and 2 of the list are in the Lower Coal Measures, as above 
defined, the rest are all in the so-called Middle and Upper Coal 
Measures, divisions which, however convenient, are too empirical to be 
recognized here. 

No. i . The Marshall Green Seam. This coal lies only a little above 
the Millstone Grit. It may be repeated that within the latter division 
two or three thin and inconstant coals occur locally, but none of any 
importance. 

No. 2. The Victoria Seam. Known only in the western part of the 
coalfield. 

No. 3. The Brockiuell Seam, or Main Coal. This is a coal of con- 
siderable value and, as before stated, is generally taken as the bottom bed 
of the workable Coal Measures (i.e. the so-called Middle and Upper 
Coal Measures). The term Main is unfortunately also applied to other 
seams. 

No. 4. The Three Quarter Seam. Not to be confounded with 
No. 10. 

No. 5. The Five Quarter Seam. In some parts of the field this is 
known as the Busty seam, in others as the Lower Busty. Not the same 
as No. 12. 



GEOLOGY 

No. 6. The Eallarat or Upper Busty Seam. 

No. 7. The Hand Seam. A thin coal, not industrially valuable, 
but very constant and useful as a datum horizon in attempting corre- 
lations. 

No. 8. The Stone Coat, or Tilley Seam. 

No. 9. The Hodge, or Splint Seam. The term ' splint ' is applied 
to a hard stony coal breaking up in flat slabs, and to some extent inter- 
mediate between common coal and cannel. It is by no means restricted 
to this horizon, many of the other coal seams containing bands of ' splint,' 
some of which are persistent over considerable areas. 

No. 10. The TCard^ Three Quarter, Harvey, Constantine, Beaumont, 
Barlow Fell, or Towne ley Main Coal, or (in the Consett district) 'No. i ' 
Seam. This set of names is a good example of the troublesome no- 
menclature of the Durham seams. 

No. 1 1 . The Ruler Coal. 

No. 12. The Hutton, Main, or Five Quarter Seam. This is prob- 
ably the most famous of north country coal seams. It yields in different 
districts the best household, the best coking, and the best gas coal. In 
Northumberland it is known as the Loiv Main, and it is in its shaly 
roof that the finest series of fish and amphibian remains have been 
collected. 

No. 13. The Brass Thill. Not the same as No. 16. 'Thill' in 
the local dialect means the underclay, and * brass ' is marcasite or rhom- 
bic iron pyrites. A coal with much sulphide of iron in it (pyrite or 
marcasite) is said to be * brassy.' 

No. 14. The Low Main Seam. This is not the Northumbrian 
seam of that name. It is however, in part, the Hutton Seam of the Con- 
sett district, a complicated bit of correlation due to the splitting up of 
seams already referred to. 

No. 15. The Maudlin Seam. In the Wallsend district, only sepa- 
rated from Durham by the river Tyne, this is known as the Bensbam 
Seam, and that name is sometimes also used for it in the neighbour- 
hood of Gateshead, where, indeed, the village of Bensham is situated. 

No. 1 6. The Main Coal (in the Pelton district near Chester-le- 
Street) or Brass Thill (in the Consett district). 

No. 17. The Hard Coal (of Pelton). This seam on the eastern 
side of the coalfield and in the Consett district is known as the Five 
Quarter Seam. 

No. 1 8. The Shield Row Seam, or (in the Wearmouth district) 
the Three Quarter Seam. This is the celebrated High Main Seam of 
the Northumbrian side of the Tyne, from which the original ' Walls- 
end ' coal was obtained close to the easterly termination of the Roman 
wall. 

No. 19. The Splint or Craw Coal. Not, of course, the same as 
the much lower No. 9. The Coal Measures above this seam are de- 
nuded away to what extent must always remain unknown to us. 

It will be understood that the intervals between these nineteen 

15 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

workable seams are made up of numberless sandstones, shales, fireclays, 
and thin worthless coals. Owing however to the extreme variation in 
thickness of these strata a variation which the continual splitting up 
and reuniting of the coal seams necessarily implies no good purpose 
can be served in a brief synopsis like the present by going into numerical 
details respecting them. Suffice it to say that the sandstones vary from 
the coarsest grit to the finest grained sandstone, from massive building 
stone and material suitable for grindstones to roofing flags, from dark 
brown to every shade of yellow, grey and occasionally to pure white ; 
that the shales, locally known as * plate ' or ' metal,' vary also from 
highly arenaceous clayey alternations (' grey beds ') to the finest laminated 
unctuous bluish beds, and that they frequently contain concretionary 
nodules and thin continuous bands of clay ironstone sufficiently rich in 
carbonate of iron to pay handsomely for working in the old days ; and 
that the underclays and other fireclays are usually excellent in quality as 
material for refractory bricks or pottery. 

THE PERMIAN SYSTEM 

Overlying the denuded Coal Measures and some of the Lower Car- 
boniferous rocks from close to the mouth of the Tyne near South Shields 
to somewhere between the Hartlepools and the mouth of the Tees, and 
therefore unconformable upon everything beneath them, come the Per- 
mian Series of the north-eastern type, admirably displayed as regards its 
thicker members in the coast section. It may be premised that these 
north-eastern Permians are much more closely allied in aspect and 
arrangement to the Permian or Dyas series of the continent than to the 
much nearer representatives of that system in the north-west of England 
on the opposite side of the Pennine range. 

The lowest of the Permian beds on this side of England are better 
shown in Durham than elsewhere, but they are not visible along the 
coast in Durham, though excellently exposed in the Cullercoats and 
Tynemouth cliffs in neighbouring Northumberland. They can however 
be studied in many fairly good sections inland, along the foot of the 
Permian escarpment, and still more fully by means of the many borings 
and sinkings which in the Permian area pierce through them in order 
to reach the Coal Measures which lie immediately beneath. These 
Permian basement deposits are known as the "Yellow Sands. 

They are not universally present, even in the county of Durham, 
but where present they consist of highly false-bedded sandstones ranging 
in colour from the bright yellow which gives them their name to red 
on the one hand and (rarely) dark grey on the other. The grains of 
sand of which the rock is chiefly made up are of moderate size or 
quite coarse, but usually rounded after the manner of desert sand and 
very unlike the angular unworn grains of ordinary grits. More often 
than not these grains of sand are so incoherent as to crumble between 
the fingers, but sometimes they are cemented more or less firmly by 
carbonate of lime. Carbonate of lime has also frequently segregated in 

16 






GEOLOGY 

nodular knobs or in anastomosing veins or ribs within the rock, thus 
giving it a strange and unique appearance. Where this segregation 
has taken place the sandstone is generally bleached, so that on a weathered 
surface the knobs and ribs stand out in white upon the yellow back- 
ground. There are no fossils of any kind in the Yellow Sands deposit, 
and its place as a true member of the Permian system, which has more 
than once in time past been disputed, depends more upon the uncon- 
formity between it and the upturned denuded edges of the Carboniferous 
upon which it rests, and upon its complete (though not always well dis- 
played) conformity with the overlying fossil-bearing, and therefore 
proven, Permian Marl Slate. It may be added that the unconformity 
referred to is shown not only by the denudation of the coal-bearing 
rocks before the deposition of the sands, but also by the fact that most 
of the dislocations affecting the Coal Measures stop short at and do not 
affect the Yellow Sands. These dislocations are thus pre-Permian faults. 
A few other faults affect both systems and are therefore post-Permian, 
though some of these (whose vertical throw or displacement is less in 
the Permian than in the Carboniferous rocks) are both pre- and post- 
Permian, an interesting fact proved in several cases in recent years. 
The denuded floor upon which the sands lie is irregularly undulating, 
and the sands fill up the hollows and are there thickest up to i oo feet 
or thereabouts as a maximum becoming thin or being absent altogether 
where the floor rises into diminutive hills. It is in the north and east 
of the Permian area that the sands are most fully developed. In the 
south and west they are either thin or wanting. 

So loosely coherent a deposit is necessarily a first rate water-bearing 
stratum, and we find accordingly that the Yellow Sands play an im- 
portant and twofold part in that capacity a beneficent part so far as 
water supply is concerned, though the water from this horizon is gener- 
ally exceedingly hard, and sometimes, in the neighbourhood of the coast, 
to a certain extent brackish a highly inconvenient and occasionally 
dangerous part from the mining point of view, since shaft sinking 
through the sands where they are full of water is always attended with 
great expense and many difficulties, and has more than once given rise 
to floodings which it has taxed the resources of engineering to the 
utmost to cope with successfully. 

The outcrop of the Yellow Sands is from the nature of the case 
a narrow and an interrupted one, but where they are thick as at 
Houghton-le-Spring, Newbottle, Ferryhill, Claxheugh, etc. good 
sections can be examined, though none quite so good as those at Culler- 
coats and Tynemouth in the neighbouring county. 

The present writer has elsewhere given quite recently a very full 
account of this member of the Durham Permian from which the fol- 
lowing theoretical conclusions, agreeing in the main with the views of 
the late Mr. Richard Howse, may be quoted : 

The history of the beginnings of the Permian system in Northumberland and 
Durham, such as it can be gathered from the facts already stated and from the details 

i I? 3 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

with which this paper concludes [a collection of detailed sections], seems fairly ob- 
vious. 

(i) A mass of sand, probably chiefly derived from the waste of the Carboniferous 
Sandstones which formed so large an area of the then land-surface to the west, occu- 
pied a broad tract of coast from somewhere to the north of Hartley, in Northumber- 
land, to Yorkshire and still farther south, narrower in the north than in the south. 
This sand was a beach at the coast line and a desert of blowing dunes elsewhere. 
Rivers, sluggish, and probably inconstant (changing their course as do the channels in 
a delta), wound their way to the sea across this sandy tract, and added to the irregu- 
larity of its surface. 1 The deposition of calcareous and magnesian mud in the thinly 
bedded layers which betoken tranquil deposition followed, due partly to silting from 
landwards and from tidal irruptions from seawards most probably in a chain of coastal 
lagoons. This was accompanied by a downward movement of the coast line and the 
gradual merging of the lagoons into the sea proper when the Magnesian Limestone, 
with its curious fauna a marine fauna checked in its existence by the unfavourable 
chemical composition of the Permian sea water to which the rock owes its dolomitic 
character was deposited. This view is strongly confirmed by the occasional excep- 
tions to the rule that the Marl-slate precedes the Magnesian Limestone proper which 
already have been referred to, such exceptions (where limestone occurs beneath the 
so-called Slate) being obviously the result of local accidental breaches of the bars sepa- 
rating the lagoons from the sea.* 

The Marl-slate referred to in this extract is the next Permian 
division above the Yellow Sands. Whether the latter can in any real 
sense be said to represent the much more largely developed Rotbliegendes 
of the German Dyas may be regarded as doubtful in the absence of 
palaeontological evidence. That the thin Marl-slate is the equivalent of 
the Kupferscbiefer is however open to no doubt, although in this 
country seldom more than a yard in thickness this formation of impure 
calcareous slabby beds of grey or brownish colour contains a storehouse 
of fossils which sufficiently attest its exact stratigraphical horizon. 
Besides shells such as Nautilus freieslebeni, Lingula credneri, Discina konincki 
and Myalina bnusmanni, and plants (imperfectly preserved but capable of 
identification) such as Neuropteris Auttoniana, Gaulopteris (?) se/aginoides 
and Polyspbonia (?) sternbergiana^ this deposit is a true fish bed and yields 
extraordinarily perfect specimens, usually as entire individuals, of such 
vertebrates as Palceoniscus, Dorypferus, Acentropus, Pygopterus, Acrolepis, 
Crtlacanthus, Platysomus represented by many species, as well as 
amphibians and some true reptiles such as Proterosaurus. In the 
county it is at Claxheugh, Deaf Hill, Middridge near Shildon, Thickley, 
and Ferryhill that some of the most remarkable specimens have been 
found. 

The next, and much the most fully developed division of the 
Permian, following, with perfect conformity over the Marl Slate, is 
the Magnesian Limestone, which in Britain is nowhere so thick or so 
splendidly exposed for study as in the cliff sections of Durham and 

i 
i 

1 The late Prof. A. H. Green was of opinion that the quicksands (that is, our Yellow Sands) are 
the deltas of the streams which emptied themselves into the Permian inland sea (Geol. Mag. [1872], 
ix. 101). The entire absence of fossil remains, the form of the grains, and the nature of the cross 
bedding, seem to point rather to wind as the final distributor of the sand, though Prof. Green's view 
may quite well be accepted for their first accumulation. 

8 Trans. last. Mia. Engineeri, 1903. 

18 



GEOLOGY 

in the numerous quarries inland. Its maximum thickness is about 800 
feet, and this is attained beneath the red sandstones of Seaton Carew, as 
proved by borings made at that place in 1888. Its minimum is in the 
neighbourhood of Naughton, where it has been proved, also by boring, 
to be less than 300 feet, but as there is a suspicion of the upper portion 
of this formation having been denuded off at this spot this minimum 
thickness is less certain than the maximum quoted. As the Marl Slate 
is without doubt identical with the Kupf ers chief er so is the Magnesian 
without doubt the equivalent of the continental Zechstein. Its curiously 
stunted forms of peculiar marine fossils represented by many individuals 
but comparatively few species are the same as those of the Zecbstein. Its 
general but varying- dolomitic character, to which it owes its English 
name, is the same ; and its position in the stratigraphical sequence is also 
the same. In Durham however its lithological features are extremely 
peculiar. Long after the limestone was deposited molecular movements 
took place within the already consolidated rock which, in many places 
and at many horizons, gave rise to a quite unique development of concre- 
tionary structures. From the time of Sedgwick, who first described 
them from a scientific point of view, to the present day when Dr. George 
Abbott of Tunbridge Wells has spent the leisure intervals of many years 
in studying and photographing them, the concretions referred to have 
attracted and have puzzled geologists. They have been classified 
according to their endlessly diversified forms, but the cause of so 
much structural rearrangement in this formation has not yet been 
clearly established. Professor E. J. Garwood has shown with regard 
to the simpler spheroidal forms (which are known as the cannon ball 
limestone) that these are due to the segregation towards centres of the 
carbonate of lime previously existing in the rock, and not to the intro- 
duction of that compound into the magnesian beds from without (this 
latter was the so-called ' stalactitic theory ' of the late Mr. Richard 
Howse), but it cannot be said that this, which is probably now admitted 
by all, carries us very far. It is a theory accounting for the multi- 
form character of the concretions, the ' honeycombed,' ' coralloid,' 
' oolitic,' ' botryoidal,' ' egg and cup,' and others infinitely varied besides 
the spheroids that is required, and this probably experiment only will in 
time provide. 

The Geological Survey in its maps has unfortunately not attempted 
to divide the Magnesian Limestone. The task, owing to the extraordi- 
nary variability of the rock now earthy, now flaggy, over and over 
again concretionary in every conceivable form, now massive, now 
cellular and now brecciated was no doubt a difficult one. No divi- 
sions are shown in the maps. Nevertheless it is possible to arrive at 
some fairly definite divisions in this curious formation, though we will 
not go so far as to assert that the following scheme, propounded by the 
late Mr. Howse, and the best known to us, can be regarded as anything 
more than tentative. These proposed divisions are (in ascending 
order) : 

19 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

(1) Lower Group, consisting of 

(a) a conglomerate at the base and 

(b) compact limestone. 

(2) Middle Group, consisting of 

(c) shell limestone and 
(a) cellular limestone. 

(3) Upper Group, consisting of 

(e) botryoidal limestone and 
(/) upper yellow limestone. 

It is better to have a classification such as this, confessedly open to 
improvement but more useful, so far as it goes, than none at all. 

One striking result of the changeable nature of the Magnesian 
Limestone is, naturally enough, constant difference in the degree of 
resistance which its component parts offer to denuding action both 
mechanical and chemical, and, as a consequence of this, extraordinarily 
diverse weathering features. Where hard and soft, crystalline and earthy, 
calcareous rock is as it were commingled in a kind of omniform mosaic, 
it is not surprising to find caverns, ravines, stacks, promontories of all 
kinds to be the rule, and all such features are eminently characteristic of 
the coast of Durham from South Shields to the Hartlepools. One of 
these features is deserving of special mention. This is the occurrence in 
some of the cliff sections and in some of the adjoining sea stacks 
especially in Marsden Bay of ancient caverns, V-shaped, and evidently 
at one time subterranean waterways (like those in the Mountain Limestone 
of Craven), the roofs or vaults of which have in course of time collapsed, 
filling the underground ravine with angular fragments of the overlying 
limestone. These fragments, wholly unrounded, have at a subsequent 
period been cemented together by secondary dolomitic matter, and now 
appear as portions of a solid mass of breccia so solid that several have 
resisted the waves and the weather better than the unbroken rock from 
which the original caverns were eroded and now stand out as great sea 
stacks on the beach. Such a mass is the fine stack known as Lot's 
Wife near the well-known cave-drilled islet named Marsden Rock. 
These peculiar breccias, the occasional formation of which even at the 
present day gives rise to violent but of course quite local earth shakes, are 
known as ' breccia gashes.' 

THE RED BEDS OF SOUTH DURHAM OR SALT MEASURES 

A great series of red coloured sandstones and clayey arenaceous 
beds, miscalled ' marls,' follows immediately upon the topmost portion of 
the massive Magnesian Limestone. Quite a thousand feet of these strata 
are met with in south Durham, and form the floor on which the Pleis- 
tocene or Drift deposits have been laid in that region. The latter more 
often than not conceal the former to so great an extent that no very 
certain line can be drawn to indicate their lower boundary. Roughly 
it may be said that the Durham side of the Tees from the mouth of 

20 



GEOLOGY 

that river to Darlington and north to Seaton Carew is made up of these 
red rocks. Much is known of them however by means of the many 
borings which, within the last twenty years, have been put down through 
them in search of the valuable salt beds which they contain. The age 
of the series has been the subject of some controversy, which need be 
referred to here but briefly. That the lowest members of the series 
(which nevertheless differ but slightly from the rest) are of Upper Per- 
mian age has been held by several geologists because a few thin beds of 
Magnesian Limestone occur in them similar in all respects to the main 
mass of that formation below. The late Sir Andrew Ramsay, Mr. R. 
Howse and the present writer took this view and were disposed to 
include some of the red beds above these bands of dolomitic limestone as 
well in the Permian System, including the lowest, at least, of the beds of 
rock salt. Others, including Mr. H. Howell and the Geological Survey, 
regard the whole of the red series as Triassic and since the Bunter or 
Lower Trias has been shown by the Survey to thin out and disappear 
some 20 miles or so to the south of the Tees as strata of Keuper age 
(Upper Trias) overlapping the Bunter. The absence of well marked 
unconformities and of any palaeontological evidence must probably 
always leave the decision of these points doubtful, and it is therefore 
safer, in our present state of knowledge, to adopt some descriptive non- 
committal term, such as ' the Salt Measures,' to which no reasonable 
exception can be taken. If the unconformity which it has been hinted 
may possibly occur at Norton and account for the abnormal thin- 
ness of the Magnesian Limestone there, should some day be proved, 
then the Survey view will properly prevail and all the red beds above 
the highest of the limestone bands be classed as Keuper. 

The salt beds, one of which is from 60 to 100 feet thick, are 
associated with many layers of gypsum and anhydrite (the latter being 
known to the salt-borers as 'white stone'), and the mode of their occur- 
rence is in all respects comparable to what obtains in the Triassic salt- 
bearing series of Cheshire. They lie in the lower portion of the series, 
and being composed of very soluble material they thin out gradually 
before reaching the surface. Thus the further to the dip (that is to say, 
the further away from the original outcrop) one bores for the salt the 
more likely one is to find it and the thicker it will be. This is why the 
bores through which the brine is extracted are all clustered close to the 
Tees and why they are so deep. Attempts to tap the same beds where 
this horizon approaches the surface have either failed altogether or have 
only met with deposits so reduced in bulk as to be comparatively worth- 
less. As is the case with most districts underlain by easily soluble 
rocks, subsidences are not unknown in the Salt Measure area of Durham, 
but fortunately the great depth of the salt-winnings has prevented the 
actual workings from causing the dire effects which have followed such 
undertakings elsewhere. The surface sinkings are here few and due 
altogether to the natural solution and removal of salt or gypsum at no great 
distance from the outcrop. The best known are curious depressions at 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Oxenhall near Darlington, known as the ' Hell Kettles.' These sink- 
holes vary from 75 to 114 feet in diameter. 

It is sufficiently clear that during the period of geological time 
represented by these red beds the area now occupied by south Durham 
was much in the conditions observable in the Salt Lake regions of Asia, 
north-eastern Africa, or north-western America conditions of dwindling 
inland sheets of water in an arid climate of evaporation, and of salt and 
gypsum deposition such as the late Sir Andrew Ramsay showed many 
years ago have so constantly accompanied the accumulation of red-hued 
sandy strata. 

THE IGNEOUS ROCKS 

Most remarkable and, in all probability, with the exception of the 
Minettes, oldest of the igneous rocks of Durham, is the famous Great 
Whin Sill, which, though exposed within the county boundaries only in 
the inlier between Middleton in Teesdale and Caldron Snout, is yet the 
cause of perhaps the finest scenery in the county. This sill (sill means 
a stratum simply in north country dialect) is a huge sheet of intrusive 
basaltic rock strictly speaking, ' diabase ' -which is known from a few 
miles south of Berwick to as far south as Lunedale in Yorkshire, a 
distance of over 80 miles, and which crops out to the west of this 
Durham inlier along many miles of the Pennine escarpment and more 
especially at Highcup Nick. It possibly underlies the whole of the 
county of Durham, though this will probably never be proved. So vast 
an intrusive sheet is very exceptional unique indeed as regards Britain 
in times later than those during which the much more ancient Dalradian 
sills of Scotland were injected. In the Middleton inlier it lies very near 
to the Ordovician and Silurian floor, upon which the Lower Carboni- 
ferous rocks were laid down as has already been mentioned (see p. 3) ; 
but it is well within the last named series and, although in many places 
where its position has been ascertained with accuracy (as in mine shafts, 
etc.) beyond the inlier, it is found to shift its horizon as much as even 
1,000 feet in some cases (a sufficient proof of its intrusive character were 
other convincing evidence lacking), yet it is always within the Carboniferous 
Limestone Series. This important fact is not, however, enough to enable 
one to say more as to the age of the Whin Sill than that it is younger than 
the highest horizon to which it has risen. It is post-Carboniferous Lime- 
stone probably (all but certainly so) ; it is possibly of Permian or even of 
much later date. The thickness of the sill, considering its enormous area 
of at least 400 square miles, is extraordinarily uniform, continuing for 
long distances from 80 to 100 feet, though to the west sometimes much 
thinner, and sometimes 150 feet or even more. It sometimes splits up 
into two or even three sheets. In the Middleton tract it is a single sheet 
and very thick, forming the magnificent columnar scars of Cronkley and 
the waterfalls of High Force and Caldron Snout. At Stanhope in Wear- 
dale, in which neighbourhood the main sill is met with in many lead 
mines, an upper ' split ' or branch known as the Little Whin Sill crops 

22 



GEOLOGY 

out among the limestones above the chief sheet. Notwithstanding the 
changes of horizon, the baking and consequent metamorphism of the 
shales and limestones above as well as beneath the Great Whin Sill 
phenomena which render the contemporaneity of the sheet an impossi- 
bility, it is strange that the lead miners as a rule still decline to regard it 
as contemporaneous, and the bed of limestone which happens to be next 
above it is always, by them, called the Tyne-bottom Limestone (see 
p. 6), as has been mentioned before. Some very fine pectolite has been 
found in joint cracks in the Whin Sill near Middleton. 

The Cockfield or Bolam Dyke is, next to the Whin Sill, the most 
remarkable mass of igneous rock in the county. It is a continuation of 
the well known Cleveland Dyke, which to the south of the Tees is seen 
cutting through the Jurassic rocks, and, though it does not every- 
where come to the surface, it can be traced north-west beyond the 
county boundaries as far as Armathwaite where it crosses the Eden 
with a thickness of 54 feet. At Cockfield its thickness is very vari- 
able, 15 to 66 feet. It is the longest known dyke in Britain, being 
some 1 10 miles in length (and possibly nearly 200 miles). At Bolam 
it spreads out laterally in the form of a sill baking coal seams and shales 
above and below in the same manner as, elsewhere, it bakes and alters 
them to right and left of its course. The stone of this dyke is often 
known as * Old Roger ' on Tees-side. 

The Hett Dyke runs across the coalfield from Quarrington Hill 
(on the Magnesian Limestone escarpment) to Tudhoe and Hett. It 
resembles the Whin Sill in composition, and is quite unlike the Cleve- 
land Dyke petrologically. At Brancepeth, about 300 yards from a 
branch of this dyke, coked or * cindered ' coal occurs over an area of 
about 50 square yards. This is an unusual distance for contact meta- 
morphism of this kind to be felt, but there is in north Durham a long 
and broad zone running nearly across the coalfield several square miles 
in area, where the coal generally has the appearance of having been 
altered by * whinstone,' although no dyke or sheet can be pointed to as 
the cause of this the coal is however rendered unsaleable by the change 
it has undergone, whatever this may be due to. The Hett Dyke can 
be seen near the confluence of the Bedburn Beck and the Wear, and 
thence runs to Egglestone Moor. 

The Hebburn Dyke runs from near Cleadon to the Tyne, which it 
crosses at Hebburn. It is known in Northumberland as the Walker 
Dyke. It may possibly be represented by the amazing number of 
basaltic blocks on the sea-beach at Whitburn, but it is not actually seen 
anywhere piercing Permian rocks. 

There are a few other dykes in the county very similar in character 
to the above. All these are probably of Tertiary age, though this 
must always remain doubtful. All of them as well as the Whin Sill are 
infinitely younger than the Minette d,ykes (mica-trap) which have 
already been referred to (p. 3) as cutting through the older Palaeozoic 
beds of Cronkley in Upper Teesdale. 

23 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

THE PLEISTOCENE OR DRIFT DEPOSITS 

From Upper Triassic times no geological period has left traces of 
its deposits in Durham until the Pliocene or latest Tertiary ages had 
passed away and the arctic cold of the great Ice Age had covered the 
greater part of Britain with snow and ice, and had brought it to the 
condition now prevailing in Greenland. To that Glacial time is due 
the irregular but often thick cloak of Drift deposits that at the 
present day conceals beneath it so many of the valleys and other 
features which denudation had sculptured and eroded on the outcrops 
of all the older formations so far enumerated and described in these 
pages. 

In this cold Pleistocene epoch all but some of the very highest 
portions of the county in the west was, as we cannot but believe, 
entirely smothered under an ice sheet which probably began as small 
glaciers gliding down the upper dales, and gradually increased in size 
until these merged into larger glaciers running from north to south 
across the lower and eastern half of the region. At its maximum the 
heights bare of ice formed but a small nunatdk or rocky island in the 
Yad Moss area. Then, as the severity of the climate was relaxed, the 
great complex sheet of ice melted away in its lower parts, and waned 
until the original hill-land glaciers had returned to their original beds 
and to their original insignificance. Finally, the last of the glaciers 
dwindled and died out, leaving the country much as we see it now. 

Traces of these successive changes are year by year being recognized 
with the certainty due to constantly increasing knowledge, but it must 
be admitted that a great deal more work is required in Durham before 
anything like a final verdict can be given respecting the history of 
all the difficult deposits grouped under the term ' Glacial.' 

Concerning the lowest of these, the stiff clay studded with boulders 
of which many are obviously foreigners that have reached their 
present abiding place after much travel the clay known par excellence 
as the Boulder Clay, there is not now much doubt. Few geologists see 
in it, now, the material dropped into the sea from floating icebergs. It 
is recognized by almost all as the equivalent of the Moraine profonde of 
Swiss glaciers, i.e. as the ground-down mud interspersed with fallen 
blocks which underlies moving ice on land. That this Boulder Clay 
or ' Till ' sometimes attains a thickness of 200 feet or even more is 
evidence enough of the enormous thickness of ice beneath which it was 
accumulated. The polishing and grooving of the rock surface on which 
the clay lies is also evidence enough of the movement by which the 
vast muddy mass was urged over the subjacent floor, and the determina- 
tion of the place of origin of the travelled stones within the clay yields 
information as to the directions followed by the ice-currents in their 
flow over the region. The innumerable pit-sections and boring-records 
which are available as to the superficial deposits of the entire county, 
whether in the coalfield or the leadfield, show how widespread is this 
great Boulder Clay formation ; but they also show how rapidly it varies 

24 



HISTORY OF DURHAM 



OROGRAF 




THE VI CTORIA HI STORY 



SAL MAP. 



REFERENCE NOTE 

M 

KM to 2MK) <V 

2000 I., -.'JM i i. -i 

175O i.. ;IIIH> 
UOO to IT.-.n i 

ii. I.MMI I.. i 

1000 u> IL-MI iwt 

8OO to 1OW) IWt 
60O to 8OO fret 
4OO to BOO trrl 
2OO In 4OO I..I 
1OO to ZOO f'Mt 
Sen I .. i . I to 100 tffl 
S I -. 1 I,. ." 

to eo (,! 

BO in IL-II f 
In-low 120 



,.,r./ /'..,/ 



TEES ft A 




)E COUNTIES OF ENGLAND 



County Boundary tkoum taut* 



GEOLOGY 

in thickness from place to place, the thickest portions often within a few 
yards of bare rock or of quite thin Drift. The six volumes of Borings 
and Sinkings, published by the North of England Institute of Mining 
and Mechanical Engineers, are full of valuable details bearing upon 
the distribution of this oldest of the Glacial deposits. 

All pre-Glacial valleys were necessarily choked up with this clay 
and most of them are so still, the post-Glacial rivers not having by any 
means always chosen to follow the ancient channels, and having often 
preferred to wear down new valleys through virgin rock to digging 
along their old courses through the stiff intractable material under which 
they were buried. These concealed pre-Glacial valleys and there are 
many of them are known as * washes,' and frequently present formid- 
able barriers of barren ground to the miner between the denuded edges 
of coal-seams. The best known of these washes or washouts is the 
long one which, first recognizable high up the Wear valley near Witton- 
le-Wear, follows more or less parallel to the present river (but rarely 
coinciding with the actual tbaliveg now existing) to Durham city, half 
of the market place in which is situated upon it ; thence to near 
Chester-le-Street. Here instead of approximately following the present 
river and its valley it turns abruptly to the north, actually crosses (as the 
railway also does) the watershed between the Wear and the Tyne, and, 
following the Team valley, reaches that of the Tyne 150 feet beneath 
its bottom level. This pre-Glacial wash is filled with boulder clay and, 
above that, with later clays, gravels, and sands which, in places, attain a 
thickness of more than 300 feet. Similar ancient river courses similarly 
hidden from view by Glacial infillings are numerous, and a number in 
the north-eastern portion of the county have quite recently been care- 
fully and successfully worked out with much skill and patience by 
Dr. David Woolacott. 

Above the Boulder Clay are vast thicknesses of sand and gravel, 
as well as limited patches of laminated (locally, * leafy ') clays, which 
are largely the result of the reasserting of the material of the older 
clay and of silty accumulations in ice-dammed or moraine-dammed 
lakes at the melting of the ice and after. There is no evidence 
in Durham of any true Interglacial Period, these gravels and sands, 
which are usually called the Upper Glacial gravels and sands, being 
the final set of accumulations due to any phase of the reign of cold. 
They can be excellently studied along the banks of the Derwent and 
Wear, where numerous cuttings, both artificial and natural, expose 
sections of great height and length. Exactly the same kinds of stones 
are found in these loose deposits as in the Boulder Clay, but the 
polished and scratched faces which they exhibit in the latter are as a 
rule effaced by the rolling to which the blocks were subjected during 
the dtbdcles of the later or melting stage. 

It is clear from a study of the Drift of Durham that one great glacier- 
sheet came from the Tyne valley and from north-west Northumberland 
and swept due south across lower (or eastern) Durham towards the York- 
i 25 4 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

shire plain and the foot of the Cleveland hills (which hills Prof. P. F. 
Kendall has well shown were by no means altogether covered by the ice 
sheets). It is also clear that another great glacier sheet came from 
Westmorland along the pass of Stainmore (by Brough-under-Stainmore), 
and followed roughly the trend of the Tees till it blended with the first- 
named flow. It was this sheet from the west that brought down all the 
huge blocks of unmistakable Shap Fell granite which are found all 
along its course, by Barnard Castle, Darlington and thence to the coast 
south of Tees from Redcar to Scarborough and Seamer. Thirdly, 
smaller glacier-sheets pushed their way from the small highland nunatdh 
in the Pennine west down the valley of the Wear and down many of the 
smaller burn-dales between Derwent and Tees. These glaciers all carried 
material to the greater sheet into which they fell on reaching the eastern 
lower country, but this material was entirely of local origin, none as in 
the case of the other and larger glaciers foreigners from great dis- 
tances. Beyond this Captain Dwerryhouse has taught us by means of 
Prof. P. Kendall's new and valuable criteria that as there were lakes held 
up by the ice in the Glacial period among the Tabular hills in east 
Yorkshire, so there were similar small lakes on the confines of Durham 
at the same time in the highest ground free from ice to the west. 

RAISED BEACHES, CAVE-EARTH, OLD PEAT DEPOSITS, ETC. 

All newer than the Glacial Drift, but not always easy to place 
correctly as to relative age among themselves, these accumulations now 
claim attention. 

Dr. Woolacott's researches have largely extended our knowledge of 
the Durham raised beaches. Some of these occur at a height of 150 
feet above present sea-level. It has been already mentioned that the 
pre-Glacial valley of the Wear ran into the Tyne Valley at 150 feet be- 
low the river i.e. below sea-level nearly, as the Tyne is there tidal. We 
thus obtain an index to the probable maximum amount of vertical 
movement to which north-east Durham, at any rate, was subjected in 
Glacial and post-Glacial times. The land must have sunk at least 300 
feet below the level at which it stood when the Team Wash began to 
be filled in. This is obvious enough, but much careful gathering of ob- 
servations, now actively going on, by competent men, requires to be 
done before the details of the old history can with any confidence be 
completed. At Cleadon, Marsden, Fulwell, Hendon and several other 
places the raised beaches can be well seen and studied. It is worth 
noting that besides common beach shells of living species, many chalk 
flints have in recent years been found in these raised shore gravels. 

There are not many cave-deposits in Durham, though the Magnesian 
Limestone is so riddled with caverns. There are a few however, among 
which those at Heathery Burn near Stanhope take the first place. The 
cave here (now destroyed) was in the Carboniferous Limestone, and in 1 86 1 
was found to contain remains of the otter, badger, goat, roebuck, hog, 

26 



GEOLOGY 

horse and water-rat. Bones of man with others of dogs, rabbits, goats, 
sheep, pigs and oxen were, in 1865, found in a Magnesian Limestone 
cave close to Ryhope Pit. Human remains with edible shells and re- 
mains of horse, cow, sheep, dog, pig or wild boar, red deer, roe, badger, 
fox, yellow-breasted marten, weasel, hedgehog, mole, water-vole, kestrel 
or merlin, gannet, great auk (now extinct) and other birds were found 
in some old sea-caves also in Magnesian Limestone high above the present 
sea-level at Whitburn Lizards in 1878. 

Stone implements of neolithic type have occasionally been found 
and are recorded in the Transactions of the local antiquarian societies, 
but they do not appear to offer any points of special geological in- 
terest. 

So-called submerged forests, possibly, but not quite conclusively, 
pointing in a less marked degree than the raised beaches, to earth- 
movements in comparatively recent times, are observable at low tide at 
Whitburn, and also at the Hartlepools, but more evidence is wanted in 
both cases. 

Under the head of recent deposits must be classed the beach- 
material now in process of accumulation, the loam, sand and gravel of 
the rivers forming alluvial flats or * haughs ' at the river-bends, and the 
peat-bogs of the high moorland, some of which represent the sites of 
lakes (possibly Glacial), but most of which are of later date. 



APPENDIX 

REFERENCES TO A FEW OF THE MORE USEFUL AUTHORITIES. 

MAPS 

Geological Map of Durham and Northumberland, by N. J. Winch, being part i. vol. iv, 

Transactions of the Geological Society of London, 1 8 1 6. 
Geological Map of Durham, by William Smith, London, 1824. 
Geological Map of Northumberland and Durham, by George Tate, (printed 1867) in the 

History of Alnwick, and also in New Flora of the two counties, published by the Natural 

History Society of Northumberland and Durham in 1868. 
Sketch-map of the Geology of Northumberland and Durham, by G. A. Lebour, 1886 and 



Six-inch sheets of the Geological Survey (for the coalfield and part of the lead districts). 
Also sections and one-inch sheets of the Geological Survey, complete. 

BOOKS AND PAPERS (GENERAL) 

' Observations on the Geology of Northumberland and Durham,' by N. J. Winch, Trans. 
Geol. Soc.iv. i-ioi, 1816 (read 1814). 

Synopsis of the Geology of Northumberland and Durham, by R. Howse and J. W. Kirkby, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, 1863 ; 'Geology' (of Northumberland and Durham), being chapter i. 
of ' A New Flora ' of these counties (Nat. Hist. Trans, of Northumberland and Durham, 
vol. ii. 1868) by G. Tate ; Geology of the Counties of England, article ' Durham,' by W. 
J. Harrison, 1882. 

Outlines of the Geology of Northumberland and Durham, by G. A. Lebour, London and New- 
castle, 1886 and 1889. 

1 Geology of Durham ' in Worden's Gazetteer of the County, 1891, by G. A. Lebour. 

' Geology of England and Wales,' passim, by H. B. Woodward, London, 1887. 

The Ancient Volcanoes of Great Britain^ by Sir A. Gcikic (for Whin Sill and Dykes), vol. ii. 
London, 1897. 

27 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

The Coal-fields of Great Britain, by E. Hull, ed. 4, London, 1 88 1. 

The Geology of North-Eastern Durham, by D. Woolacott, Sunderland, 1897. 

Industrial Resources of the Tyne, Wear, and Tees, ed. 2, 1864. 

PAPERS 

' Notes on the Fossil Remains of some Recent and Extinct Mammalia in the Counties of 

Northumberland and Durham,' by R. Howse, Tyneside Nat. Field Club Trans, vol. v. 

(1860-2). 
' On the Raised Beaches on the North-East Coast of Yorkshire ' (refers to south Durham), 

by Dr. W. Y. Veitch, Proc. Torksh. Geol. and Polytech. Soc. new ser. vol. viii. 

(1883). 
< On the Raised Beaches of the Durham Coast,' by David Woolacott, Proc. Univ. Durham 

Phil. Soc. and Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. and Durham, 1899-1904 (several papers). 
' Preliminary Note on the Discovery of Old Sea-caves and a Raised Beach at Whitburn 

Lizards,' by R. Howse, Nat. Hist. Trans, of Northumberland and Durham, vol. vii. 

(1880). 
' On the Heathery Burn Cave.' Notes by J. Elliot, Professor T. H. Huxley and Dr. C. 

Carter Blake, Geologist, vol. v. (1862). 
' Note on the Ryhope Cave,' by R. Kirkby and Professor G. S. Brady, Nat. Hist. Trans, of 

Northumberland and Durham, vol. i. (1866). 

' On Drift Coal in Durham,' by G. A. Lebour, Naturalist (ann. 1885). 
' On the Wear and Team Wash Out,' by Nicholas Wood and E. F. Boyd, Trans. N. Engl. 

Inst. Min. and Mechan. Engineers, vol. xiii. (1863). 
' On the Glaciation of the Counties of Durham and Northumberland,' by R. Howse, Trans. 

N. Engl. Inst. Min. and Mechan. Engineers, vol. xiii. (18634). 
'The Salt Deposits of Durham,' Anon., Times, 26 December, 1882. 
' Salt Working at Middlesborough,' Anon., Journ. Soc. of Arts, vol. xxxi j and ' Engineering,' 

vol. xxxvi. (1883). 

Middlesborough and District, 12 mo. Middlesborough (1881). 
The Permian Formation in the North-East of England,' by E. Wilson, Midland Naturalist, 

vol. iv. See also same author, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. for November 1888, W. J. 

Bird in the Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc. for 1888, and H. H. Howell in the Geological 

Magazine for January (vol. vii.) 1890. These papers refer to the age of the salt-bear- 
ing beds. 
' The Salt Deposits of Middlesborough and the mode of working them,' by T. Hugh Bell, 

Proc. Cleveland Inst. of Engineers for 18823. 
' Analyses of Magnesian Limestone,' by J. Browell and R. Kirkby, Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field 

Club, 1866. 
' On the Sinking of two Shafts at Marsden, etc.,' by J. Daglish, Proc. Inst. Civil Engineers, 

vol. Ixxi. (1883). 
' On the Occurrence of Sand-pipes in the Magnesian Limestone of Durham,' by R. Kirkby, 

Geologist, vol. iii. (1860). 
' On the Geological Relations and Internal Structure of the Magnesian Limestone, etc.,' by 

Professor A. Sedgwick, Trans. Geol. Soc. ser. 2, vol. iii. (1835). 
' On the Breccia-Gashes of the Durham Coast and some Recent Earth-shakes at Sunderland,' 

by Professor G. A. Lebour, Trans. N. Engl. Inst. Min. and Mechan. Engineers, vol. 

xxxiii. (1884), also Geol. Mag. (1885). 
' Notes on the Permian System of Northumberland and Durham,' by R. Howse, Trans. 

Tyneside Field Club (1838). 
' Tabular View of the Permian Strata of the North-East of England,' by J. W. Kirkby and 

E. Binney, Geologist, vol. vi. (1863). 
' On the Magnesian Limestone of Durham,' by J. Daglish and G. B. Forster, Trans. N. 

Engl. Inst. Min. and Mechan. Engineers, vol. xiii. (1864). 
' The Marl Slate and Yellow Sands of Northumberland and Durham,' by Professor G. A. 

Lebour, Trans. Inst. Min. Engineers, vol. xxiv. (1903). 

' On the Origin and Mode of Formation of the Concretions in the Magnesian Limestone of 
Durham,' by Professor E. J. Garwood, Geol. Mag. new ser. Dec. iii. vol. viii. (1891). 
' On the Concretions of the Durham Magnesian Limestone,' by Dr. G. Abbott, Repts. Brit. 
Association (18961901). 

28 



GEOLOGY 

'On the Red Rocks of England of older date than the Trias,' by Sir Andrew Ramsay, 

Quart. Journ. Geol. See. (1871). 
Catalogue of the local Fossils in the Museum of the Natural History Society, by R. Howse, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1890). 
' Note sur la geologic du Bassin houiller de Newcastle,' by A. Soubeyran, Annales des Mines, 

ser. 8, t. i. (1882). 

The Coal Seams of the Northumberland and Durham Coalfield, by J. B. Simpson (a compara- 
tive chart of typical sections), 1877. 

' A Synopsis of the Seams of Coal in the Newcastle District,' (the first real attempt at cor- 
relation) by J. Buddie, Tram. Northumberland Nat. Hist. Sac. vol. i. (1831). 
' Probability of finding Coal in the Bernician of Durham, etc., with an account of the 

Chopwell Boring beneath the Brockwell Seam,' by J. B. Simpson, Trans. last. Min. 

Engineers, vol. xxiv. (1904). 

The Economy of a Coalfield (full of local geological details), by Dr. J. F. W. Johnston, Dur- 
ham (1838). 

A Productive Mountain Rock, The Great Limestone, etc. (a local pamphlet with much in- 
formation), by W. M. Egglestone (circa 1882). 
Observations to accompany a plan of Silver Band Lead Mines, by T. Sopwith, Newcastle 

(185 ?). 
4 On the term Bernician, etc.' See papers by Professor G. A. Lebour, Trans. N. Engl. Inst. 

Min. and Mechan. Engineers, vol. xxv. (1876), and Geol. Mag. Dec. ii. vol. iv. (1877). 
' On the Correlation of the Coal Seams of the Great Northern Coalfield,' by M. Walton 

Brown, Trans. N. Engl. Inst. of Min. and Mechan. Engineers, vol. xxxix. (1890). 
4 The Geological History of Tyne, Wear and Associated Streams,' by D. Woolacott, Proc. 

Univ. of Durham Phil. Soc., vol. ii. (1903). 
4 On the Dry Valleys and Glacial Lakes of the Country about the Source of the Tees, etc.', 

by Captain Dwerry house, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. Iviii. (1902). 
' Petrological Notes on some North of England Dykes,' by J. J. H. Teall, Quart. Journ. 

Geol. Soc. vol. xl. (1884). 
4 On the Contact-metamorphism of Dykes ' (refers to Durham dykes), by Sir Lowthian Bell, 

Proc. Royal Soc. vol. xxiii. (1875). 
4 On the Whin Sill in Northumberland,' by W. Topley and G. A. Lebour, Brit. Aim. Rept. 

for 1873. 
4 On the Limits of the Yoredale Series in the North of England,' by Professor G. A. Lebour, 

Geol. Mag. Dec. ii. vol. ii. (1875). 
The 4 Whinsill ' of Teesdale as an Assimilator of Surrounding Beds, by A. C. Clough, Quart. 

Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxv. (1880). 
4 On the Intrusion of the Whin Sill,' by David Burns, Trans. N. Engl. Inst. of Min. and 

Mechan. Engineers, vol. xxvii. (1878). 
4 On the Igneous Rocks of Durham, etc.,' Professor A. Sedgwick, Tram. Geol. Soc. vol. iii. 

ser. 2 (1826-8), and Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc. vol. ii. (1822). 
4 Petrology of the Great Whin Sill,' by J. J. H. Teall, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xl. 

(1884) ; and Proc. Geol. Assoc. for 1886. In the first of these papers a bibliography of 

the Whin Sill is given. 
4 On the Intrusive Character of the Whin Sill In Northumberland ' (gives references to 

previous literature and relates also to Durham), by W. Topley and G. A. Lebour, 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiii. (1877). 
' On the Whin Sill,' by W. Hutton, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland and Durham, 

vol. ii. (1832). A very curious paper in which all the observations are excellent and 

the inferences wrong. 



29 



PALAEONTOLOGY 

Within the limits of the county of Durham vertebrate remains are chiefly confined to two groups 
of strata widely sundered in geological time, namely to modern, Prehistoric and apparently Pleistocene 
deposits on the one hand, and to those of Permian and Carboniferous age on the other. Needless 
to say, the fossils from the Palaeozoic formations largely outweigh in point of interest those from the 
superficial deposits, and among the former the most important are those from the Permian, which 
include several forms first described on the evidence of Durham specimens, and some of which are 
at present unknown beyond the limits of that county. Nevertheless, the remains from the super- 
ficial formations are by no means lacking in interest, the most noticeable being those of the lynx, 
the elk, and the great auk. No vertebrate remains have been obtained from the Trias of the 
county, this formation being, as usual, unfossiliferous. 

The great historian of the fossil vertebrates of the county is Mr. Richard Howse, whose 
Catalogue of the Local Fossils in the Museum of the Natural History Society of Northumber- 
land, Durham, and Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1 has been of the greatest assistance in the compilation 
of the present account. 

Apart from the bones of various species of domesticated mammals, such as the dog, goat, and 
horse, disinterred during the excavation of Roman camps, the most modern vertebrate fossils 
discovered in the county appear to be those from estuarine silts or old lake-beds, belonging 
apparently cither to the Historic or the Prehistoric epochs. Among such remains, Mr. Howse 
records those of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) from silt eighteen feet below the surface in Jarrow 
Dock and Cobble Dene Dock, as well as from the silt of the bed of the Tyne ; similar remains 
being also recorded from West Hartlepool, North Bailey, and from Durham itself. Of the roe 
(Capreolus capreolus) antlers have been found in the Roman camps. More interest attaches to the 
remains of the elk (A Ices alces) from beneath the peat at Hartlepool, and at Mainsforth, near Sedgefield,* 
since remains of this animal are very rare in Britain, where they appear to be quite unknown in 
deposits which can be definitely assigned to the Pleistocene epoch. The wild ox, or aurochs (Bos 
taunts primigenius) has left its remains in the silt of Jarrow Dock, as well as in that of the Tyne, and 
beneath peat in various localities in the county ; and bones of the domesticated Celtic shorthorn 
the miscalled Bos longifrtms are likewise reported from Jarrow and Hartlepool. Remains of the 
wild boar (Sus scrofa ferus) have been met with in river-silt, as well as in Roman stations, and a 
skull is recorded from North Bailey. Boars' tusks, together with remains of the dog, the badger, 
and the Celtic shorthorn, have also been obtained from the cave at Heathery Burn, near Stanhope, 
in Weardale, which was explored by Canon Greenwell, and yielded implements of the bronze 
period. 

Much greater interest attaches to the remains of the great auk (Aha, or Plautus, impennis) 
discovered in cave-deposits at Marsden, in the Cleadon Hills, and described in 1880 by Mr. Howse.* 
Up to the year 1890, at any rate, these were the only remains of this bird discovered in England. 
They were associated with those of man, the badger (Melts melts), the fox (Pulpes vulpes), and other 
species. 

Next in order may be considered the remains from fissures in the Mountain Limestone at 
Teesdale, which may or may not be approximately of the same age as the ordinary cavern-bones 
from other parts of the country. By far the most interesting of these belong to the lynx (Felis 
[Lynx] lynx), a species known elsewhere in Britain only from the Yew-Tree Cave, Pleasley Vale, 
on the borders of Derbyshire and Nottingham. These have been described by the late 
Mr. William Davies. 4 Other mammals of which the remains have been found at Teesdale include 
the wild cat (Felis catus), the wolf (Cants lupus), the fox, the otter (Lutra lutra), the roe, the red 
deer, the wild boar, and the horse. The exploration of the Teesdale fissure by the late Messrs. 

1 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. and Durham, x. 227 (1889). 

s Sec Woodward and Sherborn Brit. Fuss. Penetrate, p. 312 ; Chirdon Burn, North Tync, where an 
antler of this species has been obtained, it here said to be in Durham, instead of Northumberland. 
8 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. and Durham, vii. 361. 
* Geel. Mag. (z) vii. 346 (1880). 

3 1 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Backhouse also yielded remains of the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus). Few other vertebrate remains 
appear to have been recorded from the superficial deposits of the county. The local Natural History 
Society's Museum possesses, however, a skeleton of the extinct Irish deer (Cervus giganteus), or miscalled 
Irish elk obtained in the winter of 1855-56 in peat under a thick deposit of brick-earth at South 
Shields ; a pair of antlers of the same species has also been obtained from an ancient forest-deposit at 
the mouth of the Tees,* at Snook Point, which is now in the Durham University Museum ; and a 
second pair was dug up at Nab Hill so long ago as 1840.* Probably these may be assigned to the 
Prehistoric epoch. Remains of the wild boar from South Shields may have come from the same 

layer. 

Finally, a fragment of a tusk, five inches in circumference, found in the excavation of the 
West Hartlepool Docks, is stated to be the only evidence of the former existence of the mammoth 
or hairy elephant (Elephas primigenius) within the limits of the county. 8 This specimen was 
preserved in the Athenaeum at West Hartlepool. Mr. Howse regards it as being of Prehistoric 
age but it should apparently be referred rather to the antecedent Pleistocene epoch. 

Passing on to the fossils of the Paleozoic epoch, the first that claim attention are five species 
of enamel-scaled, or ganoid, fishes from the Upper Magnesian Limestone of the Permian series 
from Fulwell Hill and Marsden Bay, first brought to notice in 1862 and again in 1864 by 
Mr. ]. W. Kirkby. At first all were referred to the family Palteoniscidee, one to the genus 
Acrolepis, and the others to Pal<eoniscus itself. As regards the first genus, subsequent investigations 
have confirmed the original determination, but the reference of the others to Paltsoniscus has proved 
erroneous, for not only are they distinct from that genus, but they also belong to quite another 
family group the Semionotidis in place of the Palcsoniscidte ; being, in fact, near allies of the well- 
known Mesozoic genera Lepidotus and Dapedius. Accordingly, in 1877 they were referred by 
Dr. R. H. Traquair * to a new genus, under the name of Acentrophorus, which is thus typified by 
Durham specimens. 

The discovery of these fishes is recorded by Mr. Kirkby in the following words : 

'The fossils were first noticed by the workmen in August 1861 in a newly-opened quarry 
belonging to Sir Hedworth Williamson, Bart., at Fulwell, about a mile and a half to the north of 
Sunderland ; and my attention was almost immediately drawn to them by Mr. Harry Abbs, of the 
latter town 

' The quarry referred to is situated on the northern slope of Fulwell Hill, and is not far dis- 
tant from another more extensive and much older quarry belonging to the same proprietor. In 
these quarries, as well as in others on the same hill more to the west, the Magnesian Limestone is 
largely worked for lime-burning, as it has been in the older quarries for the last sixty years or 
more. During the whole of that period, up to 1861, no traces of any organic remains had ever 
been found in the limestone of this hill. But about the time named, or a little before, it became 
necessary, in order to keep the new quarry at its proper level, to cut through some underlying beds 
(brought up by an anticlinal) which had never yet been cut through, owing to the unvendible quality 
of the limestone ; and it was in working these lower and inferior strata that the great bulk of the 
fossil fish were discovered, most of them having been found in one bed, or zone of beds, of lime- 
stone ; there nevertheless being several instances of their occurrence both above and below that 
horizon. 

' Soon after their discovery in the new quarry, another on the same anticlinal brought up the 
equivalent strata in the old quarry, about half a furlong to the south ; and it was not long before the 
same fossils were met with there, besides other species that the first locality had not yielded. 

' The same fish-bed would appear also to extend considerably to the north-east ; for I have 
obtained the tail-half of a small fish from a stratum of limestone in Marsden Bay, occupying the 
same stratigraphical position as the Fulwell fish-bed.' 

Three forms of these Fulwell fishes were respectively named by Mr. Kirkby Paltsoniscus variant, 
P. abbsi, and P. altus ; names which in 1877 became changed to Acentrophorus variant, A. abbsi, and 
A. altus. Another type was provisionally assigned to Palaoniscus angustus of Agassiz, an imperfectly 
known fish of uncertain affinity. 8 Finally the fish originally identified by Mr. Kirkby with Acrolepis 
sedgwicki (an identification subsequently cancelled by its author) was eventually named by Mr. Howse 
Acrolepis kirkbyi. According to Dr. Smith Woodward,* it is allied to A. sedgwicki, but its affinities 
and right to specific distinction are not clear. 

Following the divisions adopted by local geologists, the next zone of the Permian formation 
from which vertebrate fossils have been obtained is the so-called Lower Limestone, the Compact 
Limestone of Sedgwick, which forms in most places a conspicuous plateau, or ' step,' in the Permian 
escarpment. An extremely interesting, although unfortunately very imperfect, specimen from this 

1 Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club, v. 1 14. 8 Ibid. in. 

8 Ibid. * Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. joncvii. 565. 

6 See Woodward, Cat. Fois. Fish. Brit. Mus. ii. 447. Ibid. 504. 

32 



PALEONTOLOGY 

horizon is a split slabof yellow limestone showing the skeletonof the trunk and part of the skull of a four- 
limbed air-breathing vertebrate, for which the name Lepidotosaurus duffi has been proposed by Messrs. 
Hancock and Howsc. 1 The slab with the skeleton itself is preserved in the local Natural History 
Society's Museum at N,cwcastle-on-Tyne, and the counterpart, displaying the impression of the 
same, in the British Museum. The specimen was obtained in 1867 from a quarry at Middridge, 
near Bishop's Auckland. By its describers Lepidotosaurus was referred to the primarval salamanders, 
a group technically known as Labyrinthodontia or Stegocephalia, and typically characterised by the 
complete roofing of the skull, the sculpturing of the cranial bones and of those forming the 
characteristic chest-shield, the complex internal structure of the teeth, and the presence of an armour of 
bony scales on the lower surface of the body. Such scales are present in the Middridge skeleton, and 
serve to indicate that the original determination is probably correct, although, from the imperfect 
condition of the specimen, the exact serial position of the genus cannot be determined. 

The fishes of the Lower Magnesian Limestone of the county appear to be two in number, 
Palaoniscus freitsltbeni and Platyumiu gibbesus, the two genera to which they belong respectively 
typifying the families PaUeoniscid* and Platytamatldte. Both families belong to the enamel-scaled 
group ; the members of the former being characterised, among other features, by their slender 
herring-like shape, while those of the latter are deeper-bodied, rhomboidal fishes, more like a John 
Dory in contour. Both species occur typically in the Kupferschiefer, or Upper Permian, of 
Thuringia. Of P. Jreieslebeni the Durham examples from the Lower Limestone were obtained at 
Down Hill, near Boldon, Houghton-lc-Spring ; while those of P. gibbosus came from Pallion Quarry, 
near Sundcrland.* 

Next in order comes the Marlslate the equivalent of the German Kupferschiefer which, 
although a very thin and local deposit in the county, has yielded some very interesting fossils. 

The most important, perhaps, of these are two slabs from Middridge, now preserved in the 
Museum at Newcastle, each of which displays a portion of the skeleton of a reptile of the size of a 
large lizard. These specimens were described and figured by Messrs. Hancock and Howse,* by 
whom the one was referred to Protorosaurus * sfeneri, a primitive reptile from the German Kupfer- 
schiefer, while the other was made the type of a second species of the same genus, with the title of 
P. huxleyi. The Protorosauridte form an extremely generalised group of early reptiles whose nearest 
existing representative is to be found in the New Zealand tuatera (Sphenodon functatut), which 
typifies the order Rhynchocephalia. At present, they are the earliest known members of the 
reptilian class. Two species, P. speneri and P. lincki, are known from the Continent, the first of 
which is, as above stated, recorded from Durham. P. huxleyi is unknown elsewhere than in 
Durham. 

Fish-remains from the Marlslate of the county are much more numerous. Among these, 
mention may first be made of the widely spread primitive shark known as Janassa bituminosa, 
typically from the German Kupferschiefer, but of which teeth have been discovered at Middridge. 
These teeth, as in other representatives of the Petalodontidte, formed a pavement when arranged in 
the mouth ; the number of rows of principal teeth in this particular genus being three. From the 
evidence of Durham and Northumberland specimens, Messrs. Hancock and Howse ' formulated a 
scheme of the mode of arrangement of the teeth, from which they were led to believe that Janassa 
was a ray. Their interpretation was, however, shown by the late Professor K. von Zittel to be 
incorrect. Another shark, Wodnika althausl (also known as W. itriatula), belonging to the same 
family (Cestraciontid<e) as the existing Port Jackson shark, is recorded by Mr. Howse from the Marlslate 
of East Thickley Quarry. The species, which is the only member of its genus, is typically from the 
Kupferschiefer of Thuringia; and the genus is distinguished from the Port Jackson shark (Cistracion) 
by all the teeth, which are large size, being of a crushing type, and by the small number of those 
in the front of the jaws. Although the species is included in Messrs. Woodward and Sherborn's 
British Foiiil Vertebrates, it is not given as British in the Catalogue of Fossil Fishes in the British 
Museum.* Of the enamel-scaled, or ganoid, fishes from the Durham Marlslate, the first is 
Ctelacantbus granulatus t the typical representative of a genus and species founded by Agassiz on a 
specimen (now in the British Museum) from Fcrryhill, but likewise known from Fulwell Hill and 
Middridge, and also occurring in the Thuringian Kupferschiefer. The genus belongs to a separate 
family (Calacanthidtt) of fringe-firmed ganoids, now represented by the bichers and the reed-fish of 
the African rivers. The specimen from Ferryhill described in 1850 by Sir Philip Egerton as a 
distinct species under the name of C. caudalis is now ascertained to pertain to an immature example 
of C. granulatus. 

1 Nat. Hilt. Trans. Northumb. and Durham, IT. p. 219, pt. viii, and Qyart. Jour*. Geol. Sot. xxvi. 556, 
pt. 38 (1870). * Vide Howse, Nat. Hist. Traai. Nortbumb. and Durham, x. 247. 

Stuart. "Jour*. Geol. Soe. nvi. 565, pis. 39 and 40 (1870). 

The name (as was usual at that time) is spelt Proteniaurui. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Htit. (4) v. 47 (1870). i. 248. 

i 33 5 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Of ganoids with a more normal, or, rather, more specialised, type of fin, our first representation 
is Pygopterus humboldti, a member of the family Palteonisctdte first described on the evidence of 
specimens from the continental Kupferschiefer, but subsequently identified from the Marlslatc of 
Middridge and Ferryhill. A specimen from the latter locality was regarded by Sir P. Egerton as 
representing a distinct species, P. latus ; but its peculiarities in shape appear to be due to the effects 
of crush. 1 This fish has also been called P. mandibularis. To the same family belongs PaUeoniscus 
freieslebeni, already mentioned under the heading of the Lower Magnesian Limestone, which also 
occurs in the Marlslate of Ferryhill, Middridge, and East Thickley. A second species of the same 
genus, P. longissimuS) was named on the evidence of a specimen from the Clarence Railway cutting, 
near Mainsforth, in the present county, and also occurs at Ferryhill and Middridge. The type 
specimen is in the Museum at Newcastle-on-Tyne, but the counterpart is in the collection of the 
British Museum. A third species, P. macrophthalmus, also typically from Durham, occurs at Ferry- 
hill and Middridge ; the type specimen (a nearly complete fish) being in the Museum of the 
Geological Society of London. The so-called P. elegam appears to be a synonym of P. freieslebeni. 
To the same family belongs the genus jfcrolepis, already referred to when treating of the fishes of the 
Lower Magnesian Limestone. It is typified by A. sedgwicki, first described from Middridge, and also 
occurring at Ferryhill ; the continental A, asper being apparently referable to the same species. A 
second species, A. exsculpta, typically from the German Kupferschiefer, is also recorded from the 
Marlslate of Middridge and Fulwell Waterworks. 

The family Platysomatidte, the members of which, as already said, are distinguished from the 
Palieoniscidte by their shorter and deeper bodies, are represented in the Marlslate of the county by at 
least two, and possibly by three, species. The first of these is Globulodus macrurus, a genus and 
species typically from the German Kupferschiefer differing from the better known Mesolepis of the 
Coal Measures by the dentition. This fish occurs both at Middridge and Ferryhill. Of the typical 
genus Platysomus, the aforesaid P. gibbosus (also known as P. striatus) occurs at the two localities 
last named. 

Perhaps the most remarkable of all the Marlstone fishes is the one described from the German 
Kupferschiefer as Dorypterus hojffmanni y of which the serial position is still problematical. According 
to Messrs. Hancock and Howse, by whom they were described, four examples of this singular fish 
have been discovered at Middridge, two in 1865 and two in 1869 ; all four being in the Newcastle 
Museum. The genus takes its name from the presence of a sword-like dorsal fin, recalling in form 
(although not in structure) the back-fin of a killer-whale. Dr. Smith Woodward * observes that : 
' This fish still requires satisfactory elucidation, but it is evidently related to the Platysomatidte, as indicated 
by the great development of the azygous [unpaired] fin-supports, which are sometimes, at least in 
part, mistaken for dermal structures. So far as the absence of flank-scales is concerned, Dorypterus 
bears the same relation to the typical Platysomatidts as Phanerosteon with respect to the typical 
Palaoniscida' 

Lastly, in the family Semlonotidte we have a species of the genus Acentrophorus, already referred 
to under the heading of the Lower Magnesian Limestone, in the Marlstone of the county. This 
species, A. glaphyrus, was named by Agassiz on the evidence of a Durham specimen preserved in the 
York Museum. It differs from the type species by the conspicuous serration of the scales. There 
are specimens of this fish from Middridge and Ferryhill in the collection of the British Museum. 

Although remains of fishes are far from uncommon in the Northumberland Coal Measures, 
few appear to be recorded from the Carboniferous rocks of Durham, none being mentioned by 
Mr. Howse in his catalogue of the collection in the Newcastle Museum. The present writer has, 
however, been informed by a local authority that such remains are quite common in the Durham 
Coal Measures, more especially in the shaley layer capping the Hutton seam. They have never 
yet been collected systematically, although they are probably quite as numerous as in the hard main 
shale at Newsham, Northumberland (which is the same bed as the Hutton seam), where they were 
assiduously collected by the late Mr. Atthey. 

One species of fossil fish, the primitive pavement-toothed shark Petalodus acumtnatus, is recorded 
from the Upper Carboniferous Limestone of the county by Dr. A. Smith Woodward in the 
Catalogue of Fossil Fishes in the British Museum.* Since, moreover, in the same work* the widely 
spread fringe-finned ganoid Megalichthys hibberti is stated to be known from all the English Coal-fields, 
its remains probably occur within the limits of the county under consideration. 

1 See Cat. Toss. Fish. Brit. Mia. ii. 474. 
8 Cat. Fois. Fish. Brit. Mus. ii. 550. i. 43. * ii. 380. 



HISTORY OF DURHAM 



BOTANIC; 



^m^^sp^^srs^ 

ffi ts ^j3Mti^*F*%* 

^SSs^^c^f 



< ^^F^^f^!3^---4Rx fa*- idi- /~ ' W$^&^ /WySr*" 1 * 

l_vt:-j~^- N \; l,^. w ,,^,, , f v ;- W^^^ 

^"WSrE^^V / >V<6s->fi..; fK^&f'r. 

\-jf 'ttrMhalt^l ~'"\^ ifrini II..! > ^ 1 i'''" l "'"^-~-JK^^^ 



^e^r^ ^5f?^^R^s 



012B4D67S 




THE VICTORIA HISTORY 



DISTRICTS. 



LIST OF BOTANICAL DISTRICTS - 



Based on the River Basins 

I. Dirwent 
U. Wear 
HI. 7 




'HE COUNTIES OF ENGLAND 



BOTANY 



GENERAL PHYSICAL CHARACTER OF THE COUNTY WITH 
RELATION TO THE FLORA 



I 



^HE physical features of Durham, which embrace a wide range of 
altitude, exercise an important influence upon climatic conditions, 
and together with the different geological strata tend to produce 
an extremely rich and varied flora. A glance at the Orographical 
Map will show the general configuration and boundaries of the county. 
The zones of altitude extend through three of the six zones into 
which H. C. Watson, in his work on Botanical Geography, divides the 
surface of the county ; these corresponding to his mid-agrarian, super- 
agrarian, and infer-arctic zones. Following Baker's scheme these may be 
described as the Lower, Middle, and Upper Zones, the Lower including 
the heights up to 900 feet, the Middle those between 900 feet and 
1, 800 feet, and the Upper the heights beyond that level. 

At the western extremity of the county, where its width contracts 
to only I o miles, the two great river systems take their rise, this neck of 
land embracing the whole of the Wear watershed, and half of the tract 
drained by the Tees. The latter has its actual source in Cumberland, 
rising east of Cross Fell (2,900 feet) some few miles west of the district, 
and enters the county at a high moorland region 1,600 feet above sea- 
level. This is a wild, desolate expanse, which northwards, beyond the 
Crookburn, extends into a series of lofty ridges of similar character, 
presenting the most mountainous aspect of the whole county. These 
high grassy and heathery peaks sweep boldly round the head of the dales, 
the most elevated points from south to north including Viewing Hill 
(2,097 feet), Highfield (2,322 feet), Burnhope Seat (2,546 feet), Dead- 
stones (2,326 feet), Knoutberry Hill (2,195 feet), Nag's Head (2, 207 feet), 
and Kilhope Law (2,206 feet), which last commands the extreme north- 
west of the county. From this eminence a fine view is obtained over the 
Cheviots and Allenheads in the Northumberland border. On the southern 
flank of Burnhope Seat is found the weird-looking tract of Yad Moss, a 
wild expanse of peat, covered with a very scanty vegetation and broken 
up by deep rifts cut in the black peat to its foundation of shaley sandstone, 
indicating in a remarkable manner the great force of the western gales. 
A succession of peaks of gradually declining altitude form undulating 
ranges of hills proceeding eastwards, one of which, north of the Wear, 
forms the watershed between that river and the country drained by the 

35 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Allen and the Derwent. South of the Wear rises another high, heather- 
covered ridge, the principal peaks of which are Chapel Fell Top 
(2,294 feet) and Fendrith Hill (2,284 feet) ; this separates the valleys of 
the Tees and the Wear, and the whole then gradually slopes away through 
undulating moorland and wide-stretching commons down to the fertile 
plains below. Altogether, there are fully twenty peaks which ascend 
into the Upper Zone. The 900 feet contour line forming the lower limit 
of the Middle Zone enters the county from the north, near Blanchland, 
and follows the trend of the Derwent as far east as Cold Rowley, where it 
bends sharply to the south, passing over the Wear valley near Wolsing- 
ham, and extending thence as far as Egglestone. From this point the 
contour line extends westwards up the Tees valley to Winch Bridge, and 
up the Wear valley it reaches nearly to St. John's Chapel. This forms, 
roughly, the boundary of the very high moorland region. 

On the upper slopes of these hills or ' fells ' the ground is often 
very wet and boggy, and deep holes, the sides of which are covered with 
ferns, mosses, and liverworts, may prove a dangerous pitfall for the 
unwary. Spongy patches of bog-moss (Sphagnunt) and Polytricbum, the 
ling (Calluna vu/garis), heather (Erica T'etralix), the wind grass (Alra 
flexuosa) with its graceful panicles supported on tall red stems, the fescue 
(Festuca ovina), Juncus squarrosus, Carex stellulata, the waving, feathery 
tufts of the mat-grass (Nardus sfricfa), sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum 
odoratum), bent-grass (Agrostis vu/garis), and the hard fern (Lomaria 
Spicant) cover the summit with a coarse vegetation, among which the 
marsh violet (Viola pa/us fris), the dainty little Potentilla tormentilla, and 
Galium saxatile are freely scattered. The white, fluffy heads of the cotton- 
grass (Eriopborum vaginatum) also appear conspicuously, and the knout- 
berry (Rubus chamcemorus), with its large, beautiful white flower and 
raspberry-like fruit, as well as the bilberry (Vaccinium Myrtillis), the 
whortleberry (V. Vitis-idced), and the crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) are 
generally abundantly distributed. Such is a description of the plants 
found in the Upper Zone of Burnhope Seat, and it may be taken as 
typical of the other higher hills of similar character, as well as many of 
those at a lower altitude possessing the same features. The upper part 
of the Middle Zone does not materially differ from the lower part of the 
Upper Zone, and in this belt very commonly occur such plants as the 
sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), the butterwort (Pinguicula vu/garis), the 
marsh willow-herb (Epilobium palustre), the starry saxifrage (Saxifraga 
stellaris], the bog stitch wort (Stellaria u/iginosa), the lesser spearwort 
(Ranuncu/usjtammu/a),andthe marsh speedwell (Veronica scutellatd] ; these 
extend also into the lower Middle Zone and even to the coast-line. 

The wide extent of these peaty, heather-covered moors, with their 
prevailing vegetation, is due to the prevalence of sandstones and shales, 
which thickly overlie the main limestone formation. The mountain 
limestone constitutes a large part of Upper Teesdale and Weardale, but 
it presents few of the characteristics so strikingly represented in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire. The calcareous strata crop out chiefly in the dales, 

36 



BOTANY 

and in place of precipitous scars the characteristic 'hopes' form a more 
special feature. These branch out from the main dales and are narrower 
valleys or ravines cut in the mountain sides by the burns or tributaries of 
the main stream. In Kilhope, Welhope, Ireshope, and Burnhope the 
main limestone crops out along the edge of the fells at from about 
1,650 feet to i, 800 feet, and reaches an elevation of 1,800 feet in Bleak 
Law. On the steep banks of Langdon Dale lines of limestone cliff stand 
out conspicuously, reaching a height of 2,100 feet in Highfield above 
the Grasshill lead-mines, from which it gradually declines towards 
Newbiggin Moor. Here the limestone is exposed at 1,500 feet ; from 
this point it rapidly descends, and at Egglestone is lost at a height of some 
500 feet, disappearing also about the same elevation below Frosterley, on 
the Wear. 

Many plants generally associated with the lowlands attain in the 
Weardale ' hopes ' and in Harwood Dale an unusually high altitude, 
and many reach their maximum limit in these limestone dales. Equisetum 
palustre and Nephrodium dilatatum ascend to 2,100 feet on Highfield, and 
the tway-blade (Listera ovata) to 1,950 feet in Harwood Dale. The 
whitlow grass (Erophila vu/garis), the prickly shield-fern (Aspidium 
acu/eatum), and the brittle bladder-fern (Cystopteris fragilis) are found at 
i, 800 feet on Kilhope and Bleak Law. On the southern slope of Kilhope 
Law the moon wort (Botrycbium Lunaria), Gentiana Amarella, the lady's 
mantle (Alcbemilla vulgaris), and the water cress (Nasturtium officinale) 
are interesting plants found at an elevation of 1,600 feet. Among other 
plants peculiar to the limestone the following may be specially mentioned 
at high elevations : in Harwood Dale the moor-grass (Sesleria caerulia), 
the hairy rock-cress (Arabis Airsuta), Scabiosa columbaria, and the oat- 
grass (Avena pratensis) ; the vernal sandwort (Arenaria verna], frequent 
throughout the lead country on old lead-mine rubbish ; the stone black- 
berry (Rubus saxatile) and the rock rose (Helianthemum vu/gare) rejoicing 
in the dry, exposed, rocky surfaces in Burnhope ; on Falcon Glints the 
carline thistle (Car/inavu/garis),the mountain melic-grass (Me/icanutans), 
the spring gentian (Gentiana verna), and the smaller-flowered species 
(G. Amarella) blooming later in the autumn, as well as the kidney vetch 
(Anthyllis vulneraria) ascending to the plateau on Widdy Bank Fell. The 
peculiarly rare yellow saxifrage (Saxffraga birculus) grows in two places 
in Ireshope at an altitude between 1,200 feet and 1,500 feet. This is a 
greatly prized Durham species, being known in only two other localities 
in England north-west Yorkshire and Westmorland, and it is a plant 
by no means easy to find. There are one or two stations in Scotland. 
The alpine penny-cress (Tblaspi alpestre) shows a curious preference for 
the lead-mines throughout the district. The cranberry (Vaccimum Oxy- 
coccus) is abundant on all the higher Teesdale and Weardale moors, 
while the rare bog whortleberry (V. uliginosum) is found only sparingly 
among the turfy bogs. The alpine variety of the scurvy grass (Cochlearia 
officinalis) is also very frequent, and is carried down into the low country 
along the streams. Several species of club-moss (Lycopodium) are widely 

37 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

distributed amongst the moors. L. c/avatum, alpinum, and Selago are 
the most readily detected. Selaginella Selaginoides is frequent along the 
stream-sides amongst the hills, but its habit renders it very inconspicuous, 
and it may be easily overlooked without careful search. 

In all the higher moorlands of Derwent Vale, as well as Teesdale 
and Weardale, abundant evidence of extinct forest vegetation may be met 
with. The remains of roots, both of oak and birch, are found, in situ, 
deeply buried in the peat, while fallen trunks and branches of birch 
project freely wherever the peat is exposed. Thick deposits of hazel 
nuts occur in the beds of peat moss by the sides of the Burnhope Burn, 
above Wearhead. The oak must certainly be considered truly indigenous 
in Durham, for enormous trunks and branches are also dug out of all the 
peat mosses not situated at a great elevation above the river levels. It is 
well known that at no very remote period vast forests occupied the 
northern shores of the Wear, which were inhabited by large herds of 
deer. This has been thoroughly established by the discovery of many 
animal and vegetable remains during dredging operations undertaken to 
remove the accumulation of many centuries' tidal deposits, drift, and 
debris obstructing the river about 2 miles west of Sunderland. 1 From a 
depth of 10 feet below the bed of the river there were dredged up the 
trunks and branches of trees, chiefly magnificent specimens of oaks, and 
large quantities of the antlers of red deer, remarkable for their size and 
good preservation. 2 The forest formerly existing in Upper Teesdale was 
also the haunt of red deer, and it is chronicled that on Rood Day, 1673, 
above 400 deer were destroyed by a severe storm of snow. Winch 
observes that ' On the elevated moors between Blanchland, at the head of 
the Derwent, and Wolsingham, on the river Wear, . . . the roots 
and trunks of very large pines (Pinus syhestris) are seen protruding from 
the black peat moss, being exposed to view by the water of these bogs 
having drained off and left the peat bare ; but this tree is no longer indi- 
genous with us. It may be worthy of remark that the Scotch fir does 
not at this day attain the size of these ancient pines, though planted 
in similar situations, even though the young trees be protected and the 
plantations situated at a lower level.' 

In the upper parts of the ' dales ' many of the cultivated plants 

1 An account of the Ancient Remains found in the bed of the Wear at Claxheugh, contributed 
to the Transactions of the TynesUe Naturalists' Field Club, 1858-60, by F. H. Johnson, M.D. 

8 An old Saxon poem, referred to the Danish-Saxon period preceding the Conquest, gives a 
description of the Wear which helps us to realize the existence of an ancient sylvan vegetation very 
different from any known at the present day (Hickes' Anglo-Saxon Grammar}. 

' A river of rapid waves ; 
And there live in it 
Fishes of various kinds, 
Mingling with the floods ; 
And there grow 
Great forests ; 
There live in the recesses 
Wild animals of many sorts; 
In the deep vallies 
Deer innumerable.' 

38 



BOTANY 

attain a high limit of successful cultivation. It is, however, very incon- 
siderable compared to the elevation at which agriculture flourished in 
former times. In many places over the wild moors the land can be seen 
to have been furrowed by the plough at a height at which it is quite 
impossible for corn crops to be obtained at the present day. In 1825 
Winch mentions that oats then only grew at some 2,000 feet 1 above sea- 
level, wheat at about half that altitude, and barley and rye at stations 
between these two. In Baker's Flora (1868), the greatest height given for 
the oat in Weardale is 1,340 feet, for barley 1,000 feet, and for wheat 
750 feet ; but at the present time much of this arable land is laid down 
for permanent pasture, and the height at which the oat is cultivated is 
apparently now reduced to about 800 feet. Above the zone of cereal 
cultivation and reaching to the rough vegetation of the moors are rich old 
pastures mown annually for hay, in which the useful agricultural grasses 
and meadow herbage flourish most luxuriantly. The handsome purple 
heads of the melancholy thistle (Carduus beterophyllus) are often a striking 
feature among them, and everywhere in these upland pastures there is an 
abundance of the mountain pansy (Viola lutea) in all varieties, from the 
beautiful dark purple to pale mauve, almost white, and yellow. In the 
damper spots with coarser herbage these meadows in the spring are a 
blaze of yellow with brilliant masses of the marsh marigold (Caltba 
palustris) and globe flowers (Trollius europceus). The bird's-eye primrose 
(Primula farinosa), an exquisitely scented and delicately tinted flower, 
is also commonly distributed among the more marshy places. The 
boundary between the different types of vegetation is determined not so 
much by altitudes as by such conditions as soil, drainage, aspect, etc. 
For example, on the flanks of Kilhope Law, rich natural pastures are 
found at an elevation of 1,700 feet, but in Burnhope this sinks down to 
about 1,400 feet. The truth of this reflection is also exemplified by the 
unusually high region in which regularly inhabited houses are found in 
Durham. One farmhouse in Highfield above the lead-mines stands at 
2,000 feet above sea-level, and Clough House on Kilhope Law is occu- 
pied at 1,700 feet. Even approaching this high altitude, around the 
farmhouses small gardens are common in which potatoes, rhubarb, 
turnips and cabbages, onions, gooseberries, strawberries, and even a few 
roses can be grown with success. In favourable situations on the hill- 
sides at an altitude of 1,600 feet plantations of beech (Fagus sylvatica], 
spruce (Abies exce/sa), larch (Larix europcea)^ and Scotch fir (Pinus 
sy/vestris), withstand the weather and form valuable woods ; the syca- 
more (Acer pseudoplatanus) also attains a fair size. The hazel (Cory/us 
Avellana] and alder (Alnus glutinosa] scarcely reach this altitude, and 
oaks (Quercus Robur) of stunted growth are only met with at a slightly 
lower level. The common elm (U/mus campestris) y which flourishes as 
a large tree on the western side of the Pennine range, is not indigenous 
north of the Tees, and even when planted in sheltered situations does not 
attain any considerable size. The wych elm (U/mus montana)^ however, 

1 It is probable that Winch has here somewhat over-estimated the altitude. 

39 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

is truly indigenous, and is everywhere abundant in the hedgerows, 
though now scarcely ascending above 1,200 feet. 

The scenery of Upper Teesdale with its sub-alpine heights is 
peculiarly grand and striking. The great basaltic Whin Sill here 
attains a thickness of over 200 feet, and gives a wild and picturesque 
character to the landscape. At Cauldron Snout the river thunders 
through a deep narrow gorge in a fine rush of turbulent waters, forming 
one of the grandest waterfalls in Britain. None other approaches its 
fall of 100 feet upon a stream of such volume. Huge fallen boulders 
and sharp-edged basaltic cliffs form a rugged background ; all around is 
desolation : not a tree or any sign of habitation interrupts the waste 
of dreary moorland. A variety of the alpine willow-herb (Epilobium 
anagallidifoliuni) is an interesting plant found close to Cauldron Snout, 
and a rare species of sedge (Carex rigida) should be specially noted here. 
The purple marsh-cinquefoil (Gomarum palustre) also occurs on the 
swamps near at hand. From a short distance above Cauldron Snout 
commence low banks of a curious white granular limestone which 
extend eastwards along the back of Widdy Bank Fell. The main basaltic 
rock formation, with this coarse * sugar limestone ' which here overlies 
it, provides a botanical district quite exceptionally rich in rare and 
peculiarly Montane species. It is not possible to find in Great Britain 
any piece of ground of similar area which produces so many extremely 
rare plants as Widdy Bank Fell. The side of this hill towards the 
river is faced by. precipitous basaltic cliffs known as the Falcon Clints, 
which extend in jagged, irregular outline for some two miles down the 
stream. From the other side of the hill over the beds of ' sugar lime- 
stone' flow several streams in three directions east, west, and south-east. 
The following rare plants are mentioned by Baker as occurring upon 
the crags and the banks of these streams, within an area of four square 
miles : 

Viola arenaria. Hieracium iricum. Asplenium viride. 

Arenaria uliginosa. pallidum. Woodsia ilvensis. 

Thalictrum alpinum. anglicum. Polypodium calcareum. 

Draba incana. Gentiana verna. Equisetum variegatum. 

Potentilla alpestris. Arbutus Uva-ursi. Poa Parnellii. 

Sedum purpureum. Bartsia alpina. Galium sylvestre. 

villosum. Kobresia caricina. Tofieldia palustris. 
Saxifraga aizoides. Juncus triglumis. Scirpus pauciflorus. 

stellaris. Carex capillaris. Armeria maritima. 

hypnoides. Sesleria caerulca. Primula farinosa. 
Galium boreale. Cryptogramme crispa. 

Cronkley Fell presents a bold front on the Yorkshire side of the river ; 
it rises perpendicularly, repeating precisely the same physical features 
as its opposite neighbour, and many of the rarities just enumerated 
are common to both grounds. The Upper Teesdale district generally 
should be considered to include both the Yorkshire and Durham borders, 
and many of the very rare plants are quite peculiar to this special region. 
Near Barnard Castle and Rokeby and further eastwards along the banks 
of the Tees the delightful woods on both sides of the river are also 

40 



BOTANY 

charmingly productive of a similar rich sylvan flora. It should be 
mentioned that Arenaria uliginosa is a plant only found on the Durham 
border on Widdy Bank, and it has no other locality in Great Britain. 
Potentilla fruticosa, with its characteristic bushy growth and pretty yellow 
flowers, which grows abundantly lower down the stream by the Whet- 
stone Sill, is found also plentifully on Cronkley Scar, but is known in no 
other locality in England except sparingly in Cumberland and West- 
morland. This Whetstone Sill, a flat piece of ground where Langdon 
Beck and Harwood Beck unite with the main stream a mile above High 
Force, is a famous botanical ground. Here are first seen the rare species 
of hawkweed, Hieracium crocatum, got&icum, and corymbosum, and the 
tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) also grows here. The very rare 
spring gentian, the lovely deep blue Gentiana verna of the Swiss 
mountains, is to be gathered in plenty about Widdy Bank Fell and in 
many places on the high limestone pastures. At High Force, five miles 
below Cauldron Snout the river again contracts into a very narrow 
channel between high basaltic cliffs, and the water leaps over a precipice 
with a sheer fall of 70 feet. Birch, beech, elm, and alders spring from 
the fissures of the dark, smooth-faced cliffs of basalt, and magnificent 
groups of remarkably fine spruce trees above help to complete a striking 
picture, with the purple heather-clad fell commanding the background. 
Weird forms of junipers make a conspicuous feature here and for some 
distance up the stream along the strath, among the fallen boulders. Here 
again Potentilla fruticosa grows abundantly, and extends as far down as 
Middleton, where the basalt comes to an end. Many of the rarer plants 
of the Widdy Bank plateau get carried down by the stream to a much 
lower level, and the luxuriant woods which extend for a considerable 
distance below High Force thus continue to furnish many rare floral 
beauties dispersed along the rocky banks of the stream. The lily of the 
valley (Convallaria majalis) and the herb-paris (Paris quadrifolia) hide in 
the cool recesses of the woods near High Force, and the autumn-flowering 
crocus (Colchicum autumnale) is a specially rare plant appearing opposite 
Egglestone. On approaching High Force the upper part of Teesdale 
loses its distinctively wild moorland character, and plantations of spruce 
and firs with other well-grown trees appear, giving a much more 
cultivated aspect. Extensive fir-plantations reach to the top of the moor 
at Egglestone ; the rare marsh orchid (Ma/axis paludosa) has a well- 
established home on the banks of the Egglesburn, and the cordate 
tway-blade (Listera cordata) may also be found near the same spot. 
Below Egglestone the Tees valley, and below Wolsingham the Wear 
valley, gradually widen as these rivers emerge from the highlands of the 
western parts of the county and flow through the less elevated central 
regions. The high fells still extending between these points and further 
north now rapidly decline in level. A sinuous line from Barnard Castle 
through Witton-le-Wear to Wolsingham and then northwards indicates 
roughly the boundary east of which the coal measures are met with, 
overlaid for the most part with boulder clay. The principal collieries 
i 41 6 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

fall within the drainage tract of the Wear, and in the Auckland valley 
several very rich mines are worked. Thick seams of coal and the 
fossilized remains of plants found in the carboniferous formation furnish 
evidence of a luxuriant vegetation during this period. The fronds of 
many species of ferns, fragments of the stems of Ca/amifes, Lepidodendron, 
Ptcea, Pinites, Sigilaria, and Stigmaria are among the commonest forms 
met with in abundance in a good state of preservation. 

As the moors diminish in extent they are replaced by pasture and 
arable land. The general vegetation presents few features calling for 
special remark. The rivers flow for the most part through deeply 
excavated banks, and the many beautiful ravines and denes in which 
shade plants love to shelter are characteristic of the whole county. The 
country is richly wooded, and the numerous well-timbered parks, such as 
Raby, Winyard, Ravensworth, and Gibside, boast some specially fine 
trees. Large woods have been planted in some localities, chiefly of 
Scotch pine and larch. A geological formation which has a marked 
influence upon the character of the vegetation is the magnesian lime- 
stone. Speaking generally, this occupies a triangular area eastwards of a 
line from Shields to Piercebridge, and extending thence as far as the 
coast, where it ends abruptly in a broken outline of outstanding cliffs. 
The highest escarpment lies to the west. Between Sedgefield and 
Darlington the general altitude attains some 300 feet, forming the 
watershed of the Skerne, a river rising further northwards in the 
magnesian limestone hills, near Trimdon, here reaching a height of 
606 feet, their greatest elevation. The Skerne first flows eastwards, but 
suddenly turns south-westwards at Hurworth, some six miles from the 
sea, to follow a winding, sluggish course through Darlington, finally 
joining the Tees at Croft. A large flat tract of country, consisting for 
the most part of beds of red sandstone overlaid with boulder clay, 
occupies this south-eastern part of Durham from Sedgefield to Hartle- 
pool, and southward to the Tees. The ponds, ditches, and slowly 
running streams of this district furnish very favourable stations for aquatic 
plants. Morden, Bradbury, and Preston Carrs, through which the 
Skerne flows, occupy the site of a former lake, now since the drainage 
forming a large extent of peaty soil somewhat resembling the fens of 
the eastern counties. Here, especially along the banks of the Skerne, 
and around Billingham and Norton, the ditches abound in water plants, 
among which may be specially mentioned the common meadow rue 
(ffhalictrum flavum), the great spearwort (Ranunculus lingua), the water 
crowfoot (R. fluitans), the shining pond-weed (Potamogeton lucens), the 
mare's-tail (Hippuris vulgaris], the water milfoil (Myriophyllum verticil- 
latuni), the glaucous stitch wort (Stellaria g/auca), and the bur-marigold 
(Bidens tripartita). The following are quite special to these localities, 
and are not known in the neighbouring county of Northumberland : the 
frog-bit (Hydrocharis Morsus-ran<z) , the mud wort (Limosella aquatica), 
the small creeping persicaria (Polygonum minus], the arrow-head (Sagtttaria 
sagittifolia), the great water dock (Rumex bydrolapatbum), the flowering 

42 



BOTANY 

rush (Butomus umbellatus], and the water violet (Hottonia fa/usfris). 
The last occurs also near Durham and Sunderland, and finds here its 
most northern limit. The Hell Kettles, a remarkable series of large 
deep ponds surrounded by boggy ground and overgrown with rushes and 
sedges, is a botanical region worthy of note. Here grows the sedge 
(CladiumMariscus), so valuable in the eastern counties for thatching; and, 
among other rarities, Juncus obtusifolia, Carex stricta, the bladderwort 
(Utricularia vu/garis), the mealy guelder-rose (Viburnum lantana), and 
the rough stonewort (Cbara bispida), all denote the peculiar features of 
a fen vegetation. Iris fcetidissima is a very rare plant found in the damp 
woods. The flora of the magnesian limestone district is in great 
contrast to that of the boulder clay and the coal-measures. The warmer, 
better-drained soil supports again the lime-loving plants, and the special 
limestone species of the west are thus once more freely met with in 
the east, with the addition of some nine species which are confined to 
the magnesian formation. These are the perennial flax (Linum perenne), 
the bearded St. John's wort (Hypericum monfanum), the sainfoin (Ono- 
brycbis satrva), the woolly-headed thistle (Carduus eriophorus), the privet 
(Ligustrum vu/gare), the dwarf orchis (Orchis usfu/afa), the bee orchis 
(Opbrys apifera)) the fly orchis (0. muscifera), and the upright brome- 
grass (Bromus erectus). The low hills to the east are intersected by 
picturesque denes and ravines, in the upper part often so confined as to 
be impassable, and gradually widening as they approach the shore. A 
rich flora of shade-loving plants clothes the sides and floors of these denes, 
and many rare species luxuriate under the protection of the sylvan 
vegetation. Castle Eden Dene, the most considerable and beautiful of 
them all, is especially noteworthy as sheltering a much prized orchid 
peculiar to the limestone, the lady's slipper (Cypripedium Calceolus]^ 
which was once plentifully distributed there, but now requires very 
careful preservation to save it from extirpation. Some of the rare 
orchids mentioned above, as well as the narrow-leaved helleborine 
(Cephalantbera ensifolia), are found in the deep recesses of this and other 
denes of the magnesian limestone. 

The coast line of Durham, some forty-five miles in length, lies wholly 
between the mouths of the rivers Tyne and Tees. Steep grassy slopes 
alternate with magnesian limestone cliffs, which at Marsden and north 
of Hartlepool stand out in bold rugged outline; desolate sand dunes 
stretch along the shore towards the Tees mouth, and are succeeded by 
salt marshes near Middlesbrough. A long coast line of such varied 
character is peculiarly favourable for maritime vegetation, and the 
different physical formations support each their special plant-associations. 
South of the Tyne lies an open stretch of sand bordered by grass-covered 
slopes ; here in former days were deposited large heaps of ballast from 
the vessels entering the Tyne. Similar ballast heaps are to be found at 
Sunderland and Hartlepool. Baker's list includes more than 150 species 
of plants which have been thus introduced, but he states that it rarely 
happens that any of these ballast introductions ripen seed and spring up 

43 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

a second time, and so when fresh importations cease they rapidly 
disappear. Baker considers that the wild mignonette (Reseda lutea), 
the wall rocket (Sinapis tenuifolia], the wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), 
and three or four Cbenopodiacea, are all that are likely to have been 
introduced in this manner. The sand dunes are covered with the grass- 
like associations of sand-binding plants specially adapted for this situation 
by their deep roots and creeping rhizomes. Chief amongst these may 
be mentioned the sea-reed (Ammopbila a rundinacea) , the rushy wheat- 
grass (Triticum junceum), and 7". acutum, the sea lyme-grass (Elymus 
arenarius), the sea-barley (Hordeum maritimum), the sea hard-grass 
(Lepturus filiformis), the creeping fescue-grass (Festuca rubra), the 
hemlock stork's-bill (Erodium cicutarium), and the three species of sea 
sedges Carex arenaria, C. extensa, and C. distant. A more varied flora is 
found upon the steep grassy slopes with a wet argillaceous subsoil. 
Here many plants which are well represented in the vegetation of the 
upper dales are found in abundance. The graceful ' grass of Parnassus ' 
(Parnassia palustris) and the glossy yellowish-green rosettes of the 
butterwort (Pinguicula vu/garis) may be found growing equally well near 
the Black Hall Rocks and at Langdon Beck. The wild thyme (Tbymus 
Serpyllum), the seaside plantain (Plantago maritima), and many others, are 
also similarly distributed. The great water horsetail (Equisetum 
maximum] and Gentiana Amarella are again characteristic plants found 
plentifully here and at a considerable distance inland. Just above the 
tidal limits some of the most characteristic maritime plants found are : the 
sea-rocket (Cakile maritima), the beet (Beta maritima), the sea-purslane 
(Honkeneja peploides], the sea-holly (Eryngium maritimum), the hound's- 
tongue (Cynoglossum officinale), and the red goose-foot (Cbenopodium 
rubrum). The yellow horned poppy (Glaucium luteum] was once plentiful 
near Seaton Carew, but it is feared that it is now extinct. Peculiar 
to the salt marshes are the sea-starwort (Aster tripolium), the seaside 
arrow-grass (Triglocbin maritimum), the sea-blite (Suceda maritima), and 
the shrubby sea-purslane (Obione portulacoides). On the limestone cliffs, 
the sea spleenwort (Asplenium marinum) must be specially mentioned, 
but it now grows only in the more inaccessible situations. 

The district coming within the drainage tract of the Derwent 
extends to the north of the county. The hills are chiefly composed of 
millstone grit overlying the carboniferous limestone strata, and in the 
upper part have much the same undulating heathery character as the 
fells already considered on the west. The sandstone, however, appears 
more dominant, and the moors consequently are more thickly clothed 
with heather, the ling (Calluna vu/garis) and Erica cinerea being the 
most abundant species. The brilliant purple of the heather on these 
vast sweeps of moorland, and in the spring the perfect blaze of yellow 
broom, produce an impression of vivid glowing colour which is not 
readily effaced. The common bracken (Pteris aquilina) everywhere adds 
its wealth of orange-coloured fronds in autumn. The mountain buckler 
fern (Nephrodium Oreopteris) grows in great profusion, and sometimes 

44 



BOTANY 

clothes the hillsides to the exclusion of all others (Featherstonhaugh), and 
the hard fern (Lomaria Spicanf) is also especially plentiful in the hilly 
districts and on the edges of the moors. At Edmondbyers may be seen 
growing the rare little pink flower Erinus afyinus, which so curiously 
springs up about the Roman camps. It is supposed to have been 
brought by Spanish legions, and has thus long survived the old Roman 
occupation. The limestone is exposed in the bed of the Derwent below 
Muggleswick, and here the river has carved a deep channel through 
precipitous banks, and winds in and out through a most romantic and 
picturesquely wooded retreat locally known as the Sneep. The coal- 
measures here also first make their appearance, and extend through the 
lower part of the valley to the mouth of the river. Over a considerable 
portion of the intervening country, however, thick beds of sand and 
gravel occur resting upon the boulder clay. This formation results in 
numerous landslips along the course of the stream, and thousands of tons 
of ballast have been laid down to counteract the constant undermining of 
the base of the hills. The Broad Oak Hills are composed of this sand 
and gravel upon a bed of clay, and as far down as Winlaton can be seen 
a mass of boulder clay and gravelly drift forming what is known as 
Winlaton Mill 'scaurs.' Below the Sneep the Vale of Derwent 
becomes very richly wooded. It possesses large tracts of native wood- 
land, chief among which may be mentioned the extensive Crown lands 
of Chopwell, where in former days oak was grown for the Royal Navy. 
In the sheltered denes the oak fern (Polypodium Dryopteris) grows profusely, 
often thickly covering the damp bank sides with its fragile, tender green 
fronds. The lovely delicate beech fern (P. Pbegopteris) is also widely 
distributed in the valley, selecting wet mossy rocks and places within 
reach of the waterfalls, where its slender creeping rhizomes can spread 
themselves over the moist surface. Many of the rarer ferns which once 
grew luxuriantly have been almost exterminated by ruthless collectors. 
The royal fern (Osmunda regatis), for example, was formerly abundant, 
but has now no native haunt on the Derwent. Though not possessing 
many specially rare species, the flora is very rich, and most of the 
ordinary woodland plants are represented in profusion. The fine large 
purple flowers of the wood crane's bill (Geranium syhaticuni) produce a 
lovely effect in masses in the woods, and the foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) 
is abundantly dispersed, though it becomes scarce north of the Tyne. 
The daffodil (Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus] grows wild in some of the moist 
woods, and the rare maiden-pink (Diantbus deltoides) in the hilly pastures 
in the neighbourhood of Shotley Bridge. The woods everywhere are 
very favourable to fungus flora, those near Medomsley especially possessing 
innumerable species. The encroachment of paper mills, ironworks, and 
collieries has destroyed many good plant stations, and below Swalwell 
the country gives place to a manufacturing district, extending to the 
Tyne, of no further interest to the botanist. 



45 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

NOTES ON THE BOTANICAL DISTRICTS 

The botanical districts, which are based upon the river basins, are: the Wear, the Tees, 

and the Derwent. 

THE WEAR DISTRICT 

The drainage tract of the Wear comprises fully one half of the total area of the county, 
including the main central portion from east to west. The river rises in the highlands of 
the west, its actual source being the small Scraith Burn issuing from the head of Burnhope 
Seat, the highest point in the county. At its junction with another burn descending the 
eastern slope of Deadstones the stream becomes known as the Burnhope Burn, which, 
flowing rapidly over a very rocky bed and fed by many little tributaries from the mountain 
sides, soon gathers force and volume. Above Wearhead (1,100 feet) this unites with 
Kilhope and Welhope burns to form the Wear, which has now attained a very considerable 
size. Westwards of this point extends the region of wildest moorland vegetation. The 
flora characteristic of the summits has already been described. Rubus chamtemorus is plenti- 
fully distributed on all the high peaks, but is seldom found lower than 1,500 feet. On the 
banks by the streams high up in the hills the wild thyme (Thymus Serpyllum) spreads its 
fragrance everywhere ; and Linum catharticum, Euphrasia officinalis, Polygala vulgaris, Sagina 
apetala, S. nodosa, Hypericum pulchrum, and Galium saxatile are freely present on the drier 
grassy places. Along the more marshy sides of the streams Sedum villosum, with its pretty 
little purplish star-like flowers, Stellaria uliginosa, Saxifraga stellaris, Triglochin palustre, and 
Montia fontana, are noteworthy ; while Veronica scutellata, Lychnis floscuculi, Cochlearia 
officinalis, Ranunculus flammula, and Viola palustris are commonly distributed in the same 
situations. The swamps abound in species of Juncus and Carex, with here and there the 
purple flowers of the marsh orchis (0. latifolia] appearing among them. Patches of the 
pale green rosettes of Pinguicula vulgaris are frequently to be seen, as well as Pedicularis 
palustris and Drosera rotundifolia. By the brooksides, up to a height of about 1,300 feet, 
the rich alluvial land left by the stream forms fine natural pastures in which many varieties 
of grasses and nearly all the common flowers of the English meadows are represented in 
profusion. An abundance of the beautiful purple and yellow pansy, Viola lutea, is a 
special feature of these upland meadows, and it extends also to the sandy shores near 
Frosterley, being carried down to the lower reaches of the stream. In the undrained 
pastures the abundance of Trollius europeeus and Caltha palustris provides a wealth of golden 
colour ; the frog orchis (Habenaria viridis) is scattered everywhere, and Polygonum viviparum 
is not unfrequent ; Achillea ptarmica also occurs, and Anemone nemorosa sparingly. Primula 
farinosa grows freely in the marshy places. At Burnhope there is a curious out-crop of black 
coaly-looking shale where grow quantities of the sweet-scented Myrrhis odorata. Close by 
the cliff is a natural wood of Betula, Corylus y Salix, and Pyrus aucuparia. In the under- 
growth are found Pyrola minor, Trifolium medium, Lathyrus tuberosus, Crepis hieracioides, and 
Hieracium gothicum and tridentatum. 

The numerous ' hopes,' which shelter many a rare species, are specially characteristic of 
Weardale. These branch out in all directions from the main valley, extending into the upper 
heights of the hills. To the west are Kilhope, Welhope, Burnhope, and Ireshope ; on the 
south, Swinhope, Westernhope, and Bollihope ; while in a northerly direction the more 
considerable are Stanhope, Rookhope, and Middlehope. Taxus baccata is truly wild in 
several places in the district. Botrychium Lunaria, Lycopodium clavatum, L. alpinum and 
L. Selago are plants to be noted in the higher localities. Asplenium viride grows very 
abundantly by the burns in Harthope and Ireshope, A. Trichomanes ascending to the scars of 
Bleak Law. Some very picturesque limestone cliffs known as Clint's Crags form an 
interesting feature in the upper part of Ireshope. Here Epilobium angustifolium appears in 
great profusion, the rocks being enriched with masses of its spikes of purple flowers ; the 
marshes in the neighbourhood are a station for the specially rare yellow Saxifraga hirculus. 
Selaginella Selaginoides is found in abundance, and patches of the fragrant orchid, Habenaria 
conopsea. The honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) may also be seen growing freely at this 
height. Many valuable old lead mines exist in the district, for which Arenaria verna and 
Thlaspi alpestre have a special predilection ; a variety of the latter, T. occitanum, is found 
north of the stream below Eastgate and by the Grasshill lead mines. 

At St. John's Chapel the country becomes less wild and begins to assume a more 

46 



BOTANY 

pastoral beauty. Between here and Westgate Rubus villicaulis, R. infestus, Lycium barbarum, 
and Impatient balsamifera may be found. The river is here fairly broad, and as the valley 
descends it widens considerably towards Stanhope, six miles eastward of St. John's Chapel. 
High gritstone moors, for the most part clothed with heather, extend on either side of the 
valley as far as Wolsingham. Stanhope Common lies upwards of 1,000 feet above the 
town, which itself is some 670 feet above sea-level. It is a large extent of moorland lying 
on the Millstone Grit above the limestone, which crops out on the hillsides at about 800 
to 900 feet. The appearance of the gritstone marks very sharply the boundary between the 
moor and cultivated ground, the house and walled intakes terminating abruptly at the junction 
of this strata with the limestone. Heather refuses to grow on the limestone formation, and 
the vivid green, grassy slopes of the latter thickly covered with trees are in strong contrast to 
the sudden appearance of the wild, barren-looking heath, and serve to illustrate very strikingly 
the different character of the two soils. Calluna vulgaris forms the main mass of the 
vegetation of the moor, among which are interspersed Emfetrum nigrum, Vaccimum Myrtillus, 
Festuca ovina, "Juncus squarrosus, and the procumbent Galium saxatile. In the damper spots 
are Sphagnum and Polytrichum communis, while the reindeer moss (Cladonia rangiferina) is 
frequently to be seen. Bollihope Burn enters the main stream near Frosterley, and in the 
lower part of the glen through which it flows the last outcrop of the limestone is exposed 
to view in the fine cliffs of Bishopley Crag. Festuca sylvatica, a rare plant in Durham, 
grows in Bollihope Dene, and F. rubra, usually associated with sandy shores, ascends to 
750 feet on Bollihope Moor. Bushes of yellow broom and furze (Cytisus scopariut and 
Ulex europieus) brighten the rocky shores of the river ; and in the shady woods which now 
border its banks arc beautiful masses of sweet cicely, Myosotis syhestris, the sweetly odorous 
Atperula odorata, and other woodland forms, including Arum maculatum and Orchis mascula. 
At Wolsingham the Waskerley Beck flows into the Wear from the north, and a little lower 
down above Witton-le-Wear the Bedburn, with its many tributaries, enters it on the south. 
Scutellaria minor is plentiful on the Wolsingham moors, and other notable plants known in 
the same neighbourhood above Shull are the rare Malaxis paludosa, Dianthus deltoides, and 
D. Armeria, the latter springing up after the ling has been burnt/ Trientalis europaa and 
Convallaria majalis exist in Shull woods. 

From high up in the moors near the Tees a considerable stream runs through the 
Auckland valley and joins the Wear at Bishop Auckland. Here the main river, which 
has hitherto taken a course to the south-east, turns sharply northwards, and then continues in a 
north-easterly direction with many a devious turn till it finally reaches the sea at Sunderland. 
On the left bank the tributaries of the Deerness and the Browney drain a large extent of 
moorish coal country. Bryonia dioica is not uncommon about Bishop Auckland, and the 
rare Gagea lutea is found in the woods in this locality. Calamintha Nefeta should be noted 
on the banks of the Wear near Durham, and Atropa belladonna (the deadly nightshade), as 
well as the very rare Colcbicum autumnale in the damp meadows. Leaving Brancepeth Park 
on its western slope the Wear passes directly through the city of Durham, which occupies 
a magnificent site on the edge of the moorland, and flows through richly wooded banks past 
the ruins of Finchale Abbey and the stately parks and castles of Lumley and Lambton. 
In the flat country and low-lying woods below Durham some of the more interesting plants 
are the wild daffodil (Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus), Neottia Nidus-avis, Rosa arvensis, Melica 
nutans, Astragalus glycyphyllos, and Limosella aquatica. For the last four miles the river cuts 
through the magnesian limestone eastwards to the sea. 

The largest area of magnesian limestone is included in this drainage tract. Numerous 
denes extend into the heart of the range, opening out more widely to the sea. The 
most extensive is the very beautiful dene of Castle Eden, well known to botanists as a 
station for the now very rare Cypripedium Calceolus. Taxus baccata flourishes luxuriantly 
here, and introductions, such as Larix leptolepis and Rosa rugosa, have found a congenial home. 
These sheltered denes of the magnesian limestone afford favourable conditions for the 
growth of many orchidaceous plants ; among the more remarkable species scattered generally 
in these situations are Neottia Nidus-avis, Epipactis palustris, Cephalanthera ensifolia, and Ophrys 
muscifera. Ligustrum vulgare, Cornus sanguinea, and Lithospermum officinale are truly wild in 
these denes, and among other plants worthy of mention are Hypericum mmtanum, Lactuca 
muralis, Erigeron acris, Inula Helenium, Petasitis fragrans, Equisetum maximum, Paris quadrifolia, 
Scohpendrium vulgare, Daphne /aureola, and Campanula latifolia. Primula farinosa is frequent 
about the streams that issue from the magnesian limestone. Dispersed all along the coast 
are Orchis ustulata, O. pyramidalis and Ophrys apifera. 

47 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

THE TEES DISTRICT 

The Tees, rising in Cumberland on the slopes of Cross Fell, first enters Durham at its 
junction with the Crookburn Beck which flows southwards from Yad Moss. It continues a 
fairly level course for some miles, spreading into a still expanse of water forming the Weel, 
in which are found Potamogeton rufescens and an abundance of Ranunculus peltatus. Immediately 
below this, at Cauldron Snout, the river contracts into a narrow channel and, falling to a depth 
of 100 feet, tumbles over a series of rocky ledges. Rushing through a deepening basaltic 
gorge by a succession of cataracts the turbulent waters at last emerge from the narrow chasm, 
and by a final leap broaden out, fan-like, into a torrent of boiling foam. The Maze Beck 
enters just below the Snout, and then the stream flows swiftly over a very rocky bed, taking 
an irregular winding course to the sea. Beyond the Weel extends a bare, desolate waste of 
moors with not a tree to be seen, these heights being a part of the main limestone formation. 
Carex rigida and Epiloblum alpinum are rare plants growing here. On Bleak Law, at an 
elevation of 1,800 feet, occur Draba incana, Erophila vulgarity Asplenium viride and Cystopteris 
fragilis. On Widdy Bank Fell a special abundance of very rare plants is found, among them 
Gentiana verna, Arenarla uliginosa, Thalictrum alpinum, Potentilla alpestris, Viola arenaria, and 
Carex capillaris. On the north side the fell appears as a rounded sloping hill, the summit 
covered with heather. Heather clothes also the steep cliffs which face the Tees and which 
terminate to the south-west by perpendicular basaltic crags known as the Falcon Glints. 
Among the talus of sharp rocks some of the familiar plants which it is interesting to observe 
have established themselves are : Oxalis acetosella, Geranium Robertianum and lucidum, Asplenium 
Adiantum-nigrum, Pteris aquilina and Polypodium vulgare ; the rare Saxifraga aizoides and 
hypnoides and Sedum telephium are also plentifully seen. Juniper bushes cling to the crevices 
of the basaltic columns with here and there a solitary mountain ash, while Solidago virgaurea, 
Teucrium Scorodonia, Fragraria vesca, Corylus Avellana, Sanguisorba officinale, Digitalis purpurea 
and Campanula rotundifolia find a home among the rocks and heather. On these clints also 
many special species appear, such as Woodsia ilvensis, Aspidium Lonchitis, Potentilla alpestris, 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Juncus triglumis, Kobresia caricina, Hieracium iricum, H. anglicum and 
H. pallidum. To these may be added others, all noteworthy, growing on the banks of the 
various streams which flow outwards from Widdy Bank Fell, such as Bartsia alpina, Sedum 
villosum, Saxifraga stellaris, Galium boreale, G. Sylvestre, Sesleria carulia, Cryptogramme crispa, Poly- 
podium calcareum, Equisetum variegatum, Poa Parnellii, Tofieldla palustris and Scirpus pauciflorus, 
Armeria maritima is found plentifully on one of the little streams running from the sugar 
limestone. 

This upper drainage tract of the Tees is separated into two distinct dales, the one 
formed by the Tees itself and the other by the Harwood Beck running almost parallel with 
it from north to south. Langdon Beck flows in the same direction through a narrower valley 
to the west, and taking a south-easterly turn joins Harwood Beck at Langdon Bridge. Their 
united streams flowing southwards meet with the Tees about a mile above High Force. At 
this meeting of the waters on the flat piece of ground known as the Whetstone Sill Potentilla 
fruticosa, an extremely rare plant, grows most luxuriantly. The peculiarly rare Bartsia alpina 
grows here too, but most abundantly a little higher up by the Whey Sike, and from the Widdy 
Bank streams it is carried down to Harwood Beck. Habenaria albida is found plentifully 
near the same point, as well as Hieracium gothicum, corymbosum, and crocatum, all rare species, 
extending also for some distance down the stream. It is difficult to tread anywhere hereabouts 
without finding a profusion of Gentiana Amarella. In Harwood Dale numerous species of 
the commoner lowland plants ascend to a considerable altitude. To give a few instances : 
Lychnis diurna, Geranium sylvaticum, Spiraa ulmaria, Ajuga reptans, and Briza media, are found 
on the limestone scars at an elevation of 1,650 feet; Pedicularis palustris and Plantago media 
attain a limit of 1,700 feet, Poa trivialis 1,800 feet, while Listera ovata, Rumex crispus, 
Achillea ptarmica, and Apargia hispida reach a limit of 1,950 feet. Trollius europaus and 
Caltha palustris form a very conspicuous feature of Teesdale, spreading themselves in quantity 
over the whole valley above High Force. The deep blue Swiss gentian (Gentiana verna) is 
abundantly distributed in several places, Fendrith Hill, Widdy Bank Fell, and above Cauldron 
Snout being favourite localities of this lovely flower. Primula farinosa also grows in plenty 
in the marshy places, especially about Langdon Dale. The very rare faccinium uliginosum 
occurs sparingly on the boggy parts of the moor above High Force, and in the drier more 
sandy ground jasione montana has established a home. 

From Cauldron Snout to the head of High Force the river declines in level 430 feet, 
and then rushes in a great sheet of foam over a precipice some 78 feet high, forming a very 

48 






BOTANY 

beautiful waterfall. Perpendicular rocks line the sides of the stream for some distance, and 
the banks are still craggy and precipitous almost as far down as Middleton. The river 
receives four feeders from the north between High Force and Egglestone the burns of 
Ettersgill, Bowlees, Hudshope, and Egglesburn, in the first of which there is a pretty little 
waterfall called Hell Cleft. Saxifraga aizoides appears again on the rocks towards High 
Force, and some other of the rarer plants on Widdy Bank are carried down as far as 
Eggleston, a distance of some seven miles. Hieracium anglicum, H. iricum, Potentilla alpestris 
and Thalictrum alpinum descend to Winch Bridge, a favourite station for some of the stray 
plants from the heights of Falcon Glints ; the rare horsetail, Equisetum umbrosum, is found as 
low as Middleton, and Saxifraga stellaria reaches to Eggleston. The flora beyond this point 
is of a more ordinary woodland type. Aquilegia vulgaris should be noted truly wild in the 
vicinity of Middleton, and Pyrus Aria at Winch Bridge. The woods near High Force 
contain a very rich vegetation. A great wealth of many-coloured lichens clothes the black 
smooth rocks and trunks of the trees, masses of the curious green lichen, Usnea barbata, 
depend from many of the branches, and a rich fungus-flora is found in the damp, decaying 
undergrowth. The wild raspberry (Rubus ideeus) is common, and the lily of the valley 
(Convallaria majalis) is plentiful in the shade of the woods, as well as Paris quadrifolia, Myosotis 
sylvestris, and the large Campanula latifolia. Below High Force the valley descends rapidly 
and soon becomes well-wooded, though still girdled by the high ridges of Newbiggin 
(2,215 feet), Middleton (1,990 feet), and Eggleston (1,590 feet) moors. A stream rising 
north of Barnard Castle on the edge of the moors at Langley Dale flows through Raby to 
Staindrop, where it is joined by one flowing through Streatlam Park, and their united waters 
enter the main river near Gainford, a station for Turritis glabra. The limestone reappears 
below Barnard Castle, and fine cliffs border the Tees for some miles. Rumex aquaticus is an 
uncommon northern plant descending the dale from Widdy Bank to Barnard Castle ; it is also 
recorded at Piercebridge (Wheldon). 

From Piercebridge, where the magnesian limestone commences, right to the Tees 
mouth, the river traverses flat low country through which flow many sluggish tributaries. 
It follows a very winding course, and between Croft and Dinsdale twists and turns in truly 
serpentine fashion. The damp woods in this district provide many specially rare plants, 
among which may be mentioned Colchicum autumnale, Iris faetidissima, Ophrys apifera, 
O. muscifera, Orchis ustulata, Allium scorodoprasum, and Ruscus aculeatus. Other noticeable 
plants in the locality are : Chrnopodium glaucum, Spireea Filipendula, Stachys ambigua, Euonymus 
europteus, Trifolium fragiferum y Bryonia dioica, Hypericum Androseemum, Linum perenne, and 
Symphytum officinale and Rhamnus catharticus, both rare in the county. Viola odora is frequent 
in the woods. The slowly running streams and ditches of this flat country furnish an 
abundance of aquatic plants, a number of which have already been mentioned in connection 
with the Skerne and Morden Carrs. The becks in the neighbourhood of Stockton, Norton, 
Billingham, and Greatham also provide good stations for such plants. Sparganium ramosum, 
S. simplex, Typba latifolia, T. angustifolia, (Enanthe phellandrium, Zannicbellia palustris, 
Nasturtium sylvestre, N. terrestre, Samolus valerandi, Potamogeton plantagineus, P. densus, and 
P. gramineus are among those not given previously. In the salt marshes at the mouth of the 
Tees and salt-water ditches along the coast are : Otime portulacoides, Aster tripolium, Statice 
linunium, Ranunculus Baudotii, Artemisia maritima, Salicornia herbacea, Sueda maritima, Atrip/ex 
littoralis, Triglochin maritimum t Ruppia maritima, Agrostis alba, Juncus maritima, y. compressuf, 
Scirpus rufits, glaums, and maritimus. To the previous list of plants growing on the sand-dunes 
the following may be added ; Clause maritima, Armeria maritima, Plantago coronopus, Atrip/ex 
portulacoides, A. Babingtonii, Glyceria distorts, G. procumbens, G. loliacea, Thalictrum minus, 
Seneberia coronopus, and Salsola Kali. Growing in the sea are the two monocotyledonous plants, 
Zastera marina and Z. nana. 

THE DERWENT DISTRICT 

For the greater part of its course the Derwent forms the northern limit of the 
county, only a small area to the north-east extending the boundary along the Stanley Burn 
to the Tyne at Wylam. The river takes its rise by two branches, the Knucton Burn on 
the south and the Beldon Burn on the north. The latter rises beyond the county limit 
near to Allenheads, the high ridge of Knucton Edge which separates the two streams 
forming the western confines of the district. At the head of Knucton Burn the ridge attains 
a height of 1,833 ^ eet > alu ' from this a range of high fells extends for several miles due 
east to Bolt's Law, which has an elevation of 1,772 feet. Some interesting plants may be 

1 49 7 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

found on the banks of the Beldon and Knucton Burns, such as Salix laurina, S. nigricans, 
Narthecium ossifragum, Galium boreale, Saxifraga stellaris, and S. aizoldes. Vicia cracca and 
Oxalis acetosella are common lowland plants ascending to 1,500 feet, nearly to the 
source of the Knucton Burn. A little lower down, at Bay Bridge, Bolt's Burn joins the 
main stream. At this height, for the distance of a mile along the side of the Derwent, 
extends a narrow belt of pasture land and dense wood. A fine profusion of the mountain 
pansy, Viola lutta, is again met with here. The high ground above Blanchland and 
Edmondbyers provides some of the rarest plants in the district. 1 Vaccinmm Oxycoccus and 
Rubus cbamatmorus occur, though not very plentifully, as well as Bartsia alpina, Apium 
graveolens, Parnassia palustris, Anagallis tenella, and Malaxis paludosa. In the woods at 
Roughside are Carduu$ beteropkyllus, Pyrola media, and Trientalis europ<ea. Among orchi- 
daceous plants the butterfly orchis (Habenaria bifolia), H. albida, H. viridis, Orchis latifolia, 
Gymnadenia conopsea, and Epipacth latifolia are all to be found in the locality. The next 
important stream to be received is the Burnhope Burn, which, taking its rise in Bolt's 
Law, drains Muggleswick Common and the valley between Edmondbyers and Muggles- 
wick. The woods in this neighbourhood are a very profitable botanical hunting ground, 
the seam of mountain limestone which appears here supporting plants favouring this 
formation. Ligustrum vulgare, plentiful on the magnesian limestone of the coast and 
indigenous only on calcareous ground, is to be found in these woods. Primula farinosa 
grows in several localities hereabouts, and Listera cordata on the Muggleswick Moors. 
Some little distance lower down, the Hyshope Burn and the Horsleyhope Burn, both 
issuing from the fells above Muggleswick, unite to pour their waters into the main stream. 
It is near this point that the main limestone appears in the bed of the Derwent. The 
tortuous windings of the river here traverse the picturesquely wooded district of the Sneep, 
where Neottia Nidus-avis may be found growing among the rich humus of the rotting 
leaves. 

Turning north the stream now leaves the vast sweep of moorland behind and proceeds 
for nearly the whole of its further course through a piece of country of great sylvan 
beauty. On the high ground on the east bank the collieries and iron-works which have 
sprung up have laid waste a considerable area, and the paper-mills, which pollute the stream 
in the beautiful neighbourhood of Shotley Bridge, may have affected some plant stations. 
The somewhat rare Dianthus de/toides, however, is still found in the hilly pastures near 
Shotley Bridge [its only other locality in the district being a pasture field near Edmond- 
byers (Featherstonhaugh)] and Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus grows wild in considerable quantity 
at Allansford, as well as Aquilegia vulgaris. Orobancbe major is frequently found in this 
neighbourhood parasitic upon the broom. The many species of ferns which grow so 
luxuriantly in the shady woods of the Derwent are treated separately, and few of the numerous 
woodland plants merit special mention. A deep rose-coloured variety of Anemone nemorosa, 
the tint of which remains permanent under cultivation, is found in a wood near Shotley 
(Featherstonhaugh). Some uncommon plants are met with in Gibside Woods. The lily 
of the valley (Convallaria majalis) and Carduus heterophyllus may be mentioned as growing 
here, the latter also to be found in several places on the banks of the Derwent. 

Considerable tracts of land in the district are occupied by flourishing plantations, fine 
belts of fir trees predominating in the upper reaches of the valley. The most extensive 
natural woods are those of Chopwell and Gibside. Axwell Park, approaching within a 
mile of Derwenthaugh where the river flows into the Tyne, also contains some magnificent 
beeches ; the white water-lily (Nymphaa alba) grows in a pond in the park, and Stachys 
ambigua is a plant worth mentioning which finds a home there. A species of horsetail, 
Equhetum byemale, rare in the county, may be found in the boggy woods on the banks of the 
stream in its lower reaches. On the west side of the river, and parallel with it, a small 
stream runs through a wooded dene to the Tyne at Blaydon. On the east side the 
Team drains the coal country south of Newcastle, the finely timbered park at Ravens- 
worth forming a pleasant feature on its banks. Many interesting plants were once known 
in the vicinity of Gateshead, south of the Tyne Selaginella Se/aginoides, for example, on 
Gateshead Fell but they are long since exterminated, the stations being built over or 
destroyed by the smoky, deleterious atmosphere. All plant-life in close proximity to the 
Tyne is now injuriously affected by the manufactories and chemical works on its banks. 

1 Most of the species here enumerated are recorded by the Rev. W. Featherstonhaugh. 
Transactions of the Vale of Derwent Naturalists' field Club, iv. 

50 



BOTANY 



A LIST OF THE FLOWERING PLANTS OF DURHAM 

OBSERVATIONS 

The order and nomenclature of the following list are those of 
Sir J. D. Hooker's Student's flora of the British Islands, 3rd Edition, 
1884. The numbers after the specific names refer to the zones of 
altitude. The authorities made use of in this account are the admirable 
Flora of Northumberland and Durham, by Baker and Tate, 1 and Winch's 
Essay on the Geographical Distribution of Plants through the counties of 
Northumberland, Cumberland and Durham (1825), together with the 
author's own observations. The list of flowering plants and ferns is that 
of Baker's Flora ; the species marked * are added from a list by Mr. J. 
A. Wheldon. Mr. W. Ingham, B.A., has been kind enough to contri- 
bute the sections on Mosses and Liverworts, and the Rev. W. Johnson 
that on the Lichens. 

LIST OF FLOWERING PLANTS 



DICOTYLEDONES. 

RANUNCULACE.* 

Thalictrum alpinum, L. 2 

minus, L. I 

flexuosum, Reich. I 

flavum, L. I 
Anemone nemorosa, L. I, 2 
Adonis autumnalis, L. Alien, i 
Myosurus minimus, L. I 
Ranunculus heterophyllus, Fries. I, 2 

marinus, Fries., var. Baudotii, Godr. 

fluitans, Lamk. i 

hederaceus, L. I 

lingua, L. I 

flammula, L. I, 2 

auricomus, L. i, 2 

sceleratus, L. I 

acris, L. i, 2, 3 

repens, L. i, 2, 3 

bulbosus, L. 1,2 

arvensis, L. I 

ficaria, L. I, 2 

parviflorus, L. I 
Caltha palustris, L. i, 
Trollius europaeus, L. 
Helleborus fcetidus, L. 

viridis, L. I 
Aquilegia vulgaris, L. 
Delphinium Ajacis, L. 

BERBERIDE^ 

Berberis vulgaris, L. 1 

NYMPHAACE.* 

Nuphar luteum, Sm. i 

PAPAVERACEVE 



2,3 

[, 2, 



Alien. 



PAPAVERACEJB (continued) 

Papaver dubium, L. Colonist. I 

rhoeas, L. Colonist, i 

somniferum, L. Alien, i 
Chelidonium majus, L. I 
Glaucium luteum, Scop, i 

FUMARIACEJE 

Fumaria capreolata, L. Colonist. I 
sub-sp. *conrusa, Jord. 
var. Borsei, Jord. 
pallidiflora, Jord. 

officinalis, L. Colonist. I 
Corydalis claviculata, DC. I 

CRUCIFER/E 

Cheiranthus Cheiri, L. Alien, i 
Nasturtium officinale, R. Br. I, 2, 3 

sylvestre, R. Br. i 

palustre, DC. i 
Barbarea vulgaris, R. Br. i 

praecox, R. Br. Alien. I 
Arabis hirsuta, R. Br. i, 2 

perfoliata, Lamk. i 
Cardamine hirsuta, L. I, 2, 3 

sub-sp. flexuosa, With. 

pratensis, L. i, 2, 3 

ainara, L. I 

Sisymbrium thaliana, Hook, i, 2 

Sophia, L. i 

officinale, Scop. I 

alliaria, Scop. I 

Hesperis matronalis, L. Alien. I 
Brassica campestris, L. 

sub-sp. rapa, L. Colonist. I, 2, 
napus, L. Colonist. I, 2 

nigra, L. Colonist, i 

sinapis, Visiani. Colonist, i, 2 

alba, Boiss. Colonist, i, 2 



3 

3 



Papaver hybridum, L. Colonist. I 
argemone, L. Colonist, i 

1 Natural Hiitorj Traniactimi of Northumberland and Durham, ii., 1867-68 

51 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



CRUCIFER^; (continued) 

Diplotaxis tenuifolia, DC. i 
Draba incana, L. 2 
Erophila vulgaris, DC. i, 2 
Cochlearia officinalis, L. i, 2, 3 
sub-sp. alpina, Wats. 
danica, L. 

anglica, L. i 

Capsella Bursa-Pastoris, Moench. i, 2 
Senebiera coronopus, Poiret. I 

didyma, Pers. Alien. 
Lepidium latifolium, L. I 

campestre, R. Br. i 

sub-sp. Smithii, Hook. I 
Thlaspi arvense, L. i 

alpestre, L. I, 2, 3 

var. sylvestre, Jord. 

occitanum, Jord. 
Cakile maritima, Scop, i 
Raphanus Raphanistrum, L. I, 2 

RESEDACE-flE 

Reseda Luteola, L. I 

lutea, L. i 

CISTINE.S: 

Helianthemum vulgare, L. I, 2, 3 
VIOLACE^E 

Viola palustris, L. i, 2, 3 

odorata, L. i 

hirta, L. i 

canina, L. I 

sylvatica, Fries. I, 2, 3 

arenaria, DC. 2 

tricolor, L. i, 2 

sub-sp. Lutea, Huds. i, 2, 3 

POLYGALE.S 

Poly gala vulgaris, L. I, 2, 3 

CARYOPHYLLE^ 

Dianthus Armeria, L. I 

deltoides, L. I 
Saponaria officinalis, L. I 
Silene maritima, With, i, 2 

Cucubalus, Wibel. i 

noctiflora, L. I 

Lychnis Flos-cuculi, L. i, 2, 3 

diurna, Sibth. i, 2 

vespertina, Sibth. i 
Githago segetum, Desf. i, 2 
Cerastium quaternellum, Fenzl. i 

tetrandrum, Curtis, i 

semidecandrum, L. i 

glomeratum, Thuill. i, 2 

triviale, Link, i, 2, 3 

arvense, L. i 
Stellaria nemorum, L. i, 2 

*aquatica, Scop. 

media, Vill. i, 2, 3 

Holostea, L. i, 2 

palustris, Ehrh. i 



CARYOPHYIXEJE (continued] 
Stellaria graminea, L. I, 2 

uliginosa, Murr. I, 2, 3 
Arenaria verna, L. i, 2, 3 

uliginosa, Schl. 2 

trinervis, L. i 

serpyllifolia, L. i 

peploides, L. i 
Sagina apetala, L. i 

sub-sp. maritima, Don. i 

procumbens, L. i, 2, 3 

nodosa, E. Mey. i, 2, 3 
Spergula arvensis, L. i 
Spergularia rubra, Pers. i 

salina, Presl. i 

media, Pers. i 

PoRTULACE/E 

Montia fontana, L. I, 2, 3 
var. rivularis, Gmel. 

HYPERICTNE.S 

Hypericum Androsaemum, L. I 

perforatum, L. i 

quadrangulum, L. i, 2 

humifusum, L. 1,2 

pulchrum, L. i, 2 

hirsutum, L. i 

montanum, L. i 

calycinum, L. Alien 

MALVACE.S: 

Malva sylvestris, L. I 

rotundifolia, L. i 

moschata, L. i 

TILIACE.S: 

Tilia vulgaris, Hayne. I 

LINE.S: 

Linum perenne, L. I 

catharticum, L. i, 2 

GERANIACEJE 

Geranium sanguineum, L. i 

sylvaticum, L. i, 2 

pratense, L. i, 2 

molle, L. 1,2 

pusillum, L. i 

columbinum, L. i 

dissectum, L. i 

Robertianum, L. i, 2 

phsum, L. Alien, i 

lucidum, L. i, 2 
Erodium cicutarium, Sm. i 
Oxalis acetosella, L. i, 2, 3 

Il.ICINE.ff: 

Ilex Aquifolium, L. i 

EMPETRACE^E 

Empetrum nigrum, L. I, 2, 3 

CELASTRINE^ 

Euonymus europaeus, L. i 



BOTANY 



RHAMNE* 

Rhamnus catharticus, L. I 
SAPINDACE* 

Acer campestre, L. i 

pseudo-platanus, L. i, 2 
LEGUMINOS.* 

Genista tinctoria, L. i 

- anglica, L. i 
Ulex europasus, L. i, 2 

nanus, L. sub. sp. Gallii, Planch, i 
Cytisus scoparius, Link, i, 2 
Ononis spinosa, L. i, 2 

antiquorum, L. i 
Medicago sativa, L. Alien 

lupulina, L. 1,2 

*falcata, L. 

Melilotus officinalis, Desr. i 
Trifolium arvense, L. i 

pratense, L. I, 2, 3 

medium, L. i, 2 

striatum, L. i 

scabrum, L. i 

- repens, L. i, 2, 3 

fragiferum, L. i 

procumbens, L. i 

dubium, Sibth. i 

filiforme, L. i 
Anthyllis vulneraria, L. i, 2 
Lotus corniculatus, L. i, 2 

var. major, Scop, i, 2 
Astragalus glycyphyllos, L. i 

hypoglottis, L. i 
Ornithopus perpusillus, L. i 
Onobrychis sativa, Lam. i 
Vicia hirsuta, Koch, i 

tetrasperma, Koch, i 

Cracca, L. i, 2 

sylvatica, L. i 

sepium, L. i 

sativa, L. 1,2 

lathyroides, L. i 
Lathy rus pratensis, L. i, 2 

- macrorrhizus, Wimm. i, 2 
ROSACE.* 

Prunus communis, Huds. i 

Avium, L. i, 2 

padus, L. i, 2 
Spirasa Ulmaria, L. 1,2 

Filipendula, L. i 

- salicifolia, L. Alien, i 
Rubus Chamatmorus, L. 2, 3 

saxatilis, L. i, 2 

- Iii.rus, L. I, 2 

fruticosus, L. 

sub-sp. suberectus, And. i, 2 

var. plicatus, Weihe 
sub-sp. Rhamnifolius (cordyfolius, 
Weihc). i 

corylifolius, Sm. i 

53 



ROSACE.* (continued) 

Rubus fruticosus (continued) 
sub-sp. csesius, L. i 
discolor, Weihe. i 
leucostachys, Sm. i 
villicaulis, Weihe. i 
umbrosus, Arrh. i 
radula, Weihe. i 
Kochleri, Weihe. i 

var. infestus, Weihe. i 
pallidus, Weihe. i 
Geum urbanum, L. i, 2 

rivale, L. i, 2, 3 

var. *intermedium, Ehrh. 
Fragraria vesca, L. 1,2 
Potentilla fruticosa, L. i, 2 

comarum, L. i, 2, 3 

tormentilla, Nesl. i, 2, 3 

anserina, L. i, 2 

reptans, L. i 

rragrariastrum, Ehrh. i, 2 

salisburgensis, Haenke. i, 2 

argentea, L. i 
Alchemilla arvensis, Lam. i 

yulgaris, L. i, 2, 3 
Agrimonia Eupatoria, L. i 
Poterium sanguisorba, L. i 

officinale, Hook, i, 2 
Rosa spinosissima, L. i, 2 

villosa, L. i, 2 

sub-sp. tomentosum, Sm. i, 2 

rubiginosa, L. i 

canina, L. i, 2 

var. lutetiana, Leman. 
dumalis, Bechst. 
,, urbica, Leman. 
dumetorum, Thuill. 
Borreri, Woods, i 

involuta, Sm. i 

var. sabini, Woods, i 
Robertsoni, Baker, i 

arvensis, Huds. r 

hibernica, Smith, i 

var. cordifolia, Baker, i 
Pyrus Malus, L. i, 2 

Aria, Sm. i 

var. rupicola, Syme 

Aucuparia, Ga:rtn. i, 2 
Cratzgus oxyacantha, L. i, 2 

sub-sp. monogyna, Jacq. 

SAXIFRAGE* 

Saxifraga stellaris, L. I, 2, 3 

- Hirculus, L. 2 

aizoides, L. i, 2 

tridactylites, L. i 

granulata, L. i, 2 

- hypnoides, L. 2, 3 
Chrysosplenium alternifolium, L. i 2 

oppositifolium, L. i, 2, 3 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



SAXIFRAGES (continued) 

Parnassia palustris, L. I, 2 
Ribes grossularia, L. I 

alpinum, L. I 

rubrum, L. i, 2 

var. petraeum, Sra. 

nigrum, L. I 

CRASSULACEJE 

Sedum telephium, L. I, 2 

var. purpureum, Tausch. 2 

villosum, L. 1,2 

album, L. I, Alien 

acre, L. i, 2 

rupestre, Huds. Alien 

reflexum, L. Alien 
Sempervivum tectorum. Alien 

DROSERACES 

Drosera rotundifolia, L. I, 2 

HALORAGEJE 

Hippuris vulgaris, L. I 
Myriophyllum verticillatum, L. I 

spicatum, L. I 
Callitriche, verna, L. I, 2 

sub-sp. platycarpa Kutz. i, 2 
pedunculata, DC. I, 2 
LYTHRARIE/E 

Lythrum salicaria, L. I 
Peplis portula, L. I 

ONAGRARIE.S: 

Epilobium angustifolium, L. i, 2 

hirsutum, L. I 

parviflorum, Schreb. i, 2 

montanum, L. i, 2 

roseum, Schreb. Alien. I 

palustre, L. I, 2 

obscurum, Schreb. i, 2 

alsinefolium, Vill. i, 2, 3 

anagallidifolium, Lam. 2, 3 
Circaea lutetiana, L. I 

CUCURBITACES 

Bryonia dioica, L. I 

UMBELLIFERJE 

Hydrocotyle vulgaris, L. i 
Eryngium maritimum, L. i 
Sanicula europaea, L. I 
Conium maculatum, L. I 
Smyrnium olusatrum, L. I 
Bupleurum rotundifolium, L. i 

tenuissimum, L. I 
Apium graveolens, L. i 

nodiflorum, Reich, i 

inundatum, Reich, i 
Carum Carui, L. Alien, i 

petroselinum, Benth. Alien 
Sium angustifolium, L. I 
./Egopodium podagraria, L. 1,2 
Pimpinella saxifraga, L. 1,2 

major, Huds. I 



UMBELLIFER^E (continued) 

Conopodium denudatum, Koch, i, 2, 3 
Myrrhis odorata, Scop. I, 2 
Scandix pecten-Veneris, L. Colonist. 1,2 
Chaerophyllum temulum, L. i 
Anthriscus vulgaris, Pers. i 

sylvestris, Hoffm. i, 2, 3 

sub-sp. cerefolium, Hoffm. 
*Fceniculum officinale, All. 
CEnanthe fistulosa, L. I 

Lachenalii, Gmel. I 

crocata, L. I 

phellandrium, Lam. I 
./Ethusa Cynapium, L. I 
Silaus pratensis, Bess, i 
Angelica sylvestris, L. 1,2 
Peucedanium ostruthium, Koch. Alien 

sativum, Benth. i 
Heracleum Sphondylium, L. i, 2 
Daucus carota, L. I 

Caucalis daucoides, L. Colonist. 

anthriscus, Huds. I, 2 

nodosa, Scop. I 
ARALIACES 

Hedera Helix, L. I, 2 

CORNACES 

Cornus sanguinea, L. i 
CAPRIFOLIACES 

Viburnum Lantana, L. Alien 

Opulus, L. i, 2 
Sambucus Ebulus, L. i 

nigra, L. I 
Adoxa Moschatellina, L. 
Lonicera Periclymenum, L. I, 2 

Xylosteum, L. Alien 
RUBIACEJE 

Galium verum, L. i, 2 

Cruciata, Scop, i, 2 

palustre, L. i, 2, 3 

uliginosum, L. 1,2 

saxatile, L. i, 2, 3 

sylvestre, Poll. I, 2 

Mollugo, L. I 

sub-sp. *erectum, Huds. 

boreale, L. I, 2 

Aparine, L. I, 2 

tricorne, With, i 
Asperula odorata, L. I, 2 
Sherardia arvensis, L, I 

VALERIANE-ffi: 

Valeriana dioica, L. i, 2, 3 

officinalis, L. I, 2 
Valerianella olitoria, Mcench. I 

dentata, Poll, i 
DIPSACES 

Dipsacus sylvestris, L. I 
Scabiosa succisa, L. I, 2 

Columbaria, L. I, 2 

arvensis, L. i 



54 



BOTANY 



COMPOSITE 

Eupatorium cannnbinum, L. 
Aster tripolium, L. I 
Erigeron acre, L. I 
Bellis perennis, L. I, 2, 3 



Solidago Virgaurea, L. I, 2 
Inula Helenium, L. I 
Pulicaria dysenterica, Gaert. I 
Gnaphalium sylvaticum, L. i 

uliginosum, L. I 
Antennaria dioica, Br. I, 2 
Filagogermanica, L. Colonist. I 

minima, Fries. I 
Bidens cernua, L. I 

tripartita, L. I 

Anthemis arvensis, L. Colonist. I 

Cotula, L. Colonist, i 

nobilis, L. I 

Achillea Ptarmica, L. I, 2, 3 

Millefolium, L. I, 2, 3 
Matricaria Chamomilla, L. I 

inodora, L. I 

var. maritima, L. I 
Chrysanthemum segetum, L. Colonist 

Leucanthemum, L. I, 2 

Parthenium, Pers. I 
Tanacetum vulgare, L. I 
Artemisia vulgaris, L. I, 2 

Absinthium, L. I, 2 

maritima, L. I 
Petasites vulgaris, Desf. I 
Tussilago Farfara, L. I, 2, 3 
Doronicum Pardalianches, L. Alien 
Senecio vulgaris, L. I, 2 

sylvaticus, L. I 

viscosus, L. I 

Jacobsea, L. i, 2 

eruczfolius, L. I 

aquaticus, Huds. I, 2 
Arctium Lappa, L. I 

sub-sp. minus, Schk. I, 2 
Carlina vulgaris, L. I, 2 
Centaurea nigra, L. I, 2 

Scabiosa, L. i 

Cyanus, L. Colonist. I 

solstitialis, L. Alien 
Serratula tinctoria, L. I 
Carduus nutans, L. i 

crispus, L. I, 2 

pycnocephalus, Jacq. I 
Cnicus lanceolatus, Hoffrn. i, 2 

eriophorus, Hoffm. i, 2 

arvensis, HofFm. i, 2, 3 

sub-sp. *setosus, Bess. 

palustris, Hoffrn. I, 2 

heterophyllus, Willd. i, 2 
Onopordium Acanthium, L. Alien 
Cichorium Intybus, L. I 
Lapsana communis, L. I, 2 
Picris hieracioides, L. I 



COMPOSITE (continued) 
Picris echioides, L. I 
Crepis virens, L. I 

taraxaci folia, Thuill. I 

hieracioides, Waldst. & Kit. I, 2 

paludosa, Mcench. i, 2, 3 
Hieracium Pilosella, L. I, 2, 3 

Anglicum, Fries. I, 2 

sub-sp. Iricum, Fries. I, 2 

murorum, L. I, 2 

sub-sp. cxsium, Fries. I, 2 
sub-sp. pallidum, Fries, i, 2 

sylvaticum, Sm. I, 2, 3 

sub-sp. gothicum, Fries. I, 2 
sub-sp. tridentatum, Fries. I, 2 

prenanthoides, Vill. I 

umbellatum, L. I 

crocatum, Fries. I, 2 

sub-sp. corymbosum, Fries. I, 2 

boreale, Fries. I, 2 
Hypochceris radicata, L. I, 2 
Leontodon hirtus, L. I 

hispidus, L. I, 2, 3 

autumnal is, L. I, 2, 3 
Taraxacum officinale, Web. I, 2, 3 

var. palustre, DC. 
var. laevigatum, DC. 
Lactuca virosa, L. i 

muralis, Fresen. I 
Sonchus arvensis, L. I 

oleraceus, L. I 

sub-sp. asper, HofFm. 
Tragopogon pratensis, L. I, 2 

CAMPANULACE.S 

Jasione montana, L. I, 2 
Campanula rotund i folia, L. I, 2, 3 

Rapunculus, L. Alien, i 

latifolia, L. i, 2 

rapunculoides, L. Alien 

glomerata, L. I 
Specularia hybrida, DC. Colonist 



Vaccinium Myrtillus, L. i, 2, 3 

uliginosum, L. I, 2, 3 

Vitis-idsea, L. I, 2, 3 

Oxycoccus, L. I, 2, 3 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Spreng. i, 2 
Erica Tetralix, L. I, 2, 3 

cinerea, L. I, 2 
Calluna vulgaris, Salis. I, 2, 3 
Pyrola minor, L. I, 2 

media, Suz. I 

rotundifolia, L. I 
PLUMBAGINEJE 

Armeria vulgaris, Willd. i, 2 
Statice limonium, L. I 
PRIMULACE.* 

Primula vulgaris, Huds. I, 2 
var. "caulescens. 



55 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



PRIMULACEJE (continued) 
Primula veris, L. i, 2 

farinosa, L. I, 2 
Lysimachia vulgaris, L. I 

nemorum, L. I, 2, 3 

Nummularia, L. i 
Trientalis europsea, L. I, 2 
Glaux maritima, L. I 
Anagallis arvensis, L. Colonist. I 

var. caerulea, Sm. Colonist. I 

tenella, L. I 
Hottonia palustris, L. I 
Samolus valerandi, L. I 

OLEACE.S: 

Ligustrum vulgare, L. I 
Fraxinus excelsior, L. I, 2 

APOCYNACE^E 

Vinca minor, L. Alien 

major, L. Alien 

GENTIANE.S 

Erythraea Centaurium, Pers. I 
Gentiana campestris, L. i, 2 

Amarella, L. i, 2 

verna, L. 2 
Menyanthes trifoliata, L. I 

BORAGINE.S: 

Echium vulgare, L. I 
Symphytum officinale, L. I 
Lithospermum officinale, L. I 

arvense, L. I 
Myosotis palustris, With. I 

sub-sp. repens, Don. i, 2, 3 

csespitosa, Schultz. i 

sylvatica, Ehrh. I, 2 

arvensis, Hoffm. I, 2 

collina, Hoffm. i 

versicolor, Reichb. I, 2 
Cynoglossum officinale, L. I 

CONVOLVULACEJE 

Convolvulus arvensis, L. I 

sepium, L. I 

Soldanella, L. i 

Cuscuta Epithymum, Murr., var. trifiolii, 
Bab. Colonist 

SoLANACE.ffi 

Hyoscyamus niger, L, I 
Solanum Dulcamara, L. I 

nigrum, L. Colonist. I 
Atropa Belladonna, L. I 

Lycium barbarum, L. Colonist. I, 2 

Pl.ANTAGINE.ffi 

Plantago major, L. I, 2, 3 

media, L. I, 2 

lanceolata, L. i, 2, 3 

maritima, L. I, 2 

Coronopus, L. I 

SCROPHULARINE^ 

Verbascum Thapsus, L. I 



I, 


2 




ti 


1,2, 


3 


i 


,2 




L 


1,2, 


3 


i 






i 


> 2 




L. i, 2, 3 


i 







I. 2. 



I, 2 



SCROPHULARINE.S: (continued) 

Linaria cymbalaria, Mill. Alien 

vulgaris, Mill. I 

minor, Desf. i 
Antirrhinum majus, L. Alien 
Scrophularia nodosa, L. I, 2 

aquatica, L. I 
Mimulus luteus, L. Alien 
Limosella aquatica, L. I 
Digitalis purpurea, L. I, 2 
Veronica agrestis, L. Colonist, i, 2 

sub-sp. polita, Fries. Colonist. I 

Buxbaumii, Ten. Colonist, i 

hederifolia, L. I 

arvensis, L, 

serpyllifolia, L. 

officinalis, L. 

Chamaedrys, L. 

Montana, L. 

scutellata, L. 

Beccabunga, L. 

Anagallis, L. 
Bartsia alpina, L. 2 

odontites, Huds. I, 2 
Euphrasia officinalis, L. i, 2, 3 
Rhinanthus Crista-galli, L. 

sub-sp. major, Ehrh. i 
Pedicularis palustris, L. I, 2 

sylvatica, L. 1,2 
Melampyrum pratense, L. 

sylvaticum, L. i 
Lathrasa squamaria, L. I 

OROBANCHEJE 

Orobanche major, L. I 

elatior, Sutt. I 

LENTIBULARINE./E 

Pinguicula vulgaris, L. i, 2, 3 
Utricularia vulgaris, L. i 

VERBENACE./E 

Verbena officinalis, L. i 

LABIATE 

Mentha rotundifolia, L. i 

viridis, L. i 

piperita, L. I 

sativa, L. 

sub-sp. gentilis, L. 
rubra, Sm. 

gracilis, Sm., var. cardiaca, 
Baker 

aquatica, L. i 

arvensis, L. i 

pulegium, L. I 
Origanum vulgare, L. I, 2 
Thymus Serpyllum, L. 1,2,3 
Calamintha nepeta, Clairv. i 

clinopodium, Benth. i, 2 

Acinos, Clairv. I 
Nepeta Cataria, L. I 
Brunella vulgaris, L. I, 2, 3 






BOTANY 



LABIATE (continued) 

Scutellaria galericulata, L. I 

minor, L. I 
Marrubium vulgare, L. I 
Stachys sylvatica, L. 1,2 

ambigua, Sm. i, 2 

palustris, L. I, 2 

arvensis, L. Colonist. I 

Betonica, Benth. I, 2 
Galeopsis, Ladanum, L. I 

dubia, Leers. I 

Tetrahit, L. Colonist 

sub-sp. speciosa, Miller. I 
Lamium purpureum, L. i, 2, 3 
sub-sp. hybridum, Vill. 

amplexicaule, L. I 

album, L. I 
Ballota nigra, L. I 

var. ruderalis, Fries. 
Teucrium Scorodonia, L. 1,2 
Ajuga reptans, L. I, 2 

ILLECEBRACE^ 

Scleranthus annuus, L. I 

CHENOPODIACEJE 

Chenopodium Vulvaria, L. I 

album, L. i 

urbicum, L. Colonist 

murale, L. Colonist 

rubrum, L. I 

glaucum, L. I 

Bonus-Henricus, L. I, 2 
Beta maritima, L. i 
Atriplex patula, L. I 

var. angusti folia, Sm. 
sub-sp. Hastata, L. I 

Babingtonii, Woods. I 

littoralis, L. i 

laciniata, Woods. I 

portulacoides, L. I 
Salicornia hcrbacea, L. I 
Salsola Kali, L. I 

Sueda maritima, Dumort. I 

POLYGONACE.* 

Polygonum Bistorta, L. 1,2 

viviparum, L. I, 2 

amphibium, L. I 

lapathifolium, L. I 

Persicaria, L. I, 2 

Hydropiper, L. I 

minus, Huds. I 

aviculare, L. i, 2 

Raii, Bab. i 

Convolvulus, L. Colonist. I 
Rumex obtusifolius, L. I, 2 

acutus, L. 1,2 

maritimus, L. I 

crispus, L. i, 2, 3 

sanguincus, L. I 

conglomerate, Murr. I 



POLYGONACE^ (continued) 

Rumex Hydrolapathum, Huds. I 

aquatic us, L. I, 2 

Acetosa, L. i, 2, 3 

Acetosella, L. i, 2 

THYMEL.JEACE.* 

Daphne Laureola, L. I 

Mezereum, L. 

EUPHORBIACEJE 

Euphorbia Helioscopia, L. I 

Peplus, L. Colonist. I 

exigua, L. Colonist, i 

Lathyris, L. i 
Mercurialis perennis, L. 1 , 2 

annua, L. I 

URTICACE^ 

Ulmus montana, Sm. I, 2 

suberosa, Ehrh. i 
Urtica urens, L. I, 2 

dioica, L. i, 2, 3 
Parietaria officinalis, L. I 
Humulus Lupulus, L. i 

CUPULIFEILK 

Betuk alba, L. I, 2 

sub-sp. glutinosa, Fries. 
Alnus glutinosa, Gaertn. i, 2 
Quercus Robur, L. 1,2 

var. sessiliflora, Salisb. 

intermedia, D. Don. 
Fagus sylvatica, L. I, 2 
Corylus Avellana, L. 1,2 
Carpinus Betulus, L. Colonist 

SAUOMUI 

Populus alba, L. i 

sub-sp. canescens, Sm. I 

tremula, L. I, 2 
Salix triandra, L. I 

pentandra, L. I, 2 

fragilis, L. i, 2 

alba, L. i 

var. cxrulea, Sm. 
vitellina, L. 

Caprea, L. i, 2 

aurita, L. i, 2 

sub-sp. cinerea, L. I, 2 

repens, L. i, 2 

nigricans, Fries. I, 2 

var. rupestris, Sm. 
Andersoniana, Sm. 
hirta, Sm. 

phylicifolia, L. 1,2 

laurina, Sm. I, 2 

viminalis, L. 1,2 

Smithiana, Willd. I, 2 

purpurea, L. i, 2 

var. Helix, L. 

rubra, Huds. I 

57 8 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



CERATOPHYLLE-ffi 

Ceratophyllum demersum, L. I 

GYMNOSPERMjE 

CONIFERS 

Pinus sylvestris, L. I, 2 
Juniperus communis, L. I, 2 
Taxus baccata, L. I 

MONOCOTYLEDONES 

HYDROCHARIDEJE 

Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae, L. I 
Elodea canadensis, Michx. I 

ORCHIDE.S: 

Malaxis paludosa, Sw. i, 2 
Neottia Nidus-avis, L. I 
Listera ovata, Br. i, 2, 3 

cordata, Br. I, 2, 3 
Epipactis latifolia, Sw. I 

palustris, Sw. I 
Cephalanthera ensifolia, Rich. I 
Orchis mascula, L. I 

latifolia, L. I, 2 

maculata, L. i, 2 

Morio, L. i 

ustulata, L. I 

pyramidalis, L. I 
Ophrys apifera, Huds. I 
- muscifera, Huds. I 
Habenaria conopsea, Benth. I, 2 

albida, Br. I, 2 

viridis, Br. i, 2 

bifolia, Br. i 

sub-sp. Chlorantha, Bab. I, 2 
Cypripedium Calceolus, L. I 

IRIDE.S: 

Iris Pseudacorus, L. I 

fcetidissima, L. I 

AMARYLLIDE/E 

Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus, L. I 

biflorus, Curt. Alien. I 

DlOSCORE-ffi 

Tamus communis, L. I 

LILIACEVE 

Ruscus aculeatus, L. Alien. I 
Convallaria majalis, L. I, 2 
Allium vineale, L. I 

Scorodoprasum, L. I 

Schoenoprasum, L. I 

oleraceum, L. i 

ursinum, L. i, 2 
Scilla nutans, L. I, 2 
Ornithogallum nutans, L. Alien. I 
Tulipa sylvestris, L. Alien. I 
Gagea lutea, Ker. I 

Colchicum autumnale, L. I 
Narthecium ossifragum, L. i, 2 



LILIACEJE (continued) 

Tofieldia palustris, Huds. I 
Paris quadrifolia, L. I, 2 

JUNCE.S: 

Juncus effusus, L. I, 2, 3 

var. conglomeratus, L. I, 2 

glaucus, Ehrh. I, 2 

maritimus, Sm. i 

triglumis, L. 2 

castaneus, Sm. Alien 

squarrosus, L. I, 2, 3 

compressus, Jacq. I 

obtusiflorus, Ehrh. i 

articulatis, L. I, 2 

sub-sp. supinus, Moench. I, 2, 3 






lamprocarpus Ehrh. 

bufonius, L. i, 2 

LUZULA 

maxima, DC. i, 2, 3 
vernalis, DC. I, 2 

campestris, Willd. I, 2, 3 

var. erecta, Desv. 2, 3 

TYPHACE/E 

Sparganium ramosum, Huds. i 

simplex, Huds. I 

natans, L. I 
Typha latifolia, L. I 

angustifolia, L. I 

AROIDEJE 

Arum maculatum, L. I 

LEMNACE^ 

Lemna minor, L. i 

trisulca, L. I 

AUSMACEJE 

Alisma Plantago, L. i 

ranunculoides, L. I 
Sagittaria sagittifolia, L. I 
Butomus umbellatus, L. I 

NAIADACEJE 

Triglochin palustre, L. i, 2, 3 

maritimum, L. I 
Potamogeton natans, L. i 

polygonifolius, Pourr. i, 2 

plantagineus, Du Croz. i 

rufescens, Schrad. i, 2 

heterophyllus, Schreb. I 

lucens, L. I 

perfoliatus, L. I 

crispus, L. i 

densus, L. i 

zosterifolius, Schum. I 

pusillus, L. I 

pectinatus, L. i 
Ruppia maritima, L. I 
Zannichellia palustris, L. I 
Zostera marina, L. I 

nana, Roth, i 



I. 2. 






BOTANY 



I, 2 



CYPERACEJE 

Eleocharis palustris, Br. I 

sub. sp. uniglumis, Link. I 

multicaulis, Sm. I 

acicularis, Sm. I 
Scirpus lacustris, L. I 

sub-sp. tabernaemontani, Gincl. 

maritimus, L. i 

sylvaticus, L. i 

setaceus, L. I 

- fluitans, L. I 

caespitosus, L. I 

pauciflorus, Lightf. I 

Caricis, Retz. I, 2 

rufus, Wahlb. I 
Eriophorum vaginatum, L. I, 2, 3 

polystachion, L. I, 2, 3 

sub-sp. latifolium, Hoppe. 
Rhynchospora alba, Vahl. I 
Schcenus nigricans, L. I 
Cladium Mariscus, L. i 
Kobresia caricina, Willd. 2 
Carex pulicaris, L. I, 2 

dioica, L. I, 2 

disticha, Huds. I 

arcnaria, L. I 

paniculate, L. I 

muricata, L. I 

vulpina, L. I 

cchinata, Murr. I, 2, 3 

remota, L. i 

leporina, L. I, 2 

canescens, L. i, 2 

rigida, Good. 2, 3 

acuta, L. I 

stricta, Good. I 

Goodenovii, J. Gay. 

glauca, Murr. I, 2, 3 

pallescens, L. I, 2 

panicea, L. I, 2, 3 

capillaris, L. 2 

pendula, Huds. I 

praecox, Jacq. 2 

pilulifera, L. I, 2 

hirta, L. I, 2 

cxtensa, Good. I 

- flava, L. i, 2 

distans, L. I 

sub-sp. fulva, Good. 

binervis, Sm. i, 2 

sylvatica, Huds. I 

vesicaria, L. I 

ampullacea, Good. 

riparia, Curt. I 

paludosa, Good. I 



1,2, 3 



I, 2 



I, 2 



GRAMINEJE 

Phalaris canaricnsis, L. Alien. 
arundinacea, L. I 2 



GRAMINEJE (continuetf) 

Anthoxanthum odoratum, L. 



1,2,3 



Alopecurus agrestis, L. Colonist 

pratensis, L. i, 2, 3 

geniculatus, L. I, 2, 3 
Millium efiusum, L. I 
Phleum pratense, L. I, 2 

arenarium, L. I 
Agrostis canina, L. I, 2 

vulgaris, With. I, 2, 3 

alba, L. I 

Calamagrostis epigeios, Roth. I 
Apera Spica-venti, Beauv. Colonist 
Ammophila arundinacea, Host, i 
Aira caryophyllea, L. I 

praecox, L. I, 2 
Deschampsia flexuosa, Trin. I, 2, 3 

caespitosa, Beauv. i, 2, 3 
Holcus lanatus, L. I, 2 

T- mollis, L. I, 2 

Trisetum flavescens, Beauv. i, 2 

Avena fatua, L. Colonist. I 

strigosa, Schreb. Colonist. I, 2 

pratensis, L. i, 2 

pubescens, Huds. I, 2, 3 
Arrhenatherum avenaceum, Beauv. 

var. bulbosum, Lindl. 
Triodia decumbens, Beauv. i, 2. 
Phragmites communis, Trin. I 
Sesleria caerulea, Scop. I, 2 
Cynosurus cristatus, L. i, 2, 3 
Koeleria cristata, Pers. I, 2 
Molinia caerulea, Mcench. i, 2 
Catabrosa aquatica, Beauv. I 
Melica nutans, L. 1,2 

uniflora, Retz. i, 2 
Dactylis glomerata, L. I, 2 
Briza media, L. 1,2 

Poa annua, L. i, 2, 3 

pratensis, L. I, 2, 3 

compressa, L. I 

trivialis, L. I, 2, 3 

nemoralis, L. I, 2 

var. Parnellii, Bab. 
Glyceria aquatica, Sm. I 

fluitans, Br. I, 2 

var. plicata, Fr. I 

maritima, Wahlb. I 

distans, Wahlb. I 

procumbens, Dumort. I 
Festuca elatior, L. 1,2 

pratensis, Huds. I, 2 

gigantea, Vill. I 

sylvatica, Vill. I 

ovina, L. I, 2, 3 

sub-sp. duriuscula, L. I, 2, 3 
sub. sp. rubra, L. I 
var. *arenaria, Osb. 

uniglumis, Sol. I 

rigida, Kth. I 



59 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

GRAMINEJE (continued) GRAMINE.S: (continued) 

Festuca loliacea, Huds. i Agropyrum repens, Beauv. i, 2 

Bromus asper, Murr. i, 2 var. littorale, Reichb. 

erectus, Huds. I sub-sp. acutum, R. & S. I 

sterilis, L. i junceum, Beauv. I 

mollis, L. I, 2 Lepturus filiformis, Trin. i 

secalinus, L. Colonist Nardus stricta, L. I, 2, 3 

commutatus, Schrab. I Hordeum sylvaticum, Huds. i 
Brachypodium sylvaticum, R. & S. I, 2 pratense, Huds. i 
Lolium perenne, L. i, 2 murinum, L. I 

temulentum, L. Colonist maritimum, With. I 
Agropyrum caninum, Beauv. i, 2 Elymus arenarius, L. I 

CRYPTOGAMS 

FERNS AND FERN ALLIES 

The family of the Vascular Cryptogams is well represented in 
this county ; eighteen out of the twenty-five genera are known, and these 
comprise rather more than half the British species. The shady denes, 
together with the great extent of limestone scars and grits, furnish 
suitable conditions under which flourish many species of ferns. Of the 
ferns proper several are worthy of special notice. The royal fern 
(Osmunda regalis) at one time grew luxuriantly on the banks of the 
Derwent and in other parts of the county, but it has been sadly uprooted 
by enterprising gardeners and tourists, and has now nearly disappeared. 
Woodsia ihensis, a peculiarly rare plant recorded from Falcon Glints, 
it is feared is now almost extinct. Except in Westmorland it has no 
other locality in England. The rare parsley fern (Cryptogramme crispd] has 
a wide range, growing in profusion on the basaltic crags near Holwick 
below High Force, and very generally on rocks of the millstone grit, 
ascending to 2,000 feet on Stangend Rig. Near Stanhope and also 
in the Derwent valley it may still be found. The oak fern (Polypodium 
Dryopteris) and the beech fern (P. Pbegopteris) grow sparingly in Castle 
Eden Dene, and ascend to 1,500 feet in the Vale of Derwent. Here these 
delicately beautiful forms flourish most luxuriantly, and in favourite haunts 
clothe the damp banks with a dense dwarf forest of tender green. Three 
species of the buckler fern (Nephrodium) N. Oreopferis, the male fern (N. 
Fi/ix-mas), and N. dilatatum are commonly met with ; while the fourth, 
N. spinulosum, is only recorded from Walridge Fell. The mountain buckler- 
fern (N. Oreopteris) is very plentiful in all the hilly districts, growing most 
luxuriantly in the higher ranges of the Derwent valley, where N. dilatatum 
is also found in beautiful profusion in the Muggleswick Woods. The 
rare hay-scented buckler-fern (N. amulum) is found sparingly in the upper 
part of the Derwent district (Featherstonhaugh). The rare crested 
buckler-fern (N. cristatum) occurs very locally at Edmondbyers (Feather- 
stonhaugh). The lady fern (Athyrium Filix-fcemina) , with its two 
varieties rhcetlcum and mo//e, is common among the woods and rocks. 
The limestone species of Asplenium, the wall rue (A. Ruta-muraria), the 
black spleenwort (A. A diantum-nigrum) , and the maidenhair spleenwort 
(A. Trichomanes) are frequent on the scars. The green spleenwort 

60 



BOTANY 

(A. i)iride) is found on Falcon Glints and abundantly in Harthope and 
Ireshope in Weardale. The sea spleenwort (A. marinum), once plentiful 
on the magnesian limestone cliffs, is now only to be found in the most 
inaccessible places. The brittle-bladder fern (Cystopterisfragilis) grows at 
Castle Eden Dene, and flourishes wherever sufficient moisture can be 
obtained on the limestone rocks in the upper valleys of the county. 
The hard fern (Lomaria Spicant) is very widely distributed, and especially 
abundant on the hills and edges of the moors, ascending to the highest 
points. The moonwort (Botrychium Lunaria) cannot be said to be rare in 
Durham. The writer has found it at an altitude of 1,700 feet on the 
flanks of Kilhope Law, and it may frequently be noted in Burnhope, 
Rookhope, and Langdon Dale. The adder's-tongue (Ophioglossum 
vulgdtum) is also widely distributed, ascending to 1,300 feet, where the 
writer found well-grown specimens near the black shales in Burnhope. 

Among the Equisetacea (horse-tails) eight species are recorded. 
The beautiful Equisetum maximum is not uncommon in the woods on the 
river banks, descending to the cliffs of magnesian limestone near Black- 
hall Rocks, and in Castle Eden Dene it forms a veritable forest of green 
umbrageous growth. E. arvense, commonly known as the 'paddock pipe/ 
is freely dispersed, and gives rise to considerable trouble by reason of its 
long, creeping rhizomes entering and blocking up the deep field drains. 
The graceful E. sylvaticum ascends to 1,600 feet in Harwood, and is met 
with in all the damp woods. E. variegatum, E. Jimosum, and E. palustre, 
are also widespread, the latter reaching 2,100 feet on Highfield ; E. 
byemale occurs more generally on the lower ground in boggy woods. 

Of the Lycopodiacea (club-mosses) the three species of Lycopodium 
the stag's-horn moss (L. c/avatum), L. alpinum, and L. Selago are found on 
the highest fells, while the tiny Selaginilla Selaginoides grows commonly in 
the upper parts of Weardale and Teesdale, and at one time found a home 
on Gateshead Fell. 

LIST OF FERNS AND FERN ALLIES 



ORDER FILICES 

Tribe II. Polypodieai. 
Pteris aquilina, L. 
Cryptogramme crispa, Br. 
Lomaria Spicant, Desv. 
Asplenium Ruta-muraria, L. 

Trichomanes, L. 

viride, Huds. 

marinum, L. 

Adiantum-nigrum, L. 
Athyrium Filix-fcemina, Bernh. 

var. molle, Roth. 

rhzticum, Roth. 
Scolopendrium vulgarc, Sm. 
Woodsia ilvensis, Br. 
Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. 
Aspidium Lonchitis, Sw. 

aculeatum, Sw. 

angulare, Willd. 
Nephrodium Filix-mas, Rich. 



ORDER FILICES (continued) 
Nephrodium cristatum. 

spinulosum, Desv. 

dilatatum, Desv. 

a-mulum, Baker. 

Oreopteris, Desv. 
Polypodium vulgare, L. 

Phegopteris, L. 

Dryopteris, L. 

calcareum, Sm. 
Tribe III. Osmundae. 

Osmunda regalis, L. 
Tribe IV. Ophioglone<e. 
Ophioglossum vulgatum, L. 
Botrychium Lunaria, Sw. 

ORDER EQUISETACE.* 

Equisetum arvense, L. 

maximum, Lamk. 

pratensc, Elirh. 



61 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



ORDER EQUISETACEJE (continued) 
Equisetum sylvaticum, L. 

palustre, L. 

limosum, L. 

hyemale, L. 

variegatum, Schleich. 



ORDER LYCOPODIACEJE 

Lycopodium clavatum, L. 

alpinum, L. 

Selago, L. 
ORDER SELAGINELLACE^E. 

Selaginella Selaginoides, Gray. 



MOSSES (Musct) 

The county is peculiarly rich in these plants, owing to its abundant 
moisture and shade, and to its wonderfully varied surface. 

Two parts of the county have been particularly well worked for 
mosses. These are Teesdale and Weardale. There is a good list of 
workers in the former interesting dale, and some very rare plants have 
been found. 

Other parts of the county have been dealt with only casually, and the 
mosses found appear in the appended list. 

The rarer and more interesting are located as follows : 

Pylaisia polyantha^ discovered about Darlington as a British plant in 
1833 (Backhouse), is not so rare in Durham as elsewhere. It has been 
found chiefly on old hawthorn at Gainford, Coniscliffe, Mowden Lane, 
Walworth, and also on stones at Walworth (Barnes). 

At Winston Bridge on the Durham side grows the very rare moss 
Anomodon longifolius. Here also are Earbula sinuosa, Pottia Heimit, Tor tula 
papillosa, Mnium stellare, Fissidens crasstpes, TLurbynchium crassineruium 
in fruit, Eurhynchium tenellum, and Plagiothecium depression. 

At Piercebridge are found Pottia intermedia and Tortula angustata. 
The interesting Orthotrichum pollens grows near Darlington, and the 
pretty little Orthotrichum stramineum at Gainford and Winch Bridge. 

If we now proceed to the Tees mouth we find the flat golden tufts 
of Tortula ruraliformis all along the sand hills among the stunted grass, 
but in the flat sandy tracts at Snook Point we have a series of maritime 
mosses of particular interest. They are Eryum calophyllum, Bryum 
Warneum, Eryum /acustre, and Sivartzia inclinata, all of which also grow 
on Coatham Marshes across the river mouth. One plant of this associa- 
tion growing at Coatham, viz., Bryum Marratii, has not yet been found in 
Durham, but is likely to occur. On the banks of the Tees we find 
an abundance of mosses from Barnard Castle to the High Force, both on 
the walls and rocks and on the trees by the roadside, the chief ones on the 
trees being Orthotrichum Lyellii and Orthotrichum affine. Eryum uliginosum 
grows by the roadside all the way from Barnard Castle to the High Force 
Inn (Spruce). At Winch Bridge occur Mnium stellare and Orthotrichum 
stramineum, and below the bridge Hypnum Sommerfeltii. At the High 
Force among the basaltic rocks are Orthotrichum rupestre, Eartramia 
Ha/leriana, Ceratodon conicus, Hypnum incurvatum, Trichostomum tenuirosfre, 
and Cynodontium Eruntoni; and on the river bank close by the two varieties 
plumulosum and plumosum of Hypnum unct'nafum, both in fruit. In the 
small plantation close by the High Force are Ulota crispu/a, Antitrichia 
curtipendula, Orthotrichum pulchellum, and Ulota Bruchii, the last being the 

62 



BOTANY 

plant recorded (Spruce) as abundant in Upper Teesdale under the name 
of Ulota Drummondii. There is considerable evidence now that U/ofa 
Bruchii-wzs mistaken for Ulota Drummondii^ which was not well understood 
in former times (Dixon). On a small patch of boggy ground close by 
this plantation and growing amongst tall grasses and shrubs are some 
interesting bog mosses (Sphagna), the rarest being Sphagnum Girgensobnii, 
vars. commune and hygropbilum (Horrell). 

Proceeding along the road up the river we soon reach the large 
mountain Widdy Bank Fell, which supports a wealth of rare mosses 
probably unsurpassed anywhere else in England. By a stone on the fell 
the pretty Dicranella beteromalla var. sericea fruits freely, although 
invariably barren elsewhere. On the boggy slope of the fell is an 
abundance of Catoscopium nigritum, associated with what is usually a 
high alpine moss, var. compactum of Bryum pendulum. Close by grows the 
rare and golden-coloured moss Hypnum lycopodioides, and the interesting 
Cinclidium stygium. On the top of the fell, growing among bog mosses 
(Sphagna) , is the very rare Campy lopus setiformis ; but the rarest moss in 
the British Isles is found here, the only habitat. This is Tetraplodon 
Wormskioldii, first found in 1870 (Slater), but undetermined until refound 
in 1901 (Horrell and Jones). This is a moss of the arctic regions, but 
the Teesdale plant is conspicuous for the large size of its leaves, these 
being considerably longer and wider than in a specimen collected in 
Lapland (Schimper). Widdy Bank Fell is exceedingly rich in forms of 
bog moss (Sphagna), there being nearly twenty-eight species and eighty- 
one varieties on this fell alone (Horrell). The rarest of these are 
Sphagnum Girgensohnii, S. Russowit, S. Warnstorjii, S. quinquefarium, S. molle, 
S. teres, S. parvifolium, S. imbricatum, and S. medium. Of these the usually 
rare S. imbricatum, S. Russoivii and S. medium occur in great abundance 
and luxuriance (Horrell). In boggy land near the Cauldron Snout are 
great mounds of S. imbricatum, and S. fuscum, which have been noticed 
there for twenty or more years (Horrell). 

At the foot of Widdy Bank and on the banks of the Tees are 
Hypnum Patientia, and Cynodontium polycarpum var. laxirete, the latter 
known only elsewhere from Glenlyon, Perthshire. 

Proceeding now to the fine vertical cliffs of basalt called Falcon 
Clints, which form the edge of the Widdy Bank on the left bank of the 
Tees, we find in the chinks and on the ledges of rock a wonderful 
association of rare mosses. The genus Rhabdoweisia has here all its three 
species represented,yirgV7#, denticulata, and crenulata. The genus fPeist'ais 
represented by torti/is, crispata, and several varieties of rupestris, including 
the new variety affinis. The beautiful vivid green Bryum Mildeanum is 
here, as also Dicranum falcatum, Pterogonium gracile, Cylindrothecium con- 
cinnum, Tricbostomum nitidum, Diphyscium foliosum var. acutifolium, Hedivigia 
ciliata, Andreaea petropbila var. acuminata, and Funaria Templetoni. On 
limestone rocks above the clints is Hylocomium rugosum, and at the foot 
of the clints Arcbidium alter nifolium. Curving round these clints up the 
river we reach the Cauldron Snout, where the hitherto still, deep waters 

63 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

of the Tees plunge over an immense cliff of basalt. This is the home 
of Zygodon lapponicus in the fissures of the rocks, of the very rare and 
delicate Bryum concinnatum, of Tetrapbis Broivniana on the underside of 
stones, and again of Catoscopium nigritum. 

Returning from Cauldron Snout over the flat top of Widdy Bank 
we reach a small pool supporting an exceedingly large form of Hypnum 
giganteum associated with the equally fine Hypnum revohens var. Cossoni 
forma falcata. 

We now reach Langdon Beck, and among the calcareous drift of 
this river valley is the very rare and minute moss Amblystegium Sprucei. 
Other rare mosses occur in this valley. On the top of the road into 
Weardale is a small bog supporting two rare plants, the bog moss Sphag- 
num Gravetii, and the Harpidium, Hypnum exannulatum var. purpurascens. 

Descending the Weardale road we reach Ireshope Burn, containing 
many mosses, the chief being the minute Seligeria Doniana, and Seligeria 
pusilla growing on its limestone clints, and Hypnum flliclnum var. gracilescens, 
Weisla rupestris var. intermedia, and Eurhynchium pumilum close by. In a 
pool near this burn float large masses of Hypnum exannulatum var. steno- 
pbyllum. 

Our next stream, Burnhope Burn, is of particular interest to the 
bryologist. At its side in a spring is Pbilonotis adpressa in fruit, the only 
place in England for this. Deeply imbedded in the gravelly drift of its 
bank are Dichodontium pellucidum vars. compactum and fagimontanum, and 
Weisia viridula var. densifolia. On the large boulders in the upper part 
of the stream are huge masses of Hypnum ochraceum, and on the walls 
near it is an abundance of Barbula recurvifolia. By the side of Kilhope 
Burn are the rare mosses Weisia crispata, Bryum pallescens, Amblystegium 
Juratzkanum and Hypnum fluitans var. ova/e. Ascending the Kilhope 
road to the top of Burnhope Seat, we again meet with Cylindrothecium 
concinnum, and on the top of the Seat is a massive growth of Hypnum 
fluitans v&r.falcatum fruiting by a pool. 

Weardale is remarkable for the abundance of fruit on the mosses. 
Bryum pallens and Pbilonotis fontana are crowded with fruit on the 
gravelly drift by the burns. On the side of Sedling Burn is a huge mass 
of boulder clay covered with a brown carpet of capsules of a very tall 
and compact growth of Pbilonotis fontana, associated with a very tall and 
compact growth of Dicranella varia. 



LIST OF MOSSES 



Sphagnum fimbriatum, Wils. 

Girgensohnii, Russ. 

var. commune, Russ. 
cristatum, Russ. 
hygrophilum, Russ. 
stachyodes, Russ. 
xerophilum, Russ. 

Russowii, Warnst. 

var. flavescens, Russ. 
poecilum, Russ. 
rhodochroum, Russ. 



Sphagnum Russowii, Warnst. (continued) 
var. virescens, Russ. 

Warnstorfii, Russ. 

var. purpurascens, Russ. 
versicolor, Russ. 
viride, Russ. 

rubellum, Wils. 

var. flavum, C. Jens. 
pallescens, Warnst. 
purpurascens, Warnst. 
rubrum, Grav. 



64 



BOTANY 



Sphagnum rubellum, Wils. (continued) 
var. versicolor, Russ. 
viride, Warnst. 

fuscum, Klinggr. 

var. fuscescens, Warnst. 
pallescens, Russ. 

acutifolium, R. & W. 

var. chlorinum, Warnst. 
flavo-rubellum, Warnst. 
fusco-virescens, Warnst. 
griseum, Warnst. 
obscurum, Warnst. 
pallescens, Warnst. 
purpurascens, Warnst. 
roseum, Warnst. 
rubrum, Warnst. 
versicolor, Warnst. 
viride, Warnst. 

quinquefarium, Warnst. 

var. fusco-flavum, Warnst. 
w pallescens, Warnst. 
roseum, Warnst. 
virescens, Warnst. 

subnitens, R. & W. 

var. flavescens, Warnst. 
flavo-rubellum, Warnst. 
obscurum, Warnst. 
pallescens, Warnst. 
purpurascens, Schlicph 
w versicolor, Warnst. 
violascens, Warnst. 
virescens, Warnst. 

molle, Sulliv. 

squarrosum, Pers. 

var. spectabile, Russ. 

teres, Angstr. 

var. imbricatum, Warnst. 
squarrosulum, Warnst. 
subsquarrosum, Warnst. 

cuspidatum, R. & W. 

var. falcatum, Russ. 
plumosum, N. & H. 
submersum, Schimp. 

recurvum, R. & W. 

var. amblyphyllum, Warnst. 
mucronatum, Warnst. 

parvifolium, Warnst. 

molluscum, Bruch 

compactum, DC. 

var. imbricatum, Warnst. 
subsquarrosum, Warnst. 

inundatum, Warnst. 

Gravetii, Warnst. 

rufescens, Warnst. 

imbricatum, Russ. 

var. cristatum, Warnst. 
sublaeve, Warnst. 

cymbifolium, Warnst. 

var. fusco-flavescens, Russ. 
glaucescens, Warnst. 



Sphagnum cymbifolium, Warnst. (font.'] 
var. pallescens, Warnst. 

papillosum, Lindb. 

var. normale, Warnst. 
sublaeve, Limpr. 

medium, Limpr. 

var. glaucescens, Russ. 

obscurum, Warnst. 

purpurascens, Warnst. 

roseo-pallescens, Warnst. 

roseum, Warnst. 

versicolor, Warnst. 
Andreaea petrophila, Ehrh. 

var. acuminata, Schimp. 

alpina, Sm. 

Rothii, W. & M. 

var. falcata, Ldb. 

crassinervia, Bruch. 
Tetraphis pellucida, Hedw. 

Browniana, Grev. 
Catharinea undulata, W. & M. 
Polytrichum urnigerum, L. 

alpinum, L. 
Polytrichum piliferum, Schreb. 

form osum, Hedw. 

commune, L. 
Diphyscium foliosum, Mohr. 

var. acutifolium, Ldb. 
Archidium alternifolium, Schimp. 
Ditrichum flexicaule, Hpe. 

var. densum, Braithw. 
Swartzia montana, Ldb. 

inclinata, Ehrh. 
Seligeria Doniana, C. M. 

pusilla, B. & S. 
Ceratodon purpureus, Brid. 

conic us, Ldb. 
Rhabdoweisia denticulata, B. & S. 

crenulata, Jameson. 

ftigax, B. & S. 
Cynodontium Bruntoni, B. & S. 

polycarpum var. laxirete, Dixon 
Dichodontium pellucidum, Schimp. 

var. /3 fagimontanum, Schimp. 
8 compactum, Schimp. 

flavescens, Ldb. 
Dicranella heteromalla, Schimp. 

var. 8 sericea, Schimp. 

secunda, Ldb. 

- rufescens, Schimp. 

varia, Schimp. 

var. y tenella, Schimp. 

Schreberi, Schimp. 

squarrosa, Schimp. 
Blindia acuta, B. & S. 
Dicranoweisia cirrata, Ldb. 
Campylopus flexuosus, Brid. 

var. paradoxus, Husn. 

setifolius, Wils. 

atrovirens, De Not. 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Campylopus pyriformis, Brid. 
Dicranum falcatum, Hedw. 

Bonjeani, De Not. 

scoparium, Hedw. 

var. 8 spadiceum, Boul. 

fuscescens, Turn. 

var. 8 flexicaule, Wils. 
Leucobryum glaucum, Schimp. 
Fissidens viridulus, Wahl. 

bryoides, Hedw. 

crassipes, Wils. 

osmundoides, Hedw. 

adiantoides, Hedw. 

decipiens, De Not. 

taxifolius, Hedw. 
Grimmia apocarpa, Hedw. 

var. ft rivularis, W. & M. 
y gracilis, W. & M. 
8 alpicola, H. & T. 
e pumila, Schimp. 

- funalis, Schimp. 

- torquata, Hornsch. 

- pulvinata, Sm. 

- orbicularis, Bruch. 

- trichophylla, Grev. 

Doniana, Sm. 

- patens, B. & S. 
Rhacomitrium aciculare, Brid. 

protensum, Braun. 

fasciculare, Brid. 

sudeticum, B. & S. 

heterostichum, Brid. 

var. gracilescens, B. & S. 

lanuginosum, Brid. 

canescens, Brid. 

var. B. ericoides, B. & S. 
Hedwigia ciliata, Ehrh. 
Pottia truncatula, Ldb. 

intermedia, Fiirnr. 

Heimii, Fiirnr. 

lanceolata, C. M. 
Tortula rigida, Schrad. 

ambigua, Augstr. 

aloides, De Not. 

muralis, Hedw. 

subulata, Hedw. 

angustata, Wils. 

mutica, Ldb. 

intermedia, Berk. 

ruralis, Ehrh. 

ruraliformis, Dixon 

papillosa, Wils. 
Barbula lurida, Ldb. 

rubella, Mitt. 

var. ruberrima, Braithw. 
dentata, Braithw. 

tophacea, Mitt. 

fallax, Hedw. 

var. brevifolia, Schultz. 

recurvifolia, Schimp. 



Barbula spadicea, Mitt. 

rigidula, Mitt. 

cylindrica, Schimp. 

sinuosa, Braithw. 

revoluta, Brid. 

convoluta, Hedw. 

unguiculata, Hedw. 
Weisia tortilis, C. M. 

microstoma, C. M. 

viridula, Hedw. 

var. densifolia, B. & S. 

crispata, C. M. 

tenuis, C. M. 

rupestris, C. M. 

var. intermedia, Limpr. 
stelligera, Bry. Eur. 
compacta, Schimp. 
rigida, Schimp. 
affinis, Ingham 
humilis, Ingham 

curvirostris, C. M. 

var. commutata, Dixon 
Weisia verticillata, Brid. 
Trichostomum tenuirostre, Ldb. 

var. Holtii, Dixon 

nitidum, Schimp. 

tortuosum, Dixon 

var. fragili folium, Dixon 
Cinclidotus fontinaloides, P.B. 
Encalypta ciliata, Hoffm. 

streptocarpa, Hedw. 
Ancectangium compactum, Schwg. 
Zygodon lapponicus, B. & S. 

Mougeotii, B. & S. 

viridissimus, R. Br. 
Ulota Bruchii, Hornsch. 

crispa, Brid. 

var. crispula, Hamm. 
intermedia, Dixon. 

phyllantha, Brid. 
Orthotrichum rupestre, Schleich. 

anomalum, var. saxatile, Milde. 

cupulatum, Hoffm. 

var. nudum, Braithw. 
- Lyellii, H. & T. 

affine, Schrad. 

var. fastigiatum, Htib. 

rivulare, Turn. 

stramineum, Hornsch. 

pallens, Bruch. 

pulchellum, Sm. 

diaphanum, Schrad. 
Splachnum sphaericum, L. 
Tetraplodon mnioides, B. & S. 

Wormskioldii, Lindb. 
Funaria ericetorum, Dixon 

hygrometrica, Sibth. 
Amblyodon dealbatus, P.B. 
Meesia trichoides, Spr. 



66 



BOTANY 






Aulacomnium palustre, Schwgr. 
var. imhricatum B. & S. 

androgynum, Schwgr. 
Catoscopium nigritum, Brid. 
Bartramia CEderi, Sw. 

- ithyphylla, Brid. 

- pom i form is, Hedw. 

var. crispa, B. & S. 

Halleriana, Hedw. 
Philonotis fontana, Brid. 

var. pumila, Dixon 

adpressa, Ferg. 

calcarea, Schimp. 
Breutelia arcuata, Schimp. 
Webera cruda, Schwgr. 

- nutans, Hedw. 

- annotina, Schwgr. 
carnea, Schimp. 

- albicans, Schimp. 
Plagiobryum Zierii, Ldb. 
Hryum filiforme, Dicks. 

- concinnatum, Spruce 

- pendulum, Schimp. 

var. com pac turn, Schimp. 

- Warneum, Bland 

- calophyllum, R. Br. 

- lacustre, Brid. 

- inclinatum, Bland 

- uliginosum, B. & S. 

- pal lens, Sw. 

- turbinatum, Schwgr. 

- bimum, Schreb. 

var. cuspidatum, Bry. Eur. 

- pseudo-triquetrum, Schwgr. 

- pallescens, Schleich. 

var. contextum, Hornsch. 

intermedium, Brid. 

- caespiticium, L. 

- capillare, L. 

alpinum, Huds. 

- Mildeanum, Jur. 

- argenteum, L. 
Mnium affine, Bland 

var. elatum, B. & S. 

- cuspidatum, Hedw. 

- rostratum, Schrad. 

- u mlu hit um, L. 

- hornum, L. 

- serratum, Schrad. 

- stellare, Reich. 

- punctatum, L. 

- subglobosum, B. & S. 
Cinclidium stygium, Sw. 
Fontinalis antipyretica, L. 
Neckera crispa, Hedw. 

- complanata, HQbn. 
Homalia trichomanoides, Brid. 
Leucodon sciuroides, Schwgr. 
Pterogonium gracile, Sw. 
Antitrichia curtipendula, Brid. 



Porotrichum alopecurum, Mitt. 
Leskea polycarpa, Ehrh. 
Anomodon longifolius, Hartm. 

viticulosus, H. & T. 
Heterocladium heteroptenun, B. & S. 
Pseudoleskea catenulata, B. & S. 
Thuidium tamariscinum, B. & S. 
Climacium dendroides, W. & M. 
Cylindrothecium concinnum, Schimp. 
Pylaisia polyantha, B. & S. 
Orthothecium intricatum, B. & S. 
Isothecium myurum, Brid. 
Pleuropus sericeus, Dixon 
Camptothecium lutescens, Schimp. 
Brachythecium rutabulum, B. & S. 

rivulare, B. & S. 

var. latifolium, Husn. 
Brachythecium velutinum, B. & S. 

populeum, B. & S. 

plumosum, B. & S. 

purum, Dixon 
Hyocomium flagellare, B. & S. 
Eurhynchium piliferum, B. & S. 

crassinervium, B. & S. 

praelongum, B. & S. 

Swartzii, Hobk. 

pumilum, Schimp. 

tenellum, Milde. 

myosuroides, Schimp. 

striarum, B. & S. 

rusciforme, Milde. 

var. atlanticum, Brid. 
Plagiothecium depressum, Dixon 

pulchellum, B. & S. 

denticulatum, B. & S. 

sylvaticum, B. & S. 

undulatum, B. &c S. 
Amblystegium Sprucei, B. & S. 

serpens, B. & S. 

Juratzkanum, Schimp. 

irriguum, B. & S. 

fluviatilc, B. & S. 

filicinum, De Not. 

var. elatum, Schimp. 

gracilescens, Schimp. 
Hypnum riparium, L. 

var. longi folium, Schimp. 

stellatum, Schreb. 

var. protensum, B. & S. 

chrysophyllum, Brid. 

var. erectum, Bagn. 

- lycopodioides, Schwgr. 

- fluitans, L. 

var. falcatum, Schimp. 
ovale, Ren. 

exannulatum, GOmb. 

var. purpurascens, Schimp. 
pinnatum, Boul., forma ste- 

nophylloides, Ren. 
stenophyllum, Hobk. 



67 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Hypnum uncinatum, Hedw. Hypnum palustre, L. 

var. plumulosum, Schimp. var. subsphaericarpon, B. & S. 

plumosum, Schimp. eugyrium, Schimp. 

revolvens, Sw. ochraceum, Turn. 

var. Cossoni, Ren, forma falcata, Ren. scorpioides, L. 

commutatum, Hedw. stramineum, Dicks. 

falcatum, Brid. cordifolium, Hedw. 

var. gracilescens, Schimp. giganteum, Schimp. 

incurvatum, Schrad. sarmentosum, Wahl. 

cupressiforme, L. cuspidatum, L. 

var. resupinatum, Schimp. Schreberi, Willd. 

filiforme, Brid. Hylocomium splendens, B. & S. 

ericetorum, B. & S. loreum, B. & S. 

tectorum, Brid. squarrosum, B. & S. 

Patientiae, Ldb. triquetrum, B. & S. 

molluscum, Hedw. rugosum, De Not. 

var. condensatum, Schimp. 



LIVERWORTS (Hepatic*) 

The liverworts (Hepatica?) have received only scant attention com- 
pared with the mosses, although there is evidence from the plants that 
have been found that the county is rich in them. The appended list is 
very incomplete, but is offered as a nucleus for future workers with these 
interesting and beautiful plants. 

The rare ones are located as follows : Lejeunea serpyllifolia var. 
cavifolia occurs on the basaltic rock ledges of Falcon Glints, and Lejeunea 
calcarea forms minute patches on the limestone clints of Ireshope Burn. 
By the riverside near the High Force grows Porella rivularis. Near 
the basaltic blocks scattered on the slope of Widdy Bank Fell are 
Blepbarozia ciliaris and Lepidozia setacea. 

At the base of the High Force is a very rare hepatic, Hygrobiella 
laxifolia, very scarce in quantity. Of the genus Scapania there are two 
very rare species not recorded from any other part of England. These are 
Scapania rosacea, imbedded in the sandy drift by the river side below 
the High Force, and Scapania subalpina var. undulifolia, in the gravelly 
detritus by the side of the Weardale road leading into Langdon Beck. 
Another member, Scapania aequiloba, grows on the Falcon Clints as well 
as on the slopes of Widdy Bank Fell, but in the latter case usually 
mixed with mosses, such as Trichostomum tortuosum. The rare Scapania 
intermedia also grows on the slopes of Widdy Bank, associated with the 
equally rare Eucalyx obovata. 

By the side of Ireshope Burn we find Chiloscypbus polyantbos, asso- 
ciated with Jungermania riparia, and on the limestone clints is the minute 
and delicate Blepbarostoma trie hopby Hum. On Widdy Bank is found 
Mylia Taylori, which is also of very fine growth on the top of Burnhope 
Seat, associated with the moss Hypnum jiuitans v&r.falcatum. The variety 
heterophylla of Plagiochila asplenioides grows by Burnhope Burn, and the 
variety majus, of yellow colour, by the waterfall at Burtree Ford. 

Plagiocbila spinulosa grows both at the High Force and at Cauldron 

68 



BOTANY 

Snout. The flaccid and dark-coloured "Jungermania cordifolia may be 
found by the waterfall at Burtree Ford, on the bank of Ireshope Burn, 
and at the High Force. Jungermania Floerkii grows on the top of 
Burnhope Seat, on Widdy Bank Fell, and on the top of the Weardale 
road leading into Langdon Beck. Of this genus Jungermania barbata is 
the characteristic species on the gravelly drift by Burnhope Burn, and 
Jungermania bantriensis occurs in great abundance below Winch Bridge 
in Teesdale. With Lepidozia setacea on Widdy Bank is associated 
Jungermania porpbyroleuca in fruit. Of the genus Euca/yx, one member, 
obovata, has been noted above, and the other member, byalina, grows on 
the moorland by the side of Sedling Burn ; Nardia compressa occurs in 
wet places by Burnhope Burn, in darkish masses. Pallavicinia Lyelli has 
been recorded from the Durham side of the Tees (Spruce). Mixed 
with the mosses Cinclidlum stygium and Amblyodon dealbatus on the slope 
of Widdy Bank grows the var. angustior of Aneura pinguis. The soft 
hairy masses of Metzgeria pubescens grow on the vertical limestone 
cliffs of Ireshope Burn and also at Cowshill. On the saccharoidal 
limestone of Falcon Glints are large green flat patches of Cbomiocarpon 
quadratus. 

In Weardale a striking feature in the rills and ditches by the road- 
sides, especially the Kilhope road, is the great abundance of the hepatic 
Scapania undulata, whose masses almost choke up these waterways with 
their glassy green-looking foliage. 

LIST OF HEPATIC^ 

Frullania tamarisci (L.) Plagiochila asplenioides (L.) 

dilatata (L.) var. heterophylla, Nees 
Lejeunea serpyllifolia (Dicks) Dillenii, Tayl. 

var. cavifolia, Lindb. spinulosa (Dicks) 

calcarca, Lib. Jungermania cordifolia, Hook. 
Radula complanata (L.) riparia, Tayl. 

Porella platyphylla (L.) inflata, Huds. 

rivularis, Nees. Floerkii, Web. & Mohr. 
Blepharozia ciliaris (L.) barbata, Schmid 
Blepharostoma trichophyllum (Dill.) Lyoni, Tayl. 
Lepidozia setacea (Web.) porphyroleuca, Nees 
Kantia trichomanis (L.) bantriensis, Hook. 
Cephalozia bicuspidata (L.) crenulata, Sm. 
Odontoschisma sphagni (Dicks) Eucalyx hyalina, Lyell 
Hygrobiella laxifolia (Hook.) obovata (Nees) 
Scapania resupinata (Dill., L.) Nardia compressa (Hook.) 

subalpina var. undulifolia, Gottsche scalaris (Schracl) 

aequiloba (Schwoege) Marsupella emarginata, Ehrh. 

nemorosa (L.) Pallavicinia Lyellii (Hook.) 

intermedia, Husn. Aneura multinda (L.) 

undulata (L.) pinguis (L.) 

- purpurea (Dill.), Carr. var. angustior 

- rosacea (Cord a) Metzgeria pubescens (Schrank) 
Diplophyllum albicans (L.) furcata (L.) 
Lophocolea bidentata (L.) Marchantia polymorpha, L. 
Chiloscyphus polyanthos (L.) Conocephalus conicus, L. 
Mylia Taylori (Hook.) Chomiocarpon quadratus (Scop.) 

69 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

LICHENS (Licbenes) 

The lichen-flora of a given district under changing conditions 
furnishes evidence to the observant mind that it does not nourish its 
life as other plants do. If it did so we should naturally expect that 
the lichens would hold their own with their fellows, subject, of 
course, to the ordinary changes which come alike to all vegetable 
forms. But it is not so. The lichen will disappear from a spot, 
and more especially the frondose or foliaceous forms, without any 
observable change in the other vegetation around it, and that from 
a pollution of the atmosphere which is not sufficient to affect those 
plants which nourish themselves from the soil or matrix of growth. 
I had an opportunity of giving an illustrative case of this kind from 
the county of Durham, 1 where lichens spoken of by Mr. Winch as 
flourishing in Gibside Woods many years before had utterly perished 
killed by the fumes from the Tyneside some miles away. 

It is fortunate, therefore, that the lichen-flora of Durham county 
was fairly well worked before the large development of its present 
coal and iron industries. Nearly 200 species and varieties of lichens 
are recorded in Winch's Flora of Northumberland and Durham as having 
been gathered in the county. I also catalogued in 1887, in the 
Natural History Society's Transactions, Northumberland and Durham, Mr. 
Winch's lichens in the museum, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; but this was 
only a partial list, as a number of his lichens with other of his 
herbaria are in the possession of the Linnean Society. 

As a county, Durham had and still possesses an extensive lichen- 
growth. The physical features of the country are various and 
favourable. Its eastern seaboard, of course, is poor in results, but its 
sub-alpine elevations westward and north-west are good. Limited in 
its outcrop of rock, the limestone predominates in its highest parts 
crossed and broken by the basalt. The best lichen districts in the 
county are the river valleys of the Derwent, the Tees, and the 
Wear. The last two, with elevations margining the upper reaches of 
the valleys, and the fells enclosing the river sources, are excellent 
hunting grounds for the botanist generally as well as the lichenologist ; 
and these districts are the least affected by any deleterious atmospheric 
elements carried by the wind. 

The previous workers in this humble branch of botanical science 
in Durham were Nathaniel John Winch,* Mr. Robertson, and the 
Rev. John Harriman, of Egglestone, Teesdale. By his careful 
observations and exertions, Mr. Harriman contributed largely to the 
knowledge and extension of our northern lichenology. He discovered 
a number of new species. One of these, Urceolaria diacapsis, Ach., 
he found near Barnard Castle. A micro-diagnosis of this beautiful 

1 Science Gossip, 1879. 

* He was a native of Newcastle, a zealous student of nature, and a distinguished botanist ; well 
known in the north of England by the Botanist's Guide to Northumberland and Durham and his Flora of the 
same counties, published in the Transactions of the Natural History Society, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 1832. 

7 



BOTANY 

lichen, made in 1887, showed that it was not an Urceo/aria, but a 
Lecidea. I pointed out to Dr. Nylander, Paris, that it should be named 
Lecidea diacapsis, and this decision he confirmed. At Dr. Nylander's 
request I searched and re-searched carefully what he termed * the 
classic ground ' of this lichen, but did not succeed in re-finding it. 

Mudd's Manual of British Lichens likewise contains notices of 
lichens from Teesdale, where he personally did some collecting. 

The following limited list is a selection from my own personal 
gatherings of lichens in the county of Durham. Each species or 
variety is either in my herbarium or has passed through my hands : 



Sirosiphon mineatum, Hass. 

Ephebe pubescens, Fr. 

Collema pulposum, var. pulposulum, NyL 

tenax, var. coronatum, Koerb. 

limosum, Ach. 

polycarpon, Schaer. 
Leptogium biatorinum, Nyl. 
Sphinctrina turbinata, Pers. 
Pycnothelia papillaria, Duf. 
Cladonia pityrea, f. denudata, Johns. 

- Florkeana, f. bacillaris, Ach. 
Clad ina sylvatica, f. scabrosa, Leight. 

f. tenuis, Lamy. 

uncialis, f. adunca, Ach. 
Stereocaulon denudatum, Flk. 
Evernia prunastri, var. stictocera, Ach. 
Cetraria island ica, L. 

- aculcata, f. acanthella, Ach. 
Platysma triste, Web. 

Platysma sxpincola, var. ulophylla, Ach. 
Peltigera aphthosa, L. 

rufescens, Mtlhi. 
Solorina saccata, Ach. 

spongiosa, Nyl. 

Physcia parietina, f. cinerescens, Leight. 

tenella, Scop. 
Umbilicaria polyhirza, L. 



Umbilicaria cylindrica, L. 

var. tornata, Fr. fil. 
Placodium decipiens, Arn. 

sub-sp. P. tegularis, Nyl. 
Ltcanora sambuci, Pers. 

frustulosa, Dicks. 

Parisiensis, Nyl. 

atrynea, Ach. 

galactina, f. dispersa, Pers. 

sub-sp. L. dissipata, Nyl. 

ochracea, Schaer. 

Hageni, Ach. 

syringea, Ach. 

subcarnea, Ach. 

intricata, Nyl. 

expallens, Ach. 

ventosa, L. 

chalybxa, Schaer. 
Pertusaria globulifera, Nyl. 
Lecidea atrorufa, Dicks. 

lucida, Ach. 

parasema, var. rugulosa, Ach. 

plana, Lahtn. 

aroma tica, Sm. 

caeruleonigricans, Lightf. 

alboatra, Hoffm. 
Endocarpon miniatum, L. 



FRESHWATER ALG^E 

It is much to be regretted that very little attention has been devoted 
to the study of the freshwater alga? in Durham, as it offers a rich field 
for investigation to those interested in this branch of botany. The 
craggy ravines and upland glens of the highlands of Teesdale and Wear- 
dale, and their rapid streams flowing over rough rocky beds of limestone, 
sandstone, or basalt, especially, would well repay some exploration. 
Owing to the variations of altitude and soil there appears to be a great 
wealth of species and genera. It is only possible, however, to give a 
very brief survey, chiefly from observations of the writer. 

The Blue-green Algae (Cyanophyceee) are richly represented, the 
humid atmosphere of the upper dales being especially favourable to such 
genera as Nostoc, Lyngbya, and Gleocapsa, while the ponds and ditches are 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

the home of numerous species of Oscillarlece. Adhering to the sub- 
merged stones, the gelatinous masses of Nostoc verrucosum are a noticeable 
feature in some of the clear streams of the mountain limestone. 

Among the Green Algae (Ghlorophycece) the Desmids appear to 
be specially abundant, finding a most congenial habitat in the peaty 
pools so frequent among the moors. Here also species of Spirogyra, 
Zygnema, and Mesocarpus are among the commonest forms to be observed. 
In damp situations the barks of the trees are green with Pleurococcus 
vulgaris ; Prasiola crispa is found by the roadsides, and the terrestrial 
species of Vaucheria may be met with almost everywhere. The aquatic 
genera Ulothrix, Coleocbteta, CEdogonium, Cbtztophora, Cladopbora, and 
Vaucheria are abundant; Enteromorpba intestinalis occurs in ditches at 
Hartlepool, and Palmella cruenta is very common in the Sunderland 
district (Brady). Clathrocystis ceruginosa and Physactis parvula have been 
noted from the moat at Raby (Norman) and Tetraspora lubrica at Ryhope 
(Brady). The beautiful Draparnaldia plumosa is not uncommon, and 
grows plentifully on the high ground between Allansford and the 
Sneep. 

The Rhodophycecz, which make up such a large proportion of the 
marine alga?, include only a few freshwater forms. In Durham the 
two species of Batrachospermum, B. atrum and moniliforme, are common in 
the streams of some of the hills and denes, and are also frequently met 
with in the lower parts of the county. The green waving tufts of 
Lemanea jluviatilis are found attached to the stones in the quieter parts 
of the clear mountain streams, and Ghantransia chalybea clings closely to 
the smooth surface of the rocks under the swiftly rushing water. 

Among the Characeee^ the species of Nitella and Chara are widely 
distributed. Chara hispida grows in great profusion in the Hell Kettles 
at Croft, and C. flexilis and C. fcetida also occur plentifully in the 
county. 

MARINE ALG^E 

The bleak rugged coast of Durham, exposed to the full fury of the 
wind, and swept by the cold waters of the northern sea, is not favourable 
to a luxuriant growth of seaweeds. There is an absence of rocky pools, 
and few sheltered bays. The temperature of the water varies consider- 
ably between the east and west coasts. On the east coast the sea 
temperature is much lower than on the other parts of the British Isles. 
For example, in August it only rises to 1 5 C., while on the south and 
west coasts 20 C. is attained. In February a marine isothermal of only 
5 C. extends from the Naze to the Frith of Forth, the other parts of 
the coast being 5 C. warmer. It is not surprising, therefore, that the 
oceanic vegetation is greatly superior on the western shores, but one 
would hardly expect to find Durham inferior in number of species to 
Northumberland, which is further north, and possesses still fewer natural 
advantages of situation. The Northumberland region, however, presents 
thirty-three species not found in Durham, while the latter has only 

72 



BOTANY 

twenty which it may claim for its own, the remaining species being 
common to both counties. 

The following lists have been compiled from Brady's Catalogue of 
Marine Algae of Northumberland and Durham ; Transactions of the Tyneside 
Field Club, 1858-60, iv. The nomenclature is that of Holmes and 
Batters. 

Out of a total of 535 species excluding varieties of marine algae 
which are found to grow upon the shores of the British Isles, only 136 
are known upon the Durham coast. These are distributed among the 
different orders as follows : 

Total for British Isles. Total for Durham. 

Cyanophyceae ... 57 ... 5 
Chlorophyceae . . . 98 . . .18 
Phaeophyceae . . .144 . . -43 

Rhodophyceae . . . 236 ... 70 

No permanent habitat is known for the following species. They 
have been found from time to time washed up by the sea on this coast, 
and are therefore included in the list. It is most probable, however, 
that they have been merely carried by oceanic currents to our shores. 

Codium tomentosum, Stackh. Sargassum bacciferum, C. Ag. 

Halurus equisetifolius, Kiitz. Cystoseira ericoides, C. Ag. 

Gymnogongrus norvegicus, J. Ag. Himanthalia lorea, Lyngb. 

Calliblepharis ciliata, Kiitz. Arthrocladus villosa, Duby. 

Delesseria Hypoglossum, Lamx. Dictyopteris polypodioides, Lamx. 

Polysiphonia byssoides, Grev. Dictyota dichotoma, Lamx. 

LIST OF MARINE ALG-S 



CYANOPHYC&* 
Oscillariactte 

Spirulina tenuissima, Kfltz. 

Oscillaria Corallinae, Gom. 
Rivulariacttg 

Calothrix confervicola, C. Ag. 

scopulorum, C. Ag. 
Rivularia atra, Roth. 

CHLOROPHYCEJE 
Uhactte 

Monostroma Grevillii, J. Ag. 
Entcromorpha clathrata, J. Ag. 

compressa, Grev. 

Linza, J. Ag. 

intestinalis, Link. 
Ulva latissima, J. Ag. 

Cladophoracett 

Urospora flacca, Holm. & Batt. 
Chaetomorpha crassa, Kutz. 
Rhizoclonium riparium 

tortuosum, Ktltz. 
Cladophora utriculosa, Kdtz. 

rupestris, KUtz. 

grac ills, GriflF. 

flexuosa, GrifiF. 

fracta, Kfltz. 
- arcta, KOtz. 

laiiosa, Kutz. 



CHLOROPHYCEA (continued) 
Bryopiidacete 

Bryopsis plumosa, C. Ag. 
Codiaceee 
Codium tomentosum, Stackh. 

PHXOPHYCRX 
Desmarestiaceee 

Desmarestia viridis, Lamx. 

aculeata, Lamx. 

ligulata, Lamx. 
Dictyoiiphonace<s 

Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus, Grev. 
Punctarlacete 

Punctaria plantaginea, Grev. 
Asperococcace<e 

Asperococcus echinatus, Grev. 
Ectocarpacttt 

Streblonema velutinum, Thur. 

Ectocarpus long i I rue t us, Harv. 

patens, Holm. & Batt. 

tomentosus, Lyngb. 
Isthmoplea sphaerophora, Kjellm. 
Pylaiella litoralis, Kjellm. 

Artbrocladlactee 

Arthrocladia villosa, Duby. 
E/achtstacete 

Elachista fucicola, Fries. 



73 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



PHJEOPHYCE.S: (continued) 
Sphacelariacets 

Sphacelaria radicans, Harv. 

cirrhosa, C. Ag. 

fusca, Holm. & Batt. 
Chaetopteris plumosa, Ktitz. 
Cladostephus spongiosus, C. Ag. 

verticillatus, C. Ag. 
Halopteris filicina, Ktitz. 
Stypocaulon scoparium, Ktltz. 

Myrionemacets 

Myrionema strangulans, Grev. 

Gbordariacets 

Chordaria flagelliformis, C. Ag. 

Mesogloea vermiculata, Le Jol. 

Castagnea virescens, Thur. 

Leathesia difformis, Aresch. 
Scytosiphonacees 

Phyllitis Fascia, Ktitz. 

Scytosiphon lomentarius, J, Ag. 
Chordacete 

Chorda Filum, Stackh. 
Laminariacea 

Laminaria saccharina, Lamx. 

Phyllitis, Le Jol. 

- digitata, Edm. 
Alaria esculenta, Grev. 

Fucacets 

Fucus ceranoides, Linn. 

vesiculosus, Linn. 

- serratus, Linn. 
Ascophyllum nodosum, Le Jol. 
Pelvetia canaliculata, Dene & Thur. 
Himanthalia lorea, Lyngb. 
Halidrys siliquosa, Lyngb. 
Cystoseira ericoides, C. Ag. 

Tilopteridacets 

Tilopteris Mertensii, Ktitz. 
Dtctyotactte 

Dictyopteris polypodioides, Lamx 

RHODOPHYCE.S: 
Porphyracets 

Bangia fusco-purpurea, Lyngb. 
Porphyra linearis, Grev. 

laciniata, C. Ag. 
Helmintbocladiacea 

Chantransia Daviesii, Thur. 

virgatula, Thur. 
Helminthocladia purpurea, J. Ag. 

GeKdiaceee 

Gelidium corneum, Lamx. 
Glgartinacece 

Chondrus crispus, Stackh. 

Gigartina mamillosa, J. Ag. 

Phyllophora Brodiaei, J. Ag. 

membranifolia, J. Ag. 
Gymnogongrus norvegicus, J. Ag. 
Ahnfeltia plicata, Fries. 



RHODOPHYCEJE (continued) 
Gigartinacea (continued) 

Callophyllis laciniata, Kdtz. 
Rhodophyllidacets 

Cystoclonium purpurascens, Ktitz. 

Catenella Opuntia, Grev. 

Rhodophyllis bifida, Kutz. 
Sphtsrococcacets 

Calliblepharis ciliata, Kotz. 
Rhodymeniacees 

Rhodymenia palmetta, Grev. 

Lomentaria articulata, Lyngb. 

clavellosa, Gaill. 
Plocamium coccineum, Lyngb. 

Delesseriacea 

Nitophyllum laceratum, Grev. 
Delesseria alata, Lamx. 

angustissima, Griff. 

Hypoglossum, Lamx. 

ruscifolia, Lamx. 

sinuosa, Lamx. 

sanguinea, Lamx. 
Bonnemahoniacete 

Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, C. Ag. 
Rhodomelacets 

Rhodomela subfusca, C. Ag. 

lycopodioides, C. Ag. 
Odonthalia dentata, Lyngb. 
Laurencia pinnatifida, Lamx. 

- caespitosa, Lamx. 
Polysiphonia urceolata, Grev. 

elongata, Grev. 

violacea, Wyatt. 

fibrillosa, Grev. 

fastigiata, Grev. 

atro-rubescens, Grev. 

nigrescens, Grev. 

parasitica, Grev. 

byssoides, Grev. 

Brodiaei, Grev. 
Dasya coccinea, C. Ag. 

Ceramiacets 

Spermothamnion Turneri, Aresch. 
Griffithsia corallina, C. Ag. 

setacea, C. Ag. 
Halurus equisetifolius, Ktitz. 
Rhodochorton Rothii, Nag. 

floridulum, Nag. 

sparsum, Kjellm. 
Callithamnion polyspermum, C. Ag. 

Hookeri, C. Ag. 

arbuscula, Lyngb. 

tetragonum, C. Ag. 
Plumaria elegans, Bonnem. 
Ptilota plumosa, C. Ag. 
Ceramium Deslongchampsii, Chaur. 

diaphanum, Roth. 

rubrum, C. Ag. 

prolifera, J. Ag. 



74 



BOTANY 

RHODOPHYCE* (continued) RHODOPHYCE^ (continued) 

Ctramiacta (continued) Rhizophyllidaceee 

Ceramium acanthonotum, Carm. Polyides rotundus, Grev. 

Dumontiace* Corallinaceee 

Dumontia filiformis, Grev. Melobesia verrucata, Lamx, 

Dilsea cdulis, Stackh. Lithothamnion polymorphum, Aresch. 

Nemastomacea Corallina officinalis, Linn. 

Furcellaria fastigiata, Lamx. rubens, Ellis & Sol. 

FUNGI 

The investigation of the fungus flora of the county has unfortu- 
nately been almost entirely neglected during recent years, and no list is 
available, except that by Winch, published now nearly one hundred 
years ago. 1 This list of some 250 species comprises chiefly those fungi 
recognizable by the naked eye, and, as one would naturally expect at that 
date, contains very slight reference to microscopic species. The old 
nomenclature has been brought up to date, and the list given below 
includes Winch's complete record, with the exception of some species of 
which the determination remained doubtful, as well as additions from 
the author's own observations. It probably does not represent one tithe 
of the fungi to be found in the county, but it sufficiently indicates the 
rich and varied flora which might be expected. Winch's observations 
were very local, and largely confined to the woods on the banks of 
the Derwent and the country around Darlington. The frequency with 
which Medomsley occurs as a habitat shows that the woods in its 
vicinity are remarkably prolific in genera and species belonging to this 
group of plants. 

The Hymenomycetes are represented by many species growing in 
great profusion in the damp woody denes. The poisonous but very 
beautiful fly mushroom (Amanita muscarius) may be found in the woods 
at High Force ; and in the pastures in upper Teesdale the brilliant 
red Hygropborus coccineus forms a conspicuous object in autumn. The 
destructive parasite Armillaria mellea is widely distributed, and is respon- 
sible for the downfall of many pines and fine old beeches. It may be 
recognized in the R/bizomorfba-stzge by a thick black network under 
the bark. Three rare species of Lactarius (L. zonarius, L. plumbeus, 
and L. acris) are recorded. Marasmius oreades growing symbiotically 
with the grasses produces the well-known * fairy rings ' in many 
pastures. Various species of Cla-varia, among them C. fastigiata, C. coral- 
loides, and the rarer C. ametbystina, are found in plenty, their pale coral- 
like branches peeping forth freely from the moist rich humus beneath 
the trees. On fallen logs, especially of oak, the timber-destroying fungus 
Stereum birsutum is everywhere met with. The large bracket-shaped 
fructifications of the Polyporaceee form striking features projecting from 
the trunks and branches of trees. Two rare forms of Polyporus found 
are P.fuscidulus and P. Vaillantii; P. squamosus,P. bispidus, etc., occur as 
parasites on various trees, the latter being especially destructive to the 

1 Batamifs Guide ttrougA the Countiet of Northumberland and Durham (1805-7). 

75 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

ash. The large puff-balls Lycoperdon giganteum and L. ccelatum, the 
somewhat rare Cynopballus caninus, and the Geasters, may be specially 
mentioned among the Gasteromycetes. Five species of Geaster have 
been recorded, none of which are common, and one, G. mammosum^ is 
extremely rare. 

In the large order Uredmacece (the rust-fungi) many species are 
found accompanying their hosts through the various changes of altitude. 
Thus Puccinia betonica preys upon the betony at its highest limit in 
Burnhope, as well as near the coast, and similarly Mcidium tussilaginis is 
found abundantly wherever the coltsfoot grows. The leaves of the wild 
grasses and cereals are especially liable to the attacks of rust. 

Among the Ascomycetes the species of faphrina cause the well-known 
4 witches-brooms ' on the birch and cherry. The Erysipbacece are com- 
mon as mildews upon the grasses and other plants. Nectria reveals its 
presence by its small red pustules on decaying twigs, and as the destruc- 
tive parasite associated with the canker of the ash, apple, and beech. 
EpicbloS typhina^ with its bright orange stroma, is frequently to be observed 
destroying the inflorescences of Dactylis glomerata and other grasses. The 
small perithecia of various species of Spbceriaceee are especially common, 
being present on nearly every decaying stalk. The black stroma tipped 
with snowy white of Xylaria hypoxylon form conspicuous objects in most 
woods in winter. Rbytisma acerinum betrays itself by the black blotches 
to be seen on the sycamore leaves which are everywhere attacked by this 
fungus. The dark-coloured gelatinous cups of Bulgaria inquinans cover 
the bark of fallen oak branches. The larch-canker fungus (Dasyscypba 
Willkommli) is frequent in the larch plantations, and threatens to render the 
cultivation of this tree impossible for any useful purposes. The curious 
little black tongues of Geoglossum glabrum are fairly common, springing up 
freely in grassy places. The rare Peziza onotica known as the * orange-ear 
peziza,' as well as P. me/asfoma, the black and red peziza, another rare 
species, are found in the county, while the glowing crimson cups of 
P. coccinea are common on decaying twigs. The species of Morcbella are 
also prevalent in the woody districts, the edible form, M. escu/enta, being 
not unfrequent. 

Among the Mesomycetes some species of Usft'/ago, the smut of the 
cereals, cause annually a large loss. Among the Phycomycetes may be 
mentioned Gystopus candidus, the * white rust ' of cruciferous plants, growing 
especially on Capsella bursa-pastoris ; Peronospora parasitica, a parasite often 
associated with Gystopus candidus; and Pbytophthora infestans, the too well 
known disease of the potato. The cruciferous crops are often devastated 
by club-root (anbury) caused by Plasmodiophora brassicee^ one of the 
Myxomycetes. 

Rare species not already mentioned are : Agaricus petaloides, A. 
borizontalis, A. sparfeus, A. gossypinus, Hygrophorus obrusseus, Cantharellus 
cinereus, Merasmius fcetidus, Lentinus figrinus, Panus concbatus, Boletus 
casfaneus, Trametes pint, Dcedalea confragosa, Thelephora biennis, Tremella 
frondosa, and 1". vesicaria. 

76 



BOTANY 

The nomenclature in the following list is that of Cooke's Handbook 
of British Fungi. 

LIST OF FUNGI 



FAMILY I. HYMENOMYCBTES. 
Order I. Agaracini 
Genus i. Agaricus, L. 

Sub-genus I. Amanita, Fr. 
Agaricus mappa, Batsch. 

muscarius, L. 

rubescens, P. 
Sub-genus II. Lcpiota, Fr. 

Agaricus procerus, Scop. 

cepcestipes, Sow. 

granulosa, Batsch. 
Sub-genus in. Armillaria, Fr. 

Agaricus melleus, Vahl. 
Sub-genus IV. Tricholoma, Fr. 
Agaricus nictitans, Fr. 

albus, Fr. 
Sub-genus V. Clitocybe, Fr. 

Agaricus vernicosus, Fr. 

cxlorus, Bull. 

candicans, Fr. 

dealbatus, P. 

opacus, With. 

maximus, Fr. 

infundibuliformis, Schasff. 

cyathiformis, Fr. 

hrumalis, Fr. 

fragrans, Sow. 
- laccatus, Scop. 

Sub-genus VI. Pleurotus, Fr 
Agaricus ulmarius, Bull. 

ostreatus, Jacqu. 

pctaloides, Bull. 

tremulus, Schaeff. 

septicus, Fr. 

applicatus, Batsch. 
Sub-genus VII. Collybia, Fr. 

Agaricus radicatus, Relh. 

velutipes, Curt. 

dryophilus, Bull. 

clavus, BulL 

ocellatus, Fr. 
Sub-genus VIII. Mycena, Fr. 

Agaricus purus, P. 

dissiliens, Fr. 

filopes, Bull. 

epipterygius, Scop. 

corticola, Schum. 

hiemalis, Osbeck. 
Sub-genus IX. Omphalia, Fr. 

Agaricus fibula, Bull. 
Sub-genus XIII. Entoloma, Fr. 

Agaricus sericeus, Bull. 
Sub-genus XV. Claudopus, Smith 

Agaricus variabilis, P. 
Sub-genus XVII. Nolanea, Fr. 

Agaricus pascuus, P. 



FAMILY L HYMENOMYCBTES (continued) 
Order I. Agaracini (continued) 
Genus I. Agaricus, L. (continued) 
Sub-genus XIX. Pholiota, Fr. 
Agaricus praecox, P. 

comosus, Fr. 

squarrosus, Mflll. 
Sub-genus XX. Hebeloma, Fr. 

Agaricus pyriodorus, P. 

rimosus, Bull. 

geophyllus, Sow. 
Sub-genus XXI. Flamula, Fr. 

Agaricus inopus, Fr. 
Sub-genus XXII. Crepidotus, Fr. 

Agaricus mollis, Schaeff. 
Sub-genus XXIII. Naucoria, Fr. 

Agaricus horizontalis, Bull. 

melinoides, Fr. 

festiva, Fr. 
Sub-genus XXIV. Galera, Fr. 

Agaricus tener, Schasff. 

hypnorum, Batsch. 
Sub-genus XXVI. Psalliota, Fr. 

Agaricus arvensis, Schaeff 
Sub-genus XXVIH. Stropharia, Fr. 
Agaricus aeruginosus, Curt. 

stercorarius, Fr. 

Sub-genus XXIX. Hypholoma, Fr. 

Agaricus fascicularis, Hud. 
Sub-genus XXX. Psilocybe, Fr. 

Agaricus semilanceatus, Fr. 
Sub-genus XXXI. Psathyra, Fr. 

Agaricus gossypinus, Fr. 
Sub-genus XXXIII. Panaeolus, Fr. 

Agaricus separatus, L. 

fimiputris, Bull 

fimicola, Fr. 

papilionaceus, Bull. 
Genus 2. Coprinus, Fr. 

Coprinus comatus, Fr. 

atramentarius, Fr. 

micaceus, Fr. 

nycthemerus, Fr. 

radiatus, Fr. 

ephemerus, Fr. 
Genus 3. Bolbitius, Fr. 

Bolbitius fragilis, Fr. 

titubans, Fr. 
Genus 4. Cortinarius, Fr. 

Sub-genus I. Phlegmacium, Fr. 

Cortinarius turbinatus, Fr. 
Sub-genus III. Inoloma, Fr. 

Cortinarius violaceus, Fr. 
Sub-genus IV. Dermocybe, Fr. 

Cortinarius sanguineus, Fr. 



77 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 






FAMILY I. HYMENOMYCETES (continued} 
Order I. Agaracini (continued) 

Genus 4. Cortinarius, Fr. (continued) 
Sub-genus V. Telamonia, Fr. 
Cortinarius evernius, Fr. 

hinnuleus, Fr. 
Genus 5. Lepista, Smith 

Lepista nuda, Bull. 

cinerascens, Bull. 
Genus 6. Paxillus, Fr. 

Paxillus involutus, Fr. 
Genus 7. Hygrophorus, Fr. 
Hygrophorus eburneus, Fr. 

- hypothejus, Fr. 

- virgineus, Fr. 

coccineus, Fr. 

- puniceus, Fr. 

- obrusseus, Fr. 

- conicus, Fr. 

psittacinus, Fr. 
Genus 8. Gomphidius, Fr. 

Gomphidius glutinosus, Fr. 
Genus 9. Lactarius, Fr. 

Lactarius torminosus, Fr. 

zonarius, Fr. 

blennius, Fr. 

- plumbeus, Fr. 

acris, Fr. 

deliciosus, Fr. 

chrysorrhaeus, Fr. 

piperitus, Fr. 

subdulcis, Fr. 

vietus, Fr. 

aurantiacus, Fr. 
Genus 10. Russula, Fr. 

Russula nigricans, Fr. 

rubra, Fr. 

Genus 1 1 . Cantharellus, Adams 
Cantharellus, cibarius, Fr. 

tubaeformis, Fr. 

infundibuliformis, Fr. 

cinereus, Fr. 

muscigenus, Fr. 

lobatus, Fr. 
Genus 1 3. Marasmius, Fr. 

Marasmius peronatus, Fr. 

porreus, Fr. 

oreades, Fr. 

rotula, Fr. 

fcetidus, Fr. 

epiphyllus, Fr. 
Genus 14. Lentinus, Fr. 

Lentinus tigrinus, Fr. 

flabelliformis, Fr. 
Genus 15. Panus, Fr. 

Panus conchatus, Fr. 

stypticus, Fr. 

Genus 17. Schizophyllum, Fr. 
Schizophyllum commune, Fr. 



FAMILY I. HYMENOMYCETES (continued) 
Order I. Agaracini (continued) 
Genus 1 8. Lenzites, Fr. 
Lenzites betulina, Fr. 

flaccida, Fr. 
Order II. Polyporei 

Genus 19. Boletus, Fr. 
Boletus flavus, With. 

piperitus, Bull. 

chrysenteron, Fr. 

edulis, Bull. 

scaber, Fr. 

cyanescens, Bull. 

castaneus, Bull. 
Genus 20. Polyporus 

Polyporus fuscidulus, Fr. 

perennis, Fr. 

squamosus, Fr. 

elegans, Fr. 

sulfureus, Fr. 

- heteroclitus, Fr. 

caesius, Fr. 

- hispidus, Fr. 

cuticularis, Fr 

betulinus, Fr. 
ignarius, Fr. 

ulmarius, Fr. 

fraxineus, Fr. 

variegatus, Fr. 

annosus, Fr. 

versicolor, Fr. 

abietinus, Fr. 

Vaillantii, Fr. 

hybridus, Fr. 

trabeus, Fr. 
Genus 21. Trametes, Fr. 

Trametes pini, Fr. 

suaveolens, Fr. 

odora, Fr. 

Genus 22. Daedalea, Fr. 
Daedalea quercina, P. 

confragrosa, P. 

unicolor, Fr. 
Genus 23. Merulius, Fr. 

Merulius corium, Fr. 

lacrymans, Fr. 
Genus 27. Fistulina, Bull. 

Fistulina hepatica, Fr. 
Order HI. Hydnei 

Genus 28. Hydnum, L. 
Hydnum repandum, L. 

auriscalpium, L. 

squalinum, Fr. 

membranaceum, Bull. 
Order IV, Auricularini 

Genus 36. Craterellus, Fr. 

Craterellus cornucopioides, Fr. 
Genus 37. Thelephora, Fr. 

Thelephora cristata, Fr. 



BOTANY 



FAMILY I. HVMENOMYCETES (continued) 
Order IV. Auricularlni (continued) 

Genus 37. Thelephora, Fr. (continued) 
Thelephora anthocephala, Fr. 

laciniata, Fr. 

biennis, Fr. 
Genus 38. Stcreum, Fr. 

Stereum purpureum, Fr. 

hirsutum, Fr. 

spadiceum, Fr. 

quercinum, Potter 
Genus 39. Hymenochaste, Lev. 

Hymenochsete rubiginosa, Lev. 
Genus 40. Auricularia, Fr. 

Auricularia mesenterica, Bull. 
Genus 41. Corticium, Fr. 

Corticium casruleum, Fr. 

lactcum, Fr. 
Order V. Clavariei 

Genus 45. Clavaria, L. 
Clavaria amethystina, Bull. 

fastigiata, DC. 

- muscoides, L. 

- coralloides, L. 

- rugosa, Bull. 

- fusciformis, Sow. 

- fragilis, Holmsk. 

- pistillaris, L. 
Genus 46. Calocera, Fr. 

Calocera cornea, Fr. 
Genus 47. Typhula, Fr. 
Typhula erythropus, Fr. 

phacorrhiza, Fr. 

filiform is, Fr. 
Genus 49. Tremella, Fr. 

Tremella frondosa, Fr. 

mesenterica, Retz. 

vesicaria, Bull. 
Genus Dacryomyces, Nees. 

Dacryomyces chrysocomus, Tul. 

FAMILY II. GASTEROMYCETES 
Order VIII. Phalloidei 
Genus 66. Phallus, Linn. 
Phallus impudicus, Linn. 
Cynophallus caninus, Fr. 
Order IX. Trichogastret 
Genus 67. Tulostoma, P. 

Tulostoma mammosum, Fr. 
Genus 68. Geaster, Mich. 
Geaster coliformis, P. 

Bryantii, Berk. 

fornicatus, Fr. 

limbatus, Fr. 

mammosus, Chev. 
Genus 69. Bovista, Dill. 

Bovista nigrescens, P. 

- plumbea, P. 

Genus 70. Lycoperdon, Tourn. 
Lycoperdon giganteum, Batsch. 



FAMILY II. GASTEROMYCETES (continued) 
Order IX. Trichogastres (continued) 
Genus 70. Lycoperdon, Tourn. (cent.) 

Lycoperdon pusillum, Fr. 
- gemmatum, Fr. 

pyriforme, Schxff. 
Genus 71. Scleroderma, P. 

Scleroderma vulgare, Fr. 

verrucosum, Pers. 
Order X. Myxogastres 

Genus 74. Lycogala, Mich. 

Lycogala epidendrum, Fr. 
Genus 75. Reticularia, Bull. 

Reticularia umbrina, Fr. 

lycoperdon, Bull. 
Genus 76. ^Ethalium, Link. 

j^Ethalium vaporarium, Fr. 

septicum, Fr. 
Genus 79. Diderma, P. 

Didcrma vernicosum, P. 
Genus 85. Dichsea, Fr. 

Dichaea elegans, Fr. 
Genus 86. Stemonitis, Gled. 

Stemonitis ferruginea, Ehrb. 

typhoides, DC. 
Genus 90. Arcyria, Hill. 

Arcyria cinerea, Schum. 
Genus 92. Trichia, Hall. 
Trichia fallax, P. 

nigripes, P. 

turbinata, With. 

varia, P. 

Genus 94. Licea, Schrad. 

Licea cylindrica, Fr. 
Order XI. Nidu/ariacei, Tul. 
Genus 96. Cyathus, Pers. 

Cyathus vernicosus, DC. 
Genus 97. Crucibulum, Tul. 

Crucibulum vulgare, Tul. 
Genus 99. Sphaerobolus, Tode. 

Sphaerobolus stellatus, Tode. 

FAMILY III. CONIOMYCETES 
Order XII. Sphtsronemei 
Genus 104. Phoma, Fr. 

Phoma napo-brassicae, Rost. 
Genus 125. Ascochyta, Lib. 

Ascochyta metulispora, B. ct Br. 
Genus 132. Asteroma, DC. 

Asteroma rosae, DC. 
Order XV. Pucciniai 

Genus 167. Puccinia, Pers. 
Puccinia graminis, Pers. 

betonicae, DC. 

sparsa, Cooke. 

anemones, Pers. 

epilobii, DC. 
Order XVI. Cceomacel 

Genus 171. Ustilago, Link. 
Ustilago carbo, Tul. 



79 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



FAMILY III. CONIOMYCETES (continued) 
Order XVI. Ctsomacei (continued) 

Genus 171. Ustilago, Link, (continued) 
Ustilago hordei, Kell. et Swing. 

avenae, Jensen 

antherarum, Fr. 
Genus 174. Urocystis, Rabh. 

Urocystis agropyri, Preuss. 

pompholygodes, Schlecht. 
Genus 175. Uromyces, Lev. 

Uromyces ficarias, Lev. 

alchemillas, Pers. 

Genus 176. Coleosporium, Lev. 

Coleosporium tussilaginis, Lev. 
Genus 177. Melampsora, Cast. 

Melampsora salicina, Lev. 
Genus 178. Cystopus, de Bary. 

Cystopus candidus, Lev. 
Genus 179. Uredo, Lev. 

Uredo potentillarum, DC. 

pustulata, P. 

Genus 1 80. Trichobasis, Lev. 

Trichobasis suaveolens, Lev. 
Order XVII. faidiacei 

Genus 184. ./Ecidium, Pers. 

/Ecidium tragopogonis, Pers. 

leucospermum, DC. 

epilobii, D.C. 

ranunculacearum, DC. 
Order XIX. Stilbacei 

Genus 195. Tubercularia, Tode. 

Tubercularia persicina, Ditm. 
Order XXI. Mucedines 

Genus 230. Peronospora, de Bary. 
Peronospora (Phytophthora) infestans, 
Mont. 

parasitica, Pers. 
Genus 234. Polyactis, Link. 

Polyactis cinerea, Berk. 
Order XXII. Sepedoniei 

Genus 256. Sepedonium, Link. 

Sepedonium chrysospermum, Link. 
Genus 257. Fusisporium, Link. 

Fusisporium roseolum, Steph. 
Order XXIV. Mucorini 
Genus 266. Mucor, Mich. 

Mucor mucedo, L. 
Genus 267. Pilobolus, Tode. 

Pilobolus crystallinus Tode. 

roridus, Schum. 
FAMILY VII. ASCOMYCETES 

Order XXVll. Perhporiacei 

Genus 277. Sphserotheca, Lev. 
Sphaerotheca pannosa, Lev. 

castagnei, Lev. 

Genus 282. Erysiphe, Hedw. 
Erysiphe graminis, DC. 

Martii, Lk. 

Genus 283. Chaetomium, Kze. 
Chastomium elatum, Kze. 



FAMILY VII. ASCOMYCETES (continued) 
Order XXFII1. Ehellacei 
Genus 286. Morchella, Dill. 
Morchella esculenta, Pers. 

semilibera, DC. 
Genus 288. Helvella, Linn. 

Helvella crispa, Fr. 

elastica, Bull. 
Genus 291. Spathularia, P. 

Spathularia flavida, Pers. 
Genus 292. Leotia, Hill. 

Leotia lubrica, Pers. 
Genus 294. Geoglossum, P. 

Geoglossum glabrum, P. 
Genus 296. Peziza, Linn. 

Peziza macropus, Pers. 

cochleata, Huds. 

onotica, P. 

aurantia, Fr. 

humosa, Fr. 

granulata, Bull 

coccinea, Jacq. 

melastoma, Sow. 

hemispherica, Wigg. 

scutellata, L. 

stercorea, Pers. 

virginea, Batsch. 

bicolor, Bull 

firma, Pers. 

inflexa, Bolt. 

cinerea, Batsch. 

(Dasyscypha) Wilkommii, Wilk. 
Genus 297. Helotium, Fr. 

Helotium citrinum, Fr. 

lenticulare, Fr. 

serotinum, Fr. 

Genus 304. Ascobolus, Tode. 

Ascobolus furfuraceus, Pers. 
Genus 305. Bulgaria, Fr. 

Bulgaria inquinans, Fr. 

sarcoides, Fr. 
Genus 307. Stictis, Pers. 

Stictis radiata, Pers. 
Order XXX. Phacidiacei 
Genus 320. Phacidium, Fr. 

Phacidium coronatum, Fr. 
Genus 322. Rhytisma Fr. 

Rhytisma acerinum, Fr. 
Genus 326. Colpoma, Wallr. 

Colpoma quercinum, Wallr. 
Genus 330. Stegia, Fr. 

Stegia ilicis, Fr. 
Order XXXI. Sphxriacei 
Genus 332. Torrubia, Lev. 

Torrubia militaris, Fr. 
Genus 334. EpichloS, Fr. 

Epicbloe typhina, Berk. 
Genus 335. Hypocrea, Fr. 

Hypocrea rufa, Fr. 



80 



BOTANY 



FAMILY VII. ASCOMYCETES (continued) 
Order XXXI. Sphteriacei (continued) 
Genus 338. Nectria, Fr. 
Nectria cinnabarina, Fr. 

coccinea, Fr. 

sanguinea, Fr. 
Genus 339. Xylaria, Fr. 

Xylaria hypoxylon, Grev. 
Genus 340. Poronia, Fr. 

Poronia punctata, Fr. 
Genus 342. Ustulina, Tul. 

Ustulina vulgaris, Tul. 
Genus 343. Hypoxylon, Fr. 

Hypoxylon multiforme, Fr. 

ruscum, Fr. 

concentricum, Grev. 

coccineum, Bull. 



FAMILY VII. ASCOMYCETES (continued) 
Order XXXI. Sphteriacei (continued) 
Genus 344. Nummularia, Tul. 

Nummularia Bulliardi, Tul. 
Genus 345. Eutype, Tul. 

Eutype Acharii, Tul. 
Genus 348. Dothidea, Fr. 

Dothidea graminis, Fr. 
Genus 349. Diatrype, Fr. 

Diatrype disciformis, Fr. 

bullata, Fr. 
Genus 35 1. Valsa, Fr. 

Valsa coronata, Fr. 
Genus 356. Sphasria, Hall 

Sphaeria ovina, Pers. 

spermoides, Hoffm. 

acuta, Moug. 



81 



ii 



ZOOLOGY 

MARINE ZOOLOGY 

The investigations of marine zoologists of world-wide reputation 
have been carried out on the coasts of Northumberland and Durham. 
Such men were Joshua Alder and Albany Hancock. Contemporary 
with these, though younger men, were Richard Howse (better known 
as a geologist), Henry Brady, who studied the Foraminifera, and George 
Hodge. All these are deceased, the last dying when he was quite 
young. Others are still living, Canon A. M. Norman, Professor G. S. 
Brady, and A. Meek, the last having, during the past three years, worked 
perseveringly at some groups of the Crustacea and at the Fishes. On 
the labours of all these and their publications, as well as on some hitherto 
unrecorded observations, the lists here given of the various classes of the 
marine fauna are based. 

The Durham coast-line is most unfavourable for the life of shore 
and shallow-water animals, since it is utterly devoid of sheltered bays, 
and subject to the constant beating of the waves of a sea which is rarely 
calm. The fauna of the North Sea has a decidedly boreal facies. Large 
numbers of southern forms which are to be met with at the same 
latitude on the western side of England being absent, while there is a 
larger infusion of Scandinavian species. 

The chief shore collecting ground of Alder, of Hancock, and of 
others has been that situated just north of the mouth of the Tyne 
(Cullercoats, Whitley, etc.) and separated from the coast of Durham by 
only a few miles. It is probable therefore that all the species which 
are known from these localities live also on the Durham coast, but direct 
evidence of that fact being wanting, they are not here included in its 
fauna ; and this applies not only to the animals found living between 
tide-marks, but also to numerous small shells collected from shell-sand, 
which shell-sand, however, may have been drifted either from the south 
or from the north. On the other hand, species which have been 
recorded as obtained from the fishing-boats at Cullercoats are included, 
as it is quite as probable that they were brought in from the south as 
from the north of that harbour ; and moreover it may be safely assumed 
that at a distance from land the same animals, perhaps without exception, 
would be found for some miles on both sides of the mouth of the 
Tync. 

83 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



FORAMINIFERA 

' A Catalogue of the Recent Foraminifera of Northumberland and Durham,' by H. B. 
Brady, F.R.S., etc., will be found in Trans. Nat. Hist. Sac. Northumberland and Durham, i. 
(1867), 83-107, pi. xii. The list contains seventy-four forms, of which the following 
fifty-eight have occurred off the Durham coast : 



Cornuspira foRacea, Phil. 
Bihculina ringens, Lamk. 

depressa, d'Orb. 

elongate, d'Orb. 
Spirolocufina limbate, d'Orb. 

planulata, Lamk. 

cxcavata, d'Orb. 
Trikculina trigonula, Lamk. 

oblonga, Mont. 
QuinjuelocuRna seminulum, Linn. 

bicornis, W. and J. 

secam, d'Orb. 

subrotunda, Mont. 

fasca, H. B. Bra. 
Trocbammina inflate, Mont. 
Reophax scorpiurus, Mont. 
Haplopbragmium canariense,d'Orb. 
ValvuRna fasca, Will. 
Textularia variabilis, Will. 

complexa, H. B. Bra. 



Textularia pygmiea, d'Orb. 

sagittttla, Defrance 

trochus, d'Orb. 
Bigeneraria digitate, d'Orb. 
Verneuilina polystropba, Reuss 
BuRmina pupoides, d'Orb. 

aculeata, d'Orb. 

marginata, d'Orb. 
Lagana sulcata, W. and J. 

Levis, Mont. 

striate, Mont. 

semistriata, Will. 

gkbosa, Mont. 

marginata, Mont. 

squamosa, Mont. 

caudate, d'Orb. 

distorta, Par. and Jones 
Nodosaria scalarit, Batsch. 

pyrula, d'Orb. 

communis, d'Orb. 



faginufina legumem, Linn. 

linearis, Mont. 
Polymorphina lactea, W. and J. 

compressa, d'Orb. 

tubuhsa, d'Orb. 
Uvigerina angulosa, Will. 
Orbulina universa, d'Orb. 
Globigerina bulloides, d'Orb. 
Discorbina globularis, d'Orb. 

rosacea, d'Orb. 
PlanorbuRna mediterranea, d'Orb. 
Truncatulina lobalula, Walker. 
Rotalia beccarii, Linn. 
Polystomella crisfa, Linn. 

itriato-punctate. Fich. and 

Moll. 
Nonionina umbilicate, Mont. 

depressula, W. and J. 

scapba, Fich. and Moll. 



PORIFERA (Sponges) 

The following species are recorded in Bowerbank's Monograph of British Spongiadte from 
off the Durham coast, in vol. iv. 1882 ; but the sponges have not been studied in the North 
Sea, and very much remains to be done with respect to this class. 



Hymeniacidon coccineus, Bow. 

virgulatus, Bow. The type of a new species 
Halichondria cyRndrica, Bow. The type of a new 

species 

panicea, Pall. 



HaRchondria virgea, Bow. The type of a new species 
Isodictya pygrntea, Bow. 

facorum, Johns. 

lurida, Bow. 
Spongionella pulcbella, Sow. 



CCELENTERATA (Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, etc.] 

See Alder (J.) 'Catalogue of Zoophytes of Northumberland and Durham' (Trans. Tyneside 
Nat. Field Club, vol. iii. 1857) and ' Supplement to Catalogue of the Zoophytes of Northumber- 
land and Durham' (Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club, vol. v. 1863). Some additional species 
will be found in papers by Mr. J. Alder and Canon A. M. Norman in Nat. Hist. Trans. 
Northumberland and Durham, i. (1867), 4564. The nomenclature has been brought up to 
the present time. 



Clava multicauRs, ForskSl 
Merona cornucopia, Norman 
Coryne pusilla, Gaertner 
Syncorjne sarsi, Loven 

eximia, AUman 
Gemmaria implexa, Alder 
Dicoryne conferta, Alder 
Bougainvillia ramosa, Van Beneden 
Perigonimus repens, St. Wright 

linearis, Alder 
Atractylis arenosa, Alder 
Eudendrium ramosum, Linn. 

rameum, Pall. 

capillare, Aid. 



Hydractinia echinata, Fleming 
Podocoryne areolata, Aid. 
Corynopsis Alderi, Hodge 
Corymorpha nutans, M. Sars 
Tubularia indivisa, Linn. 

larynx, Ell. and Sol. 

simplex, Aid. 

gracilis, Harvey 
Clytia johnstoni, Aid. 
ObeRa geniculata, Linn. 

gelatinosa, Pall. 

longissima, Pall. 

dicbotoma, Linn. 
Campanularia voIubiRs, Linn. 

84 



Campanularia, hincksii, Aid. 

verticillate, Linn. 

Jlexuosa, Hincks 

neglecte, Aid. 

raridenteta, Aid. 
CampanuRna acuminata, Aid. 
Cuspidella bumilis, Hincks 
Salacia abietina, M. Sars 
Filellum serf ens, Hass. 
Halecium halecinum, Linn. 

beanii, Johnst. 

labrosum, Aid. 

tenellum, Hincks 

Jilifirme, Aid. (?) 



MARINE ZOOLOGY 



Haltcium muricatum, Ell. and Sol. 
StrtuJaria fumila, Linn. 

operculata, Linn. 

- fibula, Ell. and Sol. 

atietina, Linn. 

polyzanias, Linn. 

gayi, Lamx. 

tricuspidata, Aid. 

rugoia, Linn. 

teneUa, Aid. 
Dipbasia macea, Linn. 

fallax, Johnst. 

pinaster, Ell. and Sol. 

tamariica, Linn. 
Ilydrallmannia fiikata. Linn. 
Selaginopiis Jusca, Johnst. 
Thuiona argentea, Ell. and Sol. 



Thuiaria cupressina, Ell. and Sol. 

tbuia, Linn. 

articulate, Pall. 
Aglaophenia pluma, Linn. 
Ptumularia pinnata, Lamk. 

frutetcens, Lamk. 

sitacea, Ellis 

cathtrina, Johnst. 

baUcioides, Aid. 

echlnulata, Lamk. 
Heteropyxis ramosa, Lamx. 
Antennularia antennina, Linn. 
Cyanea capillata, Linn. 

imporcata, Norman 
HaRclyitus auricula, Rathkc 
Lucernaria campanulata, Lamx. 



Alcyonium digitatum, Linn. 
Pennatuta pbospborea, Linn. 
y'trgularia mirabiRs, O. F. Mull. 
Metridium ituile, Linn. 
Sagartia pura, Aid. 

= pelluicida. Aid. 
troglodytes, Johnit. 
PhelTut glausapata, Gosse 
Actinia tquina, Linn. 
Bulocera tueditf, Johnst. 
Chondracantbia digitata, O. F. 

Mull. 

Urtocina crassicornii, O. F. Moll. 
Stomphia cburch'ur, Gosse 
Epizoantkus incruitatus, Dtlb. and 

Kor. 



ECHINODERMATA (Star-Jishes, Sea-urchins, etc.] 

The following list is based on the catalogue of Mr. G. Hodge ; l the exact nomenclature 
in some instances being changed. 



Antedtn macea, Linck. 
Ophiura lacertosa, Penn 

albida, Forbes 

affinis, Lotk. 

squamosa, Ldtk. 
OphiopboRs aculeata, Moll. 
Ofbiactis ballii, Thomp. 
Ampbiura tltgant, Leach 

filijbrmis, Moll. 

cbiajei, Forbes 
Ophiocoma nigra, Abild. 
Ophiothrix fragiRs, Abild. 
Astnptcttn irregularis, Penn 



Luidia sarsi. Dab. and Kor. 
Gmiatter phrygianus, Par. 
Crossaster pappoius, Fabr. 
SolasUr endeca, Linn. 
Cribrella tanguinolenta, Mtlll. 
Aittrias rubens, Linn. 

- t'iolacea, Mull. 

- bispida, Penn 

miil/en, M. Sars 
Echinus eiculentus, Linn. 
Partcbinus miRaris, Leske 
Strongyloctntntui dribacbieniii, M Oil. 

var. pictus, Norman 



Ecbinocyamus pusillui, Moll. 
Spatangus purpureus, Mull. 
Brisiopsis lyrifera, Forbes 
Ecbinocardium cordatum, Penn. 

cvatum, Leske. 

Cucumaria elongata, Dub. and 
Kor. 

lactea, Forbes and Goods. 
Phyllopborus drummondiijff . Thorn. 
Tbyonejutus, Moll. 

raphanus, Dub. and Kor. 
Psolus pbantapus, Linn. 



ANNELIDA 

Scarcely anything is known of the Annelida of the Durham coast. The few species of 
the following list have been recorded by Professor Mclntosh. 1 The meagreness of this 
report may perhaps induce some naturalist in the county to take up the study of this much 
neglected group. 



Eurylfpta vittata, Mont. 
Planaria angulata, Moll. 
Qmmatoplea pulchra, John. 
Mecktlia annulala, Mont. 
Eupbmyne foliosa, Aud. and Edw. 
Aphrodite aculeata, Linn. 
Lepidonotus sjuamatus. Linn. 
Nycbia cirrboia, Pall. 
Harmotboe imbricata, Linn. 
Polynoe longisetis, Gr. 
Haloiydna gelatinoia, San 
Stbenelaii boa, Johnst. 
Pholoe minuta, Fabr. 
Notopbyllum polynoidet, drst 
Ophiodromuj vittatus, Sars. 

1 ' Catalogue of the Echinodermi of Northumberland and Durham,' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soe. Nortbumb. 
and Durham, iv. (1871), 120-149. 

1 Mclntosh (W. C.), ' Report on a Collection of Annelids dredged off Northumberland and 
Durham,' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soe. Northumb. and Durham, iv. (1871), 118-120. 

85 



Scylfts armillaris, Moll. 
Notocirrus scoAcus, Maclnt. 
Nereis pelagica, Linn. 
Leodice norvegica, Linn. 
Notbria conchylega, Sars 
HyaRncecia tubicola, Mull. 
Goniada maculata, CErst. 
Glycera goesi, Mgr. 
Scolophoi armiger, Mflll. 
E utnenia jejfreysii, Mclnt. 
Epbesia graciRs, H. Rath. 
Trophonia plumosa, Moll. 
glauca, Mgr. 
Cirratulus cirratus, Moll. 



Capitella capitata, Fabr. 
Ammochares ottonis, Grube 
Amphictene auricula, Mull. 
Amphiteis gunneri, Sara 
Sabtllides octorirrata, Sars 
Amphitrite cirrata, Moll. 
Terebella figulus, Dalyell. 
RttoraRs, Dalyell. 
Pista cristata, Moll. 
Trichobranchus glaciaRs, Mgr. 
Sabella penicillin, Linn. 
Chone infundibuRformis, Kroyer 
Pntula protensa, Grube 
FiRgrana implexa, Berk. 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



PODOSOMATA (Leach) 
( = PYCNOGONOIDEA) 

Papers on the Podosomata by Mr. George Hodge will be found in vols. v. and vi. of 
Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club and vol. i. of Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland and Durham. 



Pycnogpnum Kttorale, StrOm 
Pboxicbilidium femoratum, Rathke 
Anopkdactylus petiolatus, Kroyer 

= Pallene attenuata and 
pygntiea, Hodge 



Ammothea ecbinata, Hodge 
=AcheRa brevipes, 
(the young.) 
Nymphon brevirostre, Hodge 

rubrurn, Hodge 

Ibrevitarse, Kroyer 



Nymphon gracile, Leach 

mixtum, Kroyer 

grossipes, O. Fab. 

llongitane, Kroyer 

giganteum, Johnst. 
Cbtftonymphon hlrtum, O. Fab. 



POLYZOA 

The following list is based on personal observations, but chiefly on Mr. Alder's catalogue 
and its supplement (Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club, 1857 and 1863). The nomenclature 
used there has been corrected to that employed in Hinck's/firtary of the British Polyzoa, 1880; 
although that nomenclature is at the present time undergoing much modification. 



JEtea anguina, Linn. 
Eucratea chelata, Linn. 
Gemellaria hricata, Linn. 
Cellukna couchii. Busk 
Menipea ternata, Ell. and Sol. 
Scrupocellaria scruposa, Linn. 

scabra, T. Van Ben 

reptans, Linn. 
Bicellaria ciliata, Linn. 
Bugula avicularia, Linn. 

turbinata, Aid. 

flabellata, J. V. Thomp. 

plumosa, Pall. 

purpurotincta, Norman 

murrayana, Johnst. 
Cellaria fstuksa, Linn 

stnuosa, Hass. 
F/ustra JbRacea, Linn. 

secunfrms, Pall. 

earbasea, Ell. and Sol. 
Membranipora catenularia, Jameson 

pilosa, Linn. 

membranacea, Linn. 

Rneata, Linn. 

craticula, Aid. 

spinifera, Johnst. 

uaifornis, Fleming 

dumeriRi, Aud. 

aurita, Hincks 

JJemingii, Busk 



Cribrilina punctata, Hass. 
Microporella ciliata, Pall. 

malusii, Aud. 
Chorizopora brongniartii, Aud. 
Scbizoporella Knearis, Hass. 

auriculata, Hass. 

hyalina, Linn. 

unicornis, Johnst. 
Umbonula verrucosa, Esper 
Porella concinna, Busk 

compressa, Sow. 
Smituna landsborovii, Johnst. 

reticulata, ]. Macg. 

trispinosa, Johnst. 
Mucnnella peachii, Johnst. 

ventricosa, Hass. 

variolosa, Johnst. 

coccinea, Abild. 

pavonella, Aid. 
Palmicellaria skenei, Ell. and Sol. 
Rbyncopora bispinosa, Johnst. 
Retepora beaniana, King. 
Cellepora pumicosa, Linn. 

ramulosa, Linn. 

dichotoma, Hincks 

avicularis, Hincks 
Crisia cornuta, Linn. 

eburnea, Linn. 

dentlculata, Lamk. 



Stomatoporagranulata, H. M.-Edw. 

major, Johnst. 

dilatans, Johnst. 

fiingia, Couch 
Tubulipora flabellarls, Fab. 
Idmonea serpens, Linn. 
Diastopora patina, Lamk. 

obelia, Johnst. 
Licbenopora hispida, Flem. 
Alcyonidium gelatinoium, Linn 

birsutum, Flem. 

mamillatum, Aid. 

lineare, Hincks 

my tilt, Daly. 

albidum, Aid. 

polyoum, Hass. 

parasiticum, Flem. 
Flustrella hispida, Fab. 
Vesicularia spinosa, Linn. 
Amathia lendigera, Linn. 
Bowerbankia imbricata, Adams. 
Avenellafusca, Daly. 

Buskia nitens, Aid. 
Cylindrascium dilatalum, Hincks 
Triticella pedicillata, Aid. 
Valkeria uva, Linn. 
PedicelRna centua, Pall. 

belgica, Gosse 

gracilis, Sars 



TUNICATA (Sea-squirts or Ascidiam] 

On the authority of Alder and Hancock. 



Aicidia elliptica, Aid. and Han. 

- depressa, Aid. and Han. 

- ? aculeata, Aid. 

elongata, Aid. and Han. 

men tula, Mull. 

sordida, Aid. and Han. 

amaena, Han. 
Cuna intestinalis, Linn. 
Corella parallelogramma, Mall. 



Molgula sipbonata, Aid. 

citrina, Aid and Han. 
Eugyra arenosa, Aid. and Han. 
Cynthia echinata, Linn. 
Styela tuberosa, Macg. 

coriacea, Aid. and Han. 

sulcata, Aid. 

granulata, Aid. 

comata, Aid. 

86 



Styela vestita, Aid. 
grossularia, Van Ben. 
Thylacium variolosum, Gaert. 
Pelonaia corrugata, Forbes and 

Goods. 

Parasddia Flemingii, Aid. 
Didemnaum gelatinosum, Milne- 

Edw. 
Botryllus schhsseri, Pall. 






MOLLUSCS 

MARINE 

In 1848 Mr. J. Alder gave a' Catalogue of the Mollusca of North- 
umberland and Durham,' in the Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club. Subse- 
quently Alder and Hancock published through the Ray Society their 
magnificent monograph on the Nudibranchiate Mollusca, and in that work a 
large number of species were described or recorded from the north-east 
coast. Other lists of mollusca were subsequently added by Mr. Alder in 
vols. v. and vi. of the Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club, and vol. i. of 
the Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumberland and Durham. The Editor also 
possesses a MS. list given to him by Mr. Alder which contains additions 
to the fauna of the district as well as a list of certain names which were 
contained in Mr. Alder's original catalogue, and which he considered 
ought to be struck out. From these various sources the following list of 
Durham species has been compiled. 

The North Sea has long been famous for the very fine and rare 
species of mollusca which were brought in to the north-east coast by 
the long-line fishers, and were sold at very high prices, since at that 
time they were unknown elsewhere ; and at the present day, though 
most of them have been found in some other places, they are still rare, 
and highly esteemed by conchologists. These shells are Panopcea 
norvegica, Natica pallida, Amauropsis islandica, Liomesis dalei, Volutopsis 
norvegicus, Beringius turtoni, and Buccinofusus berniciensis ; more recently 
Calliostoma occidental has been added. They are all high-boreal forms 
which are found on the Norwegian coast. Although most of them are 
known now also to occur off the Aberdeenshire coast, in the sea around 
Shetland, and off the north-west of Scotland, nevertheless, the Dogger 
Bank neighbourhood is still likely to remain the chief locality from 
which collectors may hope to obtain specimens. 

AMPHINEURA 

Hanleja hanleyi (Bean) Callochiton krvii (Mont.) Craspedocbiltu albas (Linn.) 

Tonicella marmorea (Fab.) CrasfeJoctilut onyx (Speng) Acanthochitet fatcicularit (Linn.) 

ntbra (Lowe) cinereus (Linn.) 

PELECYPODA (Oysters, mussels, &c.) 

Ntuula n'ttiJa, Sow. Mytilui tdulis, Linn. Pttten maximal (Linn.) 

- nucleus (Linn.) yolsella modiolus, Linn. push (Linn.) 

tennis (Mont.) var. gigat, Norman variits (Linn.) 
Nuculana minuta (Mall.) MoJiolaria marmorata (Forbes) opercularis (Linn.) 
Anomia patelKftrmis, Linn. distort (Linn.) tigrinus (Mall.) 

ephipfium, Linn. discrepant (Leach) itriatus (Mall.) 
Area tttragina, Poli. Ostrea edulii, Linn. - simiRs (Laskey) 

8? 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Lima subauriculata (Mont.) 
Loscombi, Sow. 
Turtonia minuta (Fab.) 
Astarte sulcata (da Costa) 



compressa (Mont.) 
Cyprina Islandlca (Linn.) 
Lucina borealis (Linn.) 
Thyasirajlexuosa (Mont.) 
Mmtacuta lubstriata (Mont.) 

bldentata (Mont.) 
Tellimya Jitrruginosa (Mont.) 
Kellia suborbicularis (Mont.) 
Lasifa rubra (Mont.) 
Syndosmya prismatica (Mont.) 

nltlda (Mull.) 

alba (Wood) 

? tennis (Mont.) 
Scnbicularia plana (da Costa) 
Tellina crassa (Gmelin) 

tenuis, da Costa 



Rac.) 



Tellina fabula, Gron. 
Donax vittattis (da Costa) 
Mactra stultorum, Linn. 
Spisula soRda (Linn.) 

elliptica (Brown) 

subtruncata (da Costa) 
Lucinopsis undata (Penn.) 
Dosinia exoleta (Linn.) 

lufina (Linn.) 
Venus fasciata (da Costa) 

casino, Linn. 

ovata, Penn. 

gallina, Linn. 
Tapes virgineus (Linn.) 

pullastra (Mont.) 
Cardium echinatum, Linn. 

fasciatum, Mont. 

nodosum, Turton 

edule, Linn. 

Lcfvlcardlum norvegicum (Speng.) 
Psammobia tellinella, Lamk. 



Psammobiaferroensis (Chemn.) 

depressa, Penn. 
Mya arenaria, Linn. 

truncata, Linn. 
Corbula gibba (Olivi) 
Cultellus pellucidus (Penn.) 
Ensis ensis (Linn .) 

siliqua (Linn.) 
Panopea norvegica (Speng.) 
Saxicava rugosa (Linn.) 

arctica (Linn.) 
Borneo Candida (Linn.) 
Zirfiea crispata, Linn. 
Xylophaga dorsalis (Turton) 
Lyonsia norvegica (Chemn.) 
Cochhdesma pr<ttenue (Pult.) 
Thracia fragifrs, Penn. 

var. villosiuscula, Macg. 

cmvexa (W. Wood) 

distorta (Mont.) 
Cusp'idaria cuspidata (Olivi) 



SCAPHOPODA. 

Dentalium entalis, Linn. 



GASTROPODA (Whelks, 'winkles, 

I. PROSOBRANCHIA 



Patella depressa, Penn. 

vulgata, Linn. 
Helcion pellucidus (Linn.) 

var. latils, Penn. 
Acmcea testudinalis (Mall.) 

- vlrglnea (Mall.) 
Puncturella noachina (Linn.) 
Emarginula Jissura (Linn.) 
Eumargarita helicina (Fab.) 
Gibbula magus (Linn.) 

tumida (Mont.) 

cineraria (Linn.) 
Calliostoma montagui, W. Wood. 

miliare (Broc.) 

zizyphinus (Linn.) 

occidental*, Migh. 
Lacuna divaricata (Fab.) 

parva (da Costa) 

pallidula (da Costa) 
Littorina nerltoldes (Linn.) 

rudls (Maton) 

obtusata (Linn.) 

- ftttorea (Linn.) 
Rissoa inconspicua, Alder 

parva (da Costa) 
Alvanla reticulata (Mont.) 

punctura (Mont.) 

M anzonia costata (]. Adams) 
Onoba striata (]. Adams) 
Hyala vitrea (Mont.) 
Cingula semistriata (Mont.) 



Paludestrina stagnaKs (Baster.) 
Jeffreysia diaphana (Alder) 
Skenea planorbis (Fab.) 
Capulus hungaricus (Linn.) 
Trivia eunptfa (Mont.) 
Natica pallida, Brod. and Sow. 

catena (da Costa) 

alderi, Forbes 

montagui, Forbes 
Amauropsls islandicus (Gmelin) 
Lamellaria perspicua (Linn.) 
Velutina hevlgata (Penn.) 
Velutelta flexllls (Mont.) 
Scala turtonis (Turton) 

trevelyana (Leach) 
Odostomia conspicua, Alder 

uni Jen fata, Forbes and Hanley 

turrita, Hani. 
Brachystomia ambigua (Maton and 

Rack.) 

Ondina divisa (]. Adams) 
PyrguKna indistincta (Mont.) 

Interstlncta (Mont.) 
SpiraRnella spiralis (Mont.) 
Pyrgostelis interrupta (Totten) 
Eulimella scllla (Scac.) 

commutata, Monterosato 
Eulima intermedia, Cant. 

incurva (Ren.) 

gracllls, Forbes 

bilineata (Alder) 

88 



Stilifer turtoni (Turt.) 

Ceecum glabrum (Mont.) 

Turritella communis, Lamk. 

Trichotnpsis borealis, Brod. and 
Sow. 

Aporrhals pes-pelecani (Linn.) 

Buccinum undatum, Linn, 
var. KttoraRs, King 
var. striata, Penn. 
var. pelagica, King 
var. magna, King 

Liomesus dalei (]. Sow.) 

Neptunea antlqua (Linn.) 

Volutopsls norvegicus (Chem.) 

Beringius turtoni (Bean) 

Tritonofusus gracllls (da Costa) 

pnplnquus (Alder) 
Buccinofusus berniciensis (King) 
Trophon barvicensls, Johnst. 

truncata, Strom 
Purpura lapillus (Linn.) 
Nassa incrassata (Strom) 
Beta turricula (Mont.) 

trevelyana (Turt.) 

rufa (Mont.) 
Mangilia costata (Don.) 

brachystoma (Phil.) 
Teretia anceps (Eichw.) 
Clathurella leufroyi (Mich.) 

Safaris (Mont.) 



MOLLUSCS 



Adeem tornatilis (Linn.) 
Tomatina truncatula (Brug.) 

umbi/itata (Mont.) 

var. strigflla, Loven 
BuIIinella cyttndracea (Penn.) 
Roxania utriculus, Broc. 
Acera buliata (Mall.) 
Phttne icabra (Mall.) 

- quadrat* (S. V. Wood) 

punctata (Clark) 

pruinasa (Clark) 
Aplysla punctata, Cuv. 
AUeria modeita, Loven 
Limapontia capitate (Mall.) 

- depreaa, Aid and Hanc. 
Ceaia cocksi (Aid. and Hanc.) 



II. OPISTHOBRANCHIA 

EoRt papillosa (Linn.) 

Cuthona nana (Aid. and Hanc.) 

Cratena olivacea (Aid. and Hanc.) 

peachii (Aid. and Hanc.) 

nortkumbrica (Aid. and Hanc.) 
Galv'ina cingulata, Aid. and Hanc. 

tricolor (Forbes) 

exigua (Aid. and Hanc.) 
FaeeSna coronata, Forbes and 

Goodsir 

drummondi, Thomp. 
Herofirmoia (Loven) 
DotofragiKs (Forbes) 

coronata (Gmelin) 
DenJronotus frondosut (A$c.) 



PleurophylRdia loveni, Bergh. 
Tritonia homberg, Cuv. 

alba. Aid. and Hanc. 

plebela, Johnst. 
Arcbidorii tuberculata (Cuv.) 
Jortamajobnitmi (Aid. and Hanc.) 
Acanthodoris pilota (Mull.) 
LameUldoris bilamellata (Linn.) 
Triopa clavigera (Moll.) 

PaKo leitoni (d'Orb.) 
Polycera quadrilineata (Moll.) 
Goniodoris nodosa (Mont.) 
Idalina clegans (Leuckart) 

aspersa (Aid. and Hanc.) 
Altxia myoiotis (Drap.) 



CEPHALOPODA (Cuttle-fishes) 



LoRgoforbesi, Steenst. 

media (Linn.) 

marmorte, Verany. 



Sepia officiita&i, Linn. 
ruppellaria, d'Orb. 
Sepiola scandica, Steenst. 



Sepiola atlantica, d'Orb. 
Moichitei cirroia (Lamarck) 



89 



12 



, MOLLUSCS 

NON-MARINE 

Durham is not a county in which the non-marine mollusca find 
conditions suitable for their abundant development. 

In the large tract of Magnesian Limestone that extends from South 
Shields to Hartlepool along the coast, and is bounded on its inland exten- 
sion by an almost straight line from the latter place to Darlington, and by 
an irregular line from South Shields to Gainford (about seven miles west 
of Darlington), there are numerous valleys that produce a considerable 
number of land species. To the west, however, though the land surface 
is a good deal diversified, it is on the whole too hilly to afford suitable 
habitat. 

The small extent of marshes and ditches and the absence of canals 
or slow-running rivers account for the fact that the freshwater species are 
much less abundant here than in the more southern parts of England. 

Still, out of 140, or so, species met with in the British Islands, 
94 have been recorded for Durham, nor is this number likely to be 
much increased by further research. 

The most interesting form is Limax tenet/us, Mull., which was first 
described as British from a specimen procured in a wood at Allansford. 
It was generally supposed for some time that the individual so identified 
was merely the young of some other species ; quite recently, however, 
this slug has been re-discovered in several localities in the British Isles. 

Certain species that have been chronicled are excluded from the 
list. Helix lucida is an old record for a form of Vitrea, usually V. alliaria, 
the true V. lucida being until lately unknown to our conchologists. Unto 
pictorum and Planorbis vortex were recorded by Hogg (in Brewster's 
History of Stockton-on-Tees, 1827), but these identifications are doubt- 
ful. Similar uncertainty attaches to the record of L. brunneus, Drap., 
which was said to be frequent in damp woods. Dead shells of Vivi- 
para vivipara and Neritina Jiuviatilis have been met with on the coast, but 
have evidently been brought in ballast by ships. 

Pomatias elegans is found in Yorkshire, and has been recorded for 
Northumberland, so that its absence from Durham is noteworthy. Heli- 
cella cantiana, although included in our list, is not common, and is by 
some suspected to be a latter-day introduction, but then it has as yet not 
been found in the fossil state anywhere in Britain. 

With the exception of this last-named species there is an absence of 
all continental and south-western (or Lusitanian) forms, so that the assem- 
blage is of the normal north-British type. 

The literature of the subject is not very extensive, and mostly 
scattered, the two more important papers being that by J. Alder (the 
discoverer of several, and author of four British species) in the Trans- 
go 



MOLLUSCS 



actions of the Tyneside Naturalists Field Club, i. 1848 ; and one by 
Mr. W. D. Sutton in the Quarterly Journal of Conchology^ i. 1874. 
From these and minor articles, as well as from the Records of the 
Conchological Society, the following list has been compiled. 

For the sake of uniformity in the several County Histories the same 
nomenclature is here followed as in precursors in the series, but for the 
most recent information on this subject reference should be made to the 
List published by the Conchological Society. 



A. GASTROPODA 



I. PULMONATA 

a. STYLOMMATOPHORA 

Teitacella icutulum, Sby. Bensham, near Gateshead 
Umax maxlmui, Linn. 

tenellus, Mall. 

Jlavtu, Linn. 

arborum, Bouch. -Chant 
AgrioRmax agreit'u (Linn.) 

l*vii (Mail.) 
Amal'ia lotcerbii (Fir.) 

gagates (Drap.) South Shields. 
y. itrina pellucida (Mdll.) 

Vitrea crjttattna (Mall.) 

a&aria (Miller). Whitbum ; Cleadon ; Gates- 

head ; Durham 

glabra (Brit. Auct.). East Thickley 

cellaria (Moll.) 

nitiJula (Drap.) 

pura (Aid.) 

radiatula (Aid.) 

txcavata (Bean). Great High Wood ; Stella ; 

Gibside ; Durham 

nitlda (Mall.). Not common. 

fiiha (Mall.) 
Arion ater (Linn.) 

bortentii, Fir. 

circumscriptui, John. Middleton-one-Row 

tubfuscus (Drap.). Middleton-one-Row 
Punctual pjgmteum (Drap.). Rare and local. 
Pjramiduia rupestris (Drap.). Local; Manden,etc. 

ntundata (Mall.) 

HelRceOa virgata (Da. C.) 1 , , 

foafc (Linn.) / L 

caperata (Mont.) ' 

cantiana (Mont.). Not common ; more plen- 

tiful near Sundcrland 

Hjgromia fiuca (Mont.). High Force, Teesdale ; 
M iddlct on-onc-Row 

granulate (Aid.). Rare : Tanfield ; Dinsdale 

hiif'ula (Linn.) 

rufesctns (Penn.). Sundcrland and other parts 

of the magnesian limestone district 

Acanthinula aculeata (Moll.). Rare : Ryhope Dean ; 

Castle Eden Dean 

- lamellata (Jeff.)- Rare : Gibside Woods ; Tan- 
field Woods ; Walbottlc Dean 

raHtnia pulettlla (MtiA.). 

HeKcigona arbuttorum (Linn.) 

Htfix aspersa, Mall. 



HeKx mtmoraRt, Linn. 

hortensis, Mall. 
BuRminus obscurtu (Mall.) 
CochRcopa lubrica (Mull.) 

Azeca tridens (Pult.). Rather rare : Castle Eden ; 

Tanfield ; Stella ; Middleton-one-Row 
CteciRanella acicula (Mall.). Darlington 
Pupa angftca (Fer.). Casde Eden ; Walbottlc 

Dean ; Ryhope 

cyKnJracea (Da. C.). Frequent on sea banks 

muscorum (Linn.). Rare : Sunderland ; Ry- 

hope, etc. 
SphjraJium edentulum (Drap.). Rather rare : Castle 

Eden ; Ryhope Dean 
Vcrtigp minutissima, Hartm. Rare : Clanheugh ; 

Durham 

tubitriata (Jeff.). Near Newcastle ; Gibside 

Wood ; Heaton Dean ; Tanfield ; Stella 

fyg^"fo (Drap.) 

pusilla. Mull. Rather rare ; Tanfield ; Crow- 

hall Mill 

Baka perversa (Linn.). Casde Eden Dean ; Ry- 
hope Dean 

ClauilKa laminata (Mont.) 

bldentata (Strom.) 
Sutcinea putris (Linn.) 

6. BASOMMATOPHORA 

Caryckium minimum, Mdll. 

Melampui denficulatus (Mont.). South Shields ; 
Whitburn 

Alcxia mjosotu (Drap.). Seaton Carew 

Ancylus fuvlatlKs, Mull. 

Vellttia lacuitrii (Linn.). Rather rare : Middleton- 
one-Row 

Llmn<ta auric ularia (Linn.). Rather rare : near 
Darlington 

fereger (Mall.) 

palustrii (Mall.) 

truncatula (Mall.) 

ttagialis (Linn.) 

glabra (Mall.). Elwick Hall ; Sedgeficld 
Planorbis corneas (Linn.). Rare : near Darlington 

all/us, Mall. Local 

glaber, JcfF. Sedgcfield ; Whitburn 

nautileui (Linn.). Whitburn 

carinatui, Mall. In addition to the ordinary 

form a white variety has been taken at 
Bluestone Mill, near Norton 

marginatus, Drap. 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Planorbis sptrorbis, Mull. 

ctmtortus (Linn.) Local : Ryton Haughs ; 
near Stockton 

fmtanus (Lightf.). Rather rare : Middleton- 

one-Row ; Stockton 
Pbyiafmttnalis (Linn.) 

hypnorum (Linn.) 



II. PROSOBRANCHIATA 

Paludestrina stagnalls (Bast.). Mouth of the Tees ; 

Seaton Carew 
Bithynia tentaculata (Linn.) 
Valvata pise inalis (Mull.) 
cristata, Mull. 
Actcula llneata (Drap.). Rare : Castle Eden Dean 



B. PELECYPODA 



Unto margaritifer (Linn.). In the head waters of 

some streams 
Anodonta cygntea (Linn.) 
Sphcerium corneum (Linn.) 

lacustre (Mall.) 

Plsidium amnicum (Mall.). Rare: near Stockton- 
on-Tees, Jesmond Dean 

piulllum (Gmel.). Besides the typical form the 

variety, by some held to be a distinct 



species, P. obtusale, has been taken near 
Darlington 
Plsidium nitidum, Jenyns. Near Darlington 

fontinale (Drap.). In addition to the typical 

form, the variety P. pulchellum, by some 
held to be a distinct species, is plentiful 

milium (Held.). Brastide, near Durham ; 

Ryton Haughs 



92 






INSECTS 

Considering its comparatively small area and northern situation, the 
county of Durham possesses a fairly numerous insect fauna, although of 
course not to be compared with more southern districts. The surface of 
the county is exceedingly varied. Passing inland from the sea all kinds 
of situations are met with, from the grassy sand-dunes or flower-clad 
banks of the coast line, up through the highly-cultivated central districts, 
to the upper dales with their wooded glens and grassy or heather-clad 
hills. Marshland also is found along the Skern and Lower Tees. Thus 
maritime, marsh-loving, and Alpine species, as well as those preferring 
ordinary inland conditions, can all find a congenial habitat within the 
county. Again, with its three great seaports, through which pass large 
quantities of foreign timber and produce of various kinds, the county 
is continually receiving insect stowaways in one or other of their life 
stages, aliens in many cases undesirable aliens some of whom become 
naturalized in the land of their exile, and thus add to the variety of its 
insect life. Though far to the north and therefore outside the fringe of 
European Continental species which spread themselves over the southern 
counties, Durham, with its eastern situation, receives, at least at its 
southern border, part of the great migration stream which crosses the 
German Ocean from the Continent, and there is reason to believe that 
along with the birds there come from time to time insect immigrants, 
who either recruit the ranks of former arrivals or add new species to the 
county list. But, except among the Lepidoptera, the students of insect 
life within the county have been few. So much so, that almost on the 
eve of publication I was applied to by the editor to supply some account 
of the insects of Durham outside of the Lepidoptera and the Diptera, as 
he had been unable to get anyone to undertake the other orders. Only 
a few weeks were allowed to complete the work, and I had not made a 
special study of these other orders, having only undertaken to be respon- 
sible for the Diptera. Under these difficult circumstances, I must 
therefore plead for the indulgence of critics as regards any omissions or 
mistakes in the following lists, which, however, I believe very fairly 
represent our actual knowledge of the insect inhabitants of the county up 
to the present. 

ORTHOPTERA 

Earwigs, Grasshoppers, Crickets, Cockroaches, etc. 

This order has been entirely neglected in Durham, but it is very poorly represented as 
far as native or naturalised kinds are concerned, and there are probably under a dozen species 
in the county altogether. But occasionally curious foreigners make their appearance in fruit 
or cargoes of produce, and some make a vain attempt to obtain a footing, establishing them- 
selves for a time in some sheltered nook and apparently breeding, but eventually destroyed by 
the severity of the climate or the want of their natural food. 

93 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

FORFICULARIA 

Earwigs 

The common earwig Forficula auricu/aria, Linn. is exceedingly common everywhere. 
Outside of the Hymenoptera comparatively few insects ever see their progeny, and the exhibi- 
tion of parental care beyond the selection of a food plant is very rare. But the female earwig 
is a most devoted mother, ready to sacrifice her life in the protection of her brood. The 
Lesser Earwig Labia minor, Linn. is met with at several places, Birtley and near Hartlepool, 
etc. Anholabia maritina was abundant at one place, South Shields, in 1857, and during the 
next two years Alphitobius picipes was found in numbers in cavities of Slag in the neighbourhood 
of the same town. 

BLATTODEA 
Cockroaches 

There are 800 species of cockroaches, but only five or six inhabit Britain, of which there 
may be probably two or three in Durham, but there is no record of any except Blatta orientally 
Linn., the common house Cockroach or Black Beetle, only too abundant in old houses through- 
out the county. Blatta maderee has occurred at South Shields, introduced in cargoes. 
Panchlora exoleta, Burn., was taken alive this year at Bishop Auckland, introduced undoubtedly 
among bananas from South America. 

ACRIDIODEA 

Grasshoppers 

There are two or three green species, probably Stenobothrus bicolor, Chap., and S. parallelus, 
Zett., and the dark Gomphocerus macu/atus, Thunb., is common on the moors, but they have 
not been observed with any care. Gomphocerus rufus is recorded by Backhouse as taken at 
Sunderland and Waskerley. 

LOCUSTODEA 
Locusts 

I do not know of any of the British species having been found in the county, but two 
foreign species have been taken at Hartlepool, and in 1858 Pachytylus migratorius occurred 
at Sunderland and other places on the coast. 

GRYLLODEA 

Crickets 

Gryllotalpa vu/garis, the Mole Cricket, has been found near Hartlepool, probably intro- 
duced. Gryllus domesticus, Linn., is not uncommon in old country houses. 

NEUROPTERA 

Dragonflies, Stone-flies, Lacewings, Caddis-flies, etc. 

This is a very varied group, which contains many of our most splendid insects, but there 
is no record of its having received any systematic attention in this county. Everyone knows 
the great JEschnte, the Horse stingers, as they are called, although perfectly innocent of hurting 
either man or beast, and the gorgeous little Agrions that flit in numbers over almost every 
pond in summer ; but local entomologists seem to have been content with mere general 
observation. 

Of the Libellulidte, the only ones that have been recorded are Platetrum depressum, a bold, 
defiant insect of an inquisitive turn of mind, which often brings about its capture where pursuit 
would be hopeless, and, Libellula quadrimaculata, Linn., and Sympetrum vulgatum, both of which 
are to be found in Castle Eden Dene and other localities. 

The only British member of the Cordulegastrid<e, Cordulegaster annu/atus, Latr., may also 
be seen in several places, but it is not often captured. Of the Mschnidte, AZschna juncea, Linn., 
is fairly common in Hesleden, by the side of the Wear, and at Gibside, and Mschna grandis is 
recorded in Ornsby's Durham as having been taken in that neighbourhood. In the beautiful 
family of the Calopterygidts we have only one species as yet recorded, Calopteryx virgo, Linn., > 
but that is said to be common in the Browney valley. 

94 




INSECTS 

The last family of Dragonflies, containing the more numerous but smaller species, is that 
of the Agrionidee. I only know of three species, the common Agrion put Ha, Linn., which is 
abundant by most streams and ponds, Pyrrhosoma minium, also common at Gibside and else- 
where, and Ischnura elegans, Lind. 

Ephemerid<e,QT May-flies, Pcrlidee, or Stone-flies, such as Per/a marginata, Nemaura variegata, 
Chhroperla viridis, and many other species abound along all the numerous water-courses, as do 
also the SiaKdtc or Alderflies and the moth-like Trichopterte, or Caddis-flies, whose curious larvae 
cases, composed of a variety of material according to the species, are very common in every pond 
and stream. 

The Scorpion-fly, Panorpa community is very common everywhere, and the beautiful 
Lacewing-fly, or Golden Eye, Chrysopa vulgarly is often to be met with. Chrysopa per/a, 
Megalomui hirtus, L., Hemerobius marginatus, Ephemera vu/gata, Leptiphlebia marginata t L., 
Leptocerus albifrons, L., Rhyacophila dorsa/is t Curt., and Anabolia nervosa are also recorded locally 
by Backhouse. 

HYMENOPTERA 

Although the most interesting of all the insect tribes, the Hymenoptera have had but 
little attention paid to them in this county. What has been done has been chiefly in the 
aculeate section, in which only 101 species or varieties have so far been noted, while the Entomo- 
phaga are almost a blank, and the Phytophaga have a list of only twenty-three names. Yet 
there are nearly 400 Aculeata, about 600 Phytophaga, and a vast host of Entomophaga in the 
British Isles, and no doubt Durham possesses its fair share for a northern county, but it waits 
the advent of some painstaking entomologist to lay bare its riches in this deeply interesting 
order. 

ACULEATA 

Ants, Watpf) and Bees 

This is the highest section of the order. Their habits, especially those of the Social 
species, suggest the possession of something very like a reasoning faculty, and their life histories 
abound in interesting details. The wonderful adaptations of the various parts to the different 
needs of each species also supply numberless points of fascinating study. The following list 
of local species is chiefly that of Bold, to which but a few species have been added in the last 
fifty years. Only one or two call for special notice. The tiny little red ant Monomorium 
pharaonis, Linn., although not a native, has become a pest in several parts of the county, and 
especially in the Dipton district, where some of the miners* houses have been rendered 
uninhabitable by its abundance, and the District Council have had to attempt its destruction. 
They seem to be incapable of living away from inhabited houses. The rare ant Ponera 
contracta, Latr., is said to have been taken at South Shields, where also Mutilla europ<ea y Linn., 
has occasionally been found, both probably introduced. f^espa austriaca, Pz., has been taken 
at two places in the Derwent Valley by Mr. Robson of Birtley. As might be expected with 
its cold northern situation and clayey soil, the county of Durham is weak in the section of the 
sand wasps and solitary bees, whose habits require a light or sandy soil and the warm, sunny 
south ; but it is strong in the more robust species, and nearly all the Bombi occur in the 
county. 

HETEROGYNA PONERID* MYRMICIDJK (continued) 

FORMICID/E Ponera, Latr. Monomorium, Mayr 

Formica, Linn. contracta, Latr. South pharaonis, Linn. Intro- 

rufa, Linn. Common Shieldi, very rare duced, but firmly estab- 

fusca, Linn. Abundant MYRMICIDJE lished 
Lasius, Fab. Myrmica, Latr. 

fulginosus, Latr. Not com- rubra, Linn. 

mon r. kevinodis, Nyl. The FOSSORES 

flavus, De Gecr. Com- commonest here 

mon r. ruginodis, Nyl. Abun- MUTILLIDJB 

niger, Linn. Not very dant Mutilla, Linn. 

common r. scabrinodis, Nyl. europxa, Linn. Has been 

Campanotus sylvaticus has been Common taken occasionally at 

taken alive at Bishof r. lobicornis, Nyl. South South Shields (Bold) and 

Auckland in bananas Shields, rare S/iull (Backhouse) 

95 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



POM PI LI D^ 

Pompilus, Fab. 

plumbeus, Fab. South 

Shields 

gibbus, Fab. Abundant. 

pectinipes, V. de L. South 

Shields, rare 
Salius, Fab. 

exaltatus, Fab. Not com- 

mon 
SPHECIDJE 

Pemphredon, Latr. 

lugubris, Latr. Common. 

shuckardi, Mor. Very 

common 

lethifer, Shuck. Common. 
Mimesa, Shuck. 

bicolor, Fab. Dertventside 
Gorytes, Latr. 

tumidus, Panz. Gibside 

mystaceus, Linn. Abun- 

dant 

quadrifasciatus, Fab. Der- 

tventside 
Nysson, Latr. 

spinosus, Fab. Swatwell 
Mellinus, Fab. 

arvensis, Linn. Common 
Crabro. Fab. 

leucostomus, Linn. Not 

uncommon at Gibside 

podagricus, V. de L. 

quadrimaculatus, Dhlb. 

Gibside, rare ; Birtley 
(Robson) 

dimidiatus, Fab. Abundant 

chrysotomuSjLep.Common 

vagus, Linn. Common 

cribrarius, Linn. Common 

peltarius, Schieb. Axwell 

Park, rare 

DIPLOPTERA 
VESPIDJE 

Vespa, Linn. 

vulgaris, Linn. Very 

abundant 

germanica, Fab. Not rare. 

Birtley (Robson) 

rufa, Linn. Common 

austriaca, Pz. Shotley Bridge 

and Ebchester (Robson) 

sylvestris, Scop. Hesleden, 

Birtley (Robson) 

norvegica, Fab. Common 
EmtBMM 

Odynerus, Latr. 

spinipes, Linn. Common 

pictus, Curt. Gibside, rare ; 

Birtley (Robson) ; Bishop 
Auckland 

- trimarginatus, Zett. Com- 

mon 

- trifasciatus,Oliv. Common 

parietinus, Linn. Very 

common 



ANTHOPHILA 
OBTUSILINGUES 

CoLLETIDJE 

Collates, Latr. 

daviesana, Smith. Gibside 

ACUTILINGUES 

ANDRENID.S 

Sphecodes, Latr. 

gibbus, Linn. Castle Eden, 

Axtaell Park 

ephippia, Linn. Common 

subquadratus, Smith. Birt- 

ley (Robson) 
Halictus, Latr. 

rubicundus, Christ. Com- 

mon 

cylindricus, Fab. Com- 

mon 

albipes,Kirb. Gibside, scarce 

subfasciatus, Nyl. Gib- 

sonees 

villosulus, Kirb. Gibside 

nitidiusculus, Kirb. Rare 

minutus, Kirb. Common 
Andrena, Fab. 

albicans, Kirb. Very com- 

mon 

rosae, Ps. 

var. trimmerana, Kirb. 
Common 

cineraria, Linn. Common 

fulva, Schr. Derwent Valley 

(Robson) and Bishop 
Auckland district 

clarkella, Kirb. Common 

nigroaenea, Kirb. Not un- 

common 

gwynana, Kirb. Not 

common 

furcata, Smith. Birtley 

(Robson) 

cingulata, Fab. Ravens- 

worth 

analis, Panz. Sfvaltcell, 

not uncommon 

coitana, Kirb. Gibside, etc., 

not uncommon 

minutula, Kirb. Common 

proxima, Kirb. Gibside 

(Bold) 

wilkella, Kirb. Birtley 

(Robson) 
Nomada, Fabr. 

succinta, Panz. Swalwell 

alternata, Kirb. Abundant 

ruficornis, Linn. Common 

bifida, Thorns. Bishop 

Auckland (W. J. W.) 

borealis, Zett. Winlaton, 

not uncommon 
Apt DM 

Chelostoma, Latr. 

florisomne, Linn. Com- 

mon 

96 



APIDJE (continued) 
Ccelioxys, Latr. 

elongata, Lep. On the 

Bents at South Shields 
Megachile, Latr. 

willughbiella, Kirb. Mar- 

ley Hill 

circumcincta, Lep. Abun- 

dant on the sea coast. 
Birtley (Robson) 

centuncularis, Linn. Not 

common 
Osmia, Panz. 

rufa, Linn. Not uncom- 

mon 

xanthomelana, Kirb. Rare 

caerulescens, Linn. Spar- 

ingly 
Anthophora, Latr. 

pilipes, Fab. Not uncom- 

mon. Birtley (Robson) 

furcata, Panz. Gibside 
Psithyrus, Lep. 

rupestris, Fab. Rare, al- 

though its host, Bombus 
lapidarius, is very com- 
mon 

vestalis, Fourc. Like its 

host, Bombus terrestris, 
it is abundant through- 
out the county 

barbutellus, Kirb. Com- 

mon. It associates with 
B. pratorum 

campestris, Panz. Very 

common in association 
with B. hortorum 
Bombus, Latr. 

venustus, Smith. Not 

common. Birtley (Rob- 
son) 

agrorum, Fab. Very 

common 

hortorum, Linn. Very 

common 

latreillellus, Kirb. Gibside. 

On the coast, etc. 
r. distinguendus, Mor. 
Birtley (Robson) 

sylvarum, Linn. Not rare 

derhamellus, Kirb. Rare. 

Birtley (Robson) 

lapidarius, Linn. Com- 

mon 

jonellus, Kirb. Gibside. 

Not common 

pratornm, Linn. Com- 

mon 

terrestris, Linn. Not very 

common. Birtley (Rob- 
son) 

r. lucorum, Smith. The 
commonest of the 
genus 
Apis, Linn. 

mellifica, Linn. Abundant 






INSECTS 



ENTOMOPHAGA 
Ichneumon-flits^ etc. 

The members of this large section have not been studied in the county. A good number 
of species are to be found in the miscellaneous drawers of Lepidopterists and others, but they 
await identification. The following are recorded from Durham in Buckler's Lepidopterous 
Larva. 

Platylabtus tricmgulatus, Grav., bred by Mr. Robson at Hartlepool from Eupithecia 
pulchellata, Steph. (the Foglove Pug). 

Paniicui testaceus, Grav., bred from Tethea subtusa (the Olive Moth). 

Meteorus pu/chricornis, Wesm., bred from dgrotis agathina, Dup. (the Heath Rustic Moth). 

Pimp/a graminelLe, Schr., bred from Orgyia antiqua. Linn, (the Vapourer Moth). 

Apanteles astrarcbe, Mar., bred from Lyaena agestis, Hub. (the Brown Argus Butterfly). 

Ichneumon ruficeps, Grav., bred from Selenia illunaria, Hub. (the Early Thorn Moth). 
The last five were all bred by Mr. Gardner at Hartlepool. 

Pimpla instigator, bred from pupa of Orgyia antiqua, Linn, (the Vapourer Moth), by Mr. 
Robson of Hartlepool. 

PHYTOPHAGA 

Saw -flies, Wood-wasps, and Gall-flies 

This section of the Hymenoptera has received very little attention in Durham, although 
the species are often large and showy, and the variety in the shaping of the saw-like ovipositor 
exceedingly interesting. No local entomologist has yet made a study of these insects, which 
are entirely absent in the older county lists. A few of the larger forms, which had forced 
themselves, so to speak, on local lepidopterists, I have found in their boxes of rejectamenta. 

The Great Yellow Sirex or Wood-wasp (Sirex gigas, Linn.) is not uncommon in coal- 
mines and woodyards, where it has been imported in the pit timber, and it is common in the 
Shull woods, where it has undoubtedly bred. The Blue Sirex (Sirex juvencus) has also been 
taken in pine woods on the upper Bedburn in such circumstances as to lead to the reasonable 
probability of its being county bred. There, also, have been taken on birch these other giants 
of the section, Cimbex and Trichiosoma . 

The following meagre list contains all the local species that I have been able to verify, 
but is probably scarcely a tithe of the number inhabiting the county. 



TENTHREDINID^E 

Tenthredo, Htg. 

- livida, Linn. (Backhouse) 

Bishop Auckland (W.) 

- maculata, Fourc. (Backhouse) 

B'tthop Auckland (W.) 

- dispar, Klug. Shull (Back- 

house) 

- atra, Linn. Darlington (Back- 

house) 

- mesomela, Linn. Bishop 

Auckland (W.) 

- obsoleta, Klug. Birtley (Rob- 

son) 
Tenthredopsis, Costa. 

- scutellaris, Fab. Bishop Auck- 

land (W.) 

- tristis, Ste. Bishop Auckland 

(W.) 

inornata, Cam. Hesleden 

(W.) 

nassata, Linn. Bishop Auck- 

land (W.) 
Macrophya, Dbm. 

- ncglccta, Klug. (Backhouse) 
Allantus, Jurine 

- scrophularix, Linn. Birtley 

(Robson), Bishop Auckland 
(W.) 



Allantus, Jurine 

tricinctus, Fab. Castle Eden 

(Backhouse), Hesleden (W.) 

arcuatus, Forst. DarRngton 



Dolerus, Jurine. 
- lateritius, Klug. (Backhouse) 

fulviventris, Scop. DarRng- 

ton (Backhouse), Harperley 
(W.) 

palustris, Klug. Shull (Back- 

house) 

anticus, Klug. Shull, etc. 

(Backhouse), GtbiiJe (W.) 

gonagra, Fab. Shull (Back- 

house), Gibside (W.) 



Selandria, Leach 

- serva, Fab. Gibside (W.) 
Blennocampa, Htg. 

nigrita, Fab. (Backhouse) 
Athalia, Leach 

lugens, Klug. (Backhouse) 
Cladius, 111. 

pectinicornis, Fourc. (Back- 

house) 

viminalis, Fall. (Backhouse) 
Nematus, Panz. 

leucogaster, Htg. Mar ley 



97 



Nematus, Panz. 

ribesii, Scop. Bishop Auck- 

land, etc. (W.) 
Cimbex, Oliv. 

sylvarum, Fab. Bedburn 

(Greenwell) 
Trichiosoma, Leach. 

lucorum, Linn. Stockton 

(Backhouse), Bedburn 
(Greenwell) 

betuleti, Klug. Stockton (Back- 

house), Bedburn (Green- 
well), Birtley (Robson) 
Abia, Leach. 

- sericea, Linn. Darlington 

(Backhouse) 
Hylotoma, Leach. 

- enodis, Linn. (Backhouse) 

ustulata, Linn. (Backhouse) 

pagana, Panz. (Backhouse) 

SIRICIDjE 

Sirex, Linn. 

- gigas, Linn. About ports, 

woodyards, and in coal- 
pits, imported. Breeds in 
Shull woods 

juvencus, Linn. Bedburn 

(Greenwell) 

13 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



COLEOPTERA 

Beetles 

In the county of Durham, the Coleoptera rank next after the Lepidoptera in the attention 
they have received from local entomologists, but with two or three notable exceptions that 
attention has been very slight. Fourteen species were recorded for the south of the county in 
Hogg's Natural History of the Ficinity of Stockton in 1827. The Rev. George Ornsby gives a 
list of 194 beetles in his sketches of Durham in 1846, but as some are included which have 
not since been recorded they must be looked upon as somewhat doubtful. In the middle of 
last century, Mr. J. T. Bold of Newcastle began issuing his lists of insects, mostly beetles, of 
Northumberland and Durham, which he revised and completed in 1870. His catalogue, 
omitting the species with only Northumberland localities, forms the foundation of the following 
county list. The work was then carried on by Mr. J. Gardner of Hartlepool, who worked 
hard for many years and added several new records for the county. And now, when failing 
eyesight has compelled him to desist, the work has been taken up in the northern part of the 
county by a most promising young entomologist, Mr. R. S. Bagnall of Winlaton, who has 
not only confirmed several hundreds of Hold's records, but has added a considerable number of 
new and rare species to the list. To both of these gentlemen, and also to Mr. C. S. Robson of 
Birtley, I am indebted for a large amount of information which renders the following list, 
though hurriedly compiled, a fairly correct record of the county species as at present known. 
The order is that followed in Beare and Donnisthorpe's Catalogue of British Coleoptera published 
last year (1904). The names of the authorities for the records are appended, as they give a 
general indication of the locality, Bold's name standing for the north of the county in the 
middle of the i gth century, Gardner's for the south of the county in the later half of the same 
century, and Bagnall's for the north of the county in the beginning of the 2Oth century. 1 



CICINDELID^E 

Cicindela, L. 

campestris, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

CARABID^ 

Cychrus, F. 

rostratus, L. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall) 
Carabus, L. 

catenulatus, Scop. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

nemoralis,Mull. (Bold) Near 

Blanchland, Apr., 1903, 
by Mr. Campbell (Bagnall) 

violaceus, L. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

nitens, L. (Bold, Bagnall 

Gardner) 

v. niger, Sem. Teesdale 
(Gardner) 

granulatus, L. (Bold) 

monilis,F. (Corder,Gardner) 

arvensis, Hbst. (Bold, Corder) 
Notiophilus, Dum. 

biguttatus, F. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

substriatus, Wat. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

aquaticus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

palustris, Duft. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 



Leistus, Froh. 

spinibarbis, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

fulvibarbis, Dj. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

ferrugineus,L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

rufescens, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Nebria, Lat. 

brevicollis, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) Also Red variety 
occasionally (Bagnall) 

gyllenhali, Sch. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Elaphrus, F. 

riparius, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

cupreus, Duft. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Loricera, Lat. 

pilicornis, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Clivina, Lat. 

fossor, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

collaris, Hbst. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Dyschirius, Bon. 

globosus, Hbst. (Bold) 
Broscus, Pz. 

cephalotes, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Badister, Clair. 

bipustulatus, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

sodalis, Duft. Rare. Castle 

Eden Dene (Bold) 



Licinus, L. 

depressus, Pk. Very rare 
(Bold, Gardner) 

Stenolophus, Dj. 

vespertinus, Pz. Near Ryton 

(Perkins) 
Bradycellus, Er. 

placidus,Gyll. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

cognatus,Gyll. Rare. On the 

mountains (Bold, Bagnall, 
Gardner) 

distinctus, Dj. Very rare 

(Bold). West Hartlepool, 
one specimen (Gardner) 

verbasci, Duft. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

harpalinus, Dj. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

collaris, Pk. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

similis, Dj. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Harpalus, Lat. 

puncticollis, Pk. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

ruficornis, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

aeneus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

tenebrosus, Dj. Very rare 

(Bold) 

rubripes, Duft. (Gardner) 

latus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 



1 For further list of Coleoptera see Addenda at end of this article. 

9 8 



INSECTS 



Harpalus, Lat. 

frcrlichi, Stm. Winlatm 

(Bagnall) 
Dichirotrichus, Duv. 

- pubescens, Pk. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Stomis, Clair. 

pumicatus, Pz. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Platyderus, Steph. 

ruficollis, Marsh. On the 

coast (Bold, Gardner) 
Pterostichus, Er. 

cupreus, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

versicolor, Stm. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

madidus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

xthiops, Pz. (Bold, Gardner) 

vitreus, Dj. (Bold, Gardner) 

parumpunctatus, Germ. 

(Bold, Bagnall) 

- niger, Schal. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

rulgaris, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- nigrita, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- strenuui, Pz. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

diligens, Stm. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

picimanus, Duft. Grtatham, 

very rare (Gardner) 

rernalis, Pz. (Bold, Bagnall) 

striola, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Amara, Bon. 

fulva, De G. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- apricaria, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

coniularis, Duft. Rarely met 

with (Bold). Hartlepool, 
very rare (Gardner) 

aulica, Pz. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

convexiuscula. Marsh ballast 

heaps at South Shield (Bold), 
Hartlepool (Gardner) 

rufbcincta, Dj. Rare, Hartle- 

pool (Gardner) 

bifrons, Gyll. Mostly on sea 

coast (Bold) 

ovata, F. Hartlepool (Gard- 

ner) 

similata.Gyll. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

acuminata, Pk. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

tibialis, Pk. Bents near South 

Shields (Bold) 

lunicollis, Schiod. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

spreta, Dj. Hartlepool, local 

(Gardner) 



Amara, Bon. 

familiaris, Duft. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

lucida, Duft. Not un- 

common, Hartlepool (Gard- 
ner) 

trivialis,Gyll. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

communis, Pz. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

plebeia, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Calathus, Bon. 

- cisteloides, Pz. (Bold, Bag- 
nall, Gardner) 

fuscus, F. (Bagnall, Gardner) 

flavipes, Fourc. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

mollis, Marsh. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

melanocephalus, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 
v. nubigena, Hal. On the 
moors (Bagnall) 

micropterus, Duft. (Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Amphigynus, Hal. 

piceus, Marsh. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Taphria, Bon. 

nivalis, Pz. (Bold) 
Pristonychus, Dj. 

terricola, Hbst. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Sphodrus, Clair. 

leucophthalmui, L. (Bold) 
Anchomenus, Er. 

angusticollis, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

dorsalis, Moll. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

albipes, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

oblongus, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 

marginatus, L. Near South 

Shields (Bold). In the old 
slake, Hartlepool, now a 
dock (Gardner) 

seipunctatus, L. Rlanchland 

moon (Campbell) 

parumpunctatus, F. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

atratus, Duft. (Bold) 

viduus, Pz. v. moestus, Duft. 

(Bold) Evidently com- 
moner than the type 
(Bagnall, Gardner) 

micans, Nic. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

fuliginosus, Pz. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

gracilis, Gyll. Near Burnop- 

field (Bagnall) 

piceus, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

ezpunctatus, L. Blanchland 

Moors (Campbell, Bagnall) 

99 



Olisthopas, Dj. 

rotundatus, Pk. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Tachys, Schaum. 

- focki, Hum. South Shields 

(Bold) 

bistriatus, Duft. South Shields 

(Bold) 

quadrisignatus, Duft. A single 

specimen has been taken 
at South Shields, probably 
introduced (Bold) 
Cillenus, Sam. 

lateralis, Sam. (Bold) 
Bembidium, Lat. 

rufescens, Guer. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

quinquestriatum, Gyll. (Bold) 

obtusum, Stm. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

guttula, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

mannerheimi, Sahl. Hartle- 

pool (Gardner) 

biguttatum, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

aeneum, Germ. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

clarki, Daws. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

minimum, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

- schuppeli, Dj. ( \ Bold) 

gilvipes, Stm. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

lampros, Hbst. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

nigricorne, Gyll. Blanchlana 

Moors (Bagnall) 

tibiale, Duft. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

atrocaeruleum, Steph. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

decorum, Pz. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

nitidulum, Marsh. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

affine, Steph. (Bold) 

monticola, Stm. (Bold, Harris, 

Gardner) 

stomoides, Dj. Rare (Bold, 

Bagnall). leesdale, rare 
(Gardner) 

quadriguttatum, F. (Bold) 

Hartlepool, local (Gardner) 

lunatum, Duf. (Bold) Hartle- 

pool, scarce (Gardner) 

testaceum, Duft. (Bold) 

concinnum, Steph. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

femoratum, Stm. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

bruxellense, Wesm. (Bold) 

saxatile, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

andrese, F. (Bold, Gardner^ 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Bembidium, Lat. 

littorale, Ol. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

bipunctatum, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

punctulatum, Drap. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

prasinum, Duft. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

- paludosum, Pz. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Tachypus, Lac. 

flavipes, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

Greatham (Gardner) 
Afipus, Sam. 

rnarinus, Strom. (Bold) 

robini, Lab. Confined to the 

coast (Bold) 
Trechus, Clair. 

discus, F. Greatham, one 

specimen (Gardner) 

micros, Hbst. (Bold) 

lapidosus, Daws. (Bold) 

rubens, F. Wlnkton Mill 

(Bold) 

minutus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- obtusus, Er. (Bold, Gardner) 

secalis, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall P) 
Patrobus, Dj. 

excavatus, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

assimilis, Chaud. Teesdale 

(Gardner) 
Cymindis, Lat. 

vaporariorum, L. Blanchland 

Moors (Bagnall) Teesdale, 
very rare (Blatch) 
Lebia, Lat. 

- chlorocephala, Hoff. (Bold) 

Sunder land (Corder), Har- 
llefool (Gardner) 
Demetrias, Bon. 

atricapillus, L. Rare (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Dromius, Bon. 

- linearis, Ol. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

agilis, F. Rare (Bold) 

meridionalis, Dj. Gibstde, 

(Bold, Bagnall, Gardner) 

quadrimaculatus, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

quadrinotatus, Pz. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

melanocephalus, Dj. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

nigriventriSjTh. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Metabletus, Schl. 

- foveola, Gyll. Marsden (Bold) 

HALIPLIDJE 

Brychius, Th. 

elevatus, Pz. (Bold) 



Haliplus, Lat. 

obliquus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

confinis, Steph. Marsden 

(Bold, Gardner) 

mucronatus, Steph. 

flavicollis, Stm. (Bold) 

fulvus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

variegatus, Stm. Very rare 

(Bold) 

cinereus, Aub. (? Bold) 

- ruficollis, De G. (Bold, 
Gardner) 

fluviatilis,Aub. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

striatus, Shp. Common at 

Greatham (Gardner) 

lineatocollis, Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

DYTISCID^E 

Noterus, Clair. 

sparsus, Marsh. Greatham 

common (Gardner) 
Laccophilus, Leach 

interruptus, Pz. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Hyphydrus, 111. 

ovatus, L. (Bold, Gardner) 
Ccelambus, Th. 

versicolor, Schal. (Bold) 

inaequalis, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

confluens,F. (Bold, Gardner) 

parallelogrammus,Ahr. (Bold, 

Gardner, Bagnall) 

impressopunctatus, Schal. 

(Gardner) 
Deronectes, Shp. 

latus, Steph. Hartlepool sands, 

rare (Gardner) 

assimilis, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

depressus, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

1 2-pustulatus, F. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

Hydroporus, Clair. 
- pictus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

granularis, L. (Bold) 

lepidus, Ol. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

rivalis, Gyll. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

septentrionalis, Gyll. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

davisi, Curt. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

dorsalis, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

lineatus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

tristis, Pk. (Bold) 

angustatus, Stm. (Bold) 

gyllenhali , Schiod. Rare (Bold) 

morio, Dj. (Bold) 

100 



Hydroporus, Clair. 

vittula, Er. (Bold, Gardner) 

palustris, L. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

incognitus, Shp. Rare (Bold) 

erythrocephalus, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

rufifrons, Duft. Boldon Flats 

(Bold) 

melanarius, Stm. Rare (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

mernnonius, Nic. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

obscurus, Stm. (Bold) 

nigrita, F. (Bold) 

discretus, Fair. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

pubescens, Gyll. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

planus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

lituratus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

marginatus, Duft. Greatham 

(Gardner) 

obsoletus, Aub. Greatham 

(Gardner) 
Agabus, Leach. 

guttatus, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

biguttatus, Ol. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 

paludosus,F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

uliginosus, L. Boldon Flats 

(Bold) 

unguicularis, Th. (Bold) 

didymus, Ol. Hartlepool and 

Hesleden (Gardner) 

nebulosus, Forst. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

conspersus, Marsh. (Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

femoralis,Pk. (Bold, Bagnall) 

sturmi, Gyll. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

chalconotus, Pz. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

bipustulatus, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Platambus, Th. 

maculatus, L. (Bagnall ?) 
Ilybius, Er. 

fuliginosuSjF. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

fenestratus, F. Greatham 

(Gardner) 

ater, De G. (Bold, Bagnall) 

obscurus, Marsh. (Bold) 

guttiger, Gyll. (Bold) 
Rhantus, Lac. 

exoletus, Forst. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

pulverosus, Steph. Rare, 

(Bold, Gardner) 
Colymbetes, Clair. 

fuscus, L. Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 



INSECTS 



Dytiscus, L. 

punctulatus, F. (Bold,Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

marginalis,L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Acilius, Leach. 

sulcatus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

GYRINID^E 

Gyrinus, Geof. 

minutus, F. Not common 

(Bold) 

natator, Scop. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 

elongatus, Aub. (Bold) 

bicolor,Pk. (Bold, Gardner) 

marinas, Gyll. (Bold, Bagnall) 

opacus, Sahl. (Bold) 
Orcctochilus, Lac. 

villosus, MaU. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

HYDROPHILID.fi 

Hydrobius, Leach. 

- fuscipcs,L. (Bold, Gardner) 
Philhydrus, Sol. 

mari timus, Th. Greatham, one 

specimen (Gardner) 

minutus, F. (Bold) 
Anacxna, Th. 

- globulus, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall) 

limbata, F. (Bold, Gardner) 
Laccobius, Er. 

alutaceus, Th. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 

minutus, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

bipunctatus, F. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 
Limnebius, Leach. 

truncatellus, Thunb. (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Chxtarthria, Steph. 

seminulum, Pk. Winlatm 

Mill (Hardy) 
Helophorus, F. 

rugosus,Ol. (Bold, Bagnall) 

nnbilus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- aquaticus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

v. aequ.il is, Th. Greatham 
(Gardner) 

xneipennis,Th. (Bold,Gard- 

ner) 

obscurus, Muls. v. shetland- 

icus, Kuw. (Bold) 

affinis, Marsh. Greatham 

(Gardner) 

brcvicollis,Th. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Hydrochns, Leach. 

elongatus, Schal. BoldonFlatt 

(Bold) 



Henicocerus, Steph. 

exsculptus, Germ. (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Ochthebius, Leach. 

marinus, Pk. Greatham 

(Gardner) 

pygmxus, F. (Bold) 

bicolon, Germ. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Hydraena, Kug. 

riparia, Kug. (Bold, Bagnall) 

nigrita,Germ. (Bold,Gardner) 

angustata, Stm. (Gardner) 

gracilis, Germ. (Bold) 

pygraza, Wat. Tyne (Bold) 

pulchella, Germ. (Bold) 
Cyclonotum, Er. 

orbiculare, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Sphxridium, F. 

scarabaeoides, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

bipnstulatum, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Cercyon, Leach. 

littoralis, Gyll. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

dcprcssus, Steph. Very rare 

(Bold) 

hxmorrhoidalis, F. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

flavipes, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

lateralis, Marsh. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

melanocephalus, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

unipunctatus, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

quisquilius, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

nigriceps, Marsh. (Bold) 

pygmaeus, 111. (Bold, Bagnall) 

terminatus, Marsh. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

analis, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Mcgasternum, Muls. 

bole tophagum, Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 
Cryptopleurum, Muls. 

atomarium, Ol. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

STAPHYLINID.fi 

Aleochara, Gr. 

ruficornis, Gr. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

fuscipes, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

lanuginosa, Gr. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

mocsta, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

nitida, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 
v. bilineata, Gyll. Somewhat 

rare. Confined to the coast 
(Bold) 

morion, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

101 



Aleochara, Gr. 

grisea, Kr. Rare. Amongst 

the algae on the shore 
(Bold, Gardner) 

algarum, Fauv. (Bold) 

obscurella, Er. Hartlepool 
Microglossa, Kr. 

- pulla, Gyll. Gibside (Bold) 
Oxypoda, Man. 

spectabilis, Mark. (Gardner, 

Bagnall) 

lividipennis, Man. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

opaca, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

alter nans, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

exoleta, Er. Very rare. Near 

South Shields (Bold) 

lentula, Er. Near Ravent- 

laorth (Hardy) 

umbrata, Gyll. (Bold) 

nigrina, Wat. (Bold) 

longtuscula, Gr. (Bold) 

annularis, Sahl. (Bold) 
Ischnoglossa, Kr. 

proliza, Gr. Saltwell, very 

rare. (Bold) 
Phlceopora, Er. 

- reptans, Gr. (Bold) 
Ocalea, Er. 

castanea, Er. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

badia, Er. Hartlepool (Blatch) 
Ilyobates, Kr. 

nigricollis, Pk. Coast and 

Gibside (Bold) 
Chilopora, Kr. 

longitarsis, Er. (Bold) 

rubicunda, Er. (Bold) 
Drusilla, Leach. 

canaliculata, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Callicerus, Gr. 

obscurus, Gr. (Bold) 
Homalota, Man. 

pavens, Er. (Bold) 

cambrica, Woll. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 

planifrons, Wat. Sands, South 

Shields (Bold) 

gregaria, Er. (Bold) 

imbccilla, Wat. Hartlepool 

(Blatch) 

luridiponnis, Man. (Bold) 

gyllenhali, Th. Team tide 

(Bold) 

hygrotopora, Kr. (Bold) 

elongatula, Gr. (Bold) 

volans, Scrib. (Bold) 

vestita, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

oblongiuscula, Shp. Team 

tide (Hardy) 

silvicola, Fuss. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 

vicina, Steph. (Bold) 

pagana, Er. (Bold) 

graminicola, Gr. (BoldV 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Homalota, Man. 

halobrectha, Shp. (Bold) 

puncticeps, Th. (Bold) 

occulta, Er. (? Bold) 

fungivora, Th. Team side 

(Hardy) 

picipes, Th. Rare (Bold) 

caesula, Er. South Shields and 

Marsden (Bold) 

circellaris, Gr. (Bold) 

immersa, Er. Rare (Bold) 

analis, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

depressa, Gyll. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

xanthoptera, Steph. (Bold) 

euryptera, Steph. (Bold) 

trinotata, Kr. (Bold) 

corvina, Th. (? Bold) 

atricolor, Shp. (Bold) 

- nigra, Kr. (Bold) 

germana, Shp. (Bold) 

cauta, Er. (Bold, Gardner) 

villosula, Kr. Saltwell, rare 

(Bold) 

- atramentaria, Gyll. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

longicornis, Gr. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

- sordida, Marsh. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

aterrima, Gr. (Bold, Bagnall) 

pygmaea, Gr. (Bold) 

muscorum, Bris. (Bold) 

pilosiventris, Th. Rare (Bold) 

laticollis, Steph. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

fungi, Gr. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

v. clientula, Er. (Bold) 
Ischnopoda, Th. 

coerulea, Sahl. (Bold) 
Tachyusa, Er. 

flavitarsis, Sahl. (Bold) 

umbratica, Er. (Bold) 
Myrmecopora, Saulcy. 

uvida, Er. Marsden (Hardy) 
Falagria, Steph. 

sulcata, Pk. (Bold) 

thoracica, Curt. Very rare. 

(Bold) 

obscura, Gr. (Bold) 
Autalia, Steph. 

impressa, Ol. (Bold, Gardner) 

rivularis, Gr. (? Bagnall) 
Gyrophaena, Man. 

pulchella, Heer. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 

affinis, Man. (Bold) 

gentilis, Er. (Bold, Gardner) 

nana, Pk. (Bold, Gardner) 

minima, Er. (Bold) 

laevipennis, Kr. (Bold) 

manca, Er. Rare (Bold, 

Gardner) 

- strictula, Er. 

ner) 



Agaricochara, Kr. 

laevicollis, Kr. RavenstvortA 

(Hardy) 
Leptusa, Kr. 

fumida, Er. (Bold) 
Sipalia, Rey. 

- ruficollis, Er. (Bold) 
Bolitochara, Man. 

lucida, Gr. Castle Eden Dene 

(Bold) 

lunulata, Pk. (Bold) 

obliqua, Er. (Gardner, Bag- 

nall) 
Phytosus, Curt. 

spinifer, Curt. Hartlepool 

(Blatch) 

balticus, Kr. Hartlepool (Gard- 

ner) 
Oligota, Man. 

- inflata, Man. (Bold) 
Myllaena, Er. 

dubia, Gr. (Bold) 

elongata, Mat. (Bold) 

brevicornis, Mat. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 
Gymnusa, Gr. 

brevicollis, Pk. (Bold) 

laeviusculus, Man. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 
Conosoma, Kr. 

littoreum, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

pubescens, Gr. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

immaculatum, Steph. Marsden 

(Perkins) 

lividum, Er. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Tachyporus, Gr. 

obtusus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

solutus, Er. Very rare. (Bold, 

Gardner f) 

chrysomelinus, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

humerosus, Er. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

hypnorum, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

pusillus, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

brunneus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

transversalis, Gr. (Bagnall) 
Lamprinus 

saginatus, Gr. Hartlepool, very 

rare (Gardner) 
Cilea, Duv. 

silphoides, L. (Bold, Gardner) 
Tachinus, Gr. 

flavipes, F. Hartlepool (Gard- 

ner) 

humeralis, Gr. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

proximus, Kr. Very rare 

(Bold, Gardner) 

pallipes, Gr. Hartlepool (Gard- 

ner) 

102 



Tachinus, Gr. 

rufipes, De G. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

subterraneus, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

marginellus, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

laticollis, Gr. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

collaris, Gr. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

elongatus, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Megacronus, Th. 

analis, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

inclinans, Gr. Ravensworth, 

i spec. (Bold) ; Hartlepool, 
rare (Gardner) 
Bryoporous, Kr. 

castaneus, Hardy. Hartlepool, 

rare (Gardner) 
Bolitobius, Steph. 

lunulatus, L. (Bold, Gardner) 

trinotatus, Er. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

exoletus, Er. (Bold, Gardner) 

pygmaeus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 
Mycetoporus, Man. 

splendens, Marsh. Rare (Bold, 

Gardner) 

lepidus, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

longulus, Man. Rare, (Bold, 

Gardner) 

nanus, Er. Hartlepool, abun- 

dant (Gardner) 
Quedius, Leach. 

longicornis, Kr. Hartlepool xtA 

Teesdale, rare (Gardner) 

lateralis, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

mesomelinus, Marsh. (Bold) 

fulgidus, F. (Bold, Gardner). 

cinctus, Pk. (Bold, Gardner) 

fuliginosus, Gr. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

tristis, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

molochinus, Gr. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

picipes, Man. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

nigriceps, Kr. Rare (Bold) 

fumatus, Steph. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

maurorufus, Gr. Gibside (Bold) 

umbrinus, Er. Rare (Bold, 

Gardner) 

scintillans, Gr. Very rare 

(Bold, Gardner) 

auricomus, Kies. Hartlepool 

and Teesdale (Gardner) 

rufides.Gr. South Shields (KolA, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

attenuatus, Gyll. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

semiaeneus, Steph. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 



INSECTS 



Quedius, Leach. 

fulvicollij, Steph. Rare (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

boops, Gr. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Creophilus, Man. 

maxillosus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
v. ciliaris, Steph. Derwtnt 

valley, rare (Bagnall) 
Leistotrophus, Pert. 

nebulosus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

murinus, L. Very rare (Bold) 
Staphylinus, L. 

pnbescens, De G. (Bold, 

Gardner, Bagnall) 

stercorarius, Ol. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

erythropterus, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

cacsareus, Ceder. Not fre- 

quent (Bold) 
Ocypus, Er. 

olens, Moll. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

limilis, F. Rare. (Bold) 

brunnipes, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

fiiscatus, Gr. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

cupreus, Ross. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

ater, Gr. (Bagnall?) Grtatham 

(Gardner) 

morio, Gr. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Philonthus, Curt. 

splendens, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

in termed! us, Bois. Very rare. 

Hartlefxtol (Hardy) 

laminatus, Crcntz. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

aeneus, Ross. (Bold, Gardner) 

proximus, Kr. (Bold) 

addendus, Shp. (Bold) 

carbonarius,Gyll.Rare (Bold) 

acutatus, Er. Sparingly (Bold) 

decorus, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

politus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

varius, Gyll. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

marginatus, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

albipes, Gr. Rare and local 

(Bold) 

umbratilis, Gr. Not common 

(Bold, Gardner) 

cephalotes, Gr. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

fimetarius, Gr. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

sordidus, Gr. (Bold) 

ebeninus.Gr. (Bold,Gardner) 

rumigatut, Er. (Bold) 



Philonthus, Curt. 

debilis, Gr. (Bold, Gardner) 

sanguinolentus, Gr. Rare. 

Coast (Bold, Gardner) 

longicornis, Steph. (Bold) 

varians, Pk. (Bold, Gardner) 

ventralis, Gr. (Bold) 

discoideus, Gr. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

micans.Gr. Bo/Jim Ffatj (Bold) 

nigritulus, Gr. (Bold) 

trossulus, Nor. (Gardner) 

puella, Nor. Not common. 

(Bold, Gardner) 
Cafius, Steph. 

fucicola, Curt. (Hardy, Gard- 

ner) 

zantholoma, Gr. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Xantholinus, Ser. 

fulgidus, F. Rare. (Bold) 

glabratus, Gr. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

punctulatus, Pk. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

ochraceus, Gyll. (Bold) 

tricolor, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

linearis, Ol. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

longiventris, Heer. (Bagnall) 
Leptacinus, Er. 

parumpunctatus, Gyll. Not 

frequent (Bold) 

batychrus, Gyll. Rather rare 

(Bold) 

linearis, Gr. (Bold) 
Baptolinus, Kr. 

alternans, Gr. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Othius, Steph. 

fulvipennis, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

melanocephalus, Gr. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

myrmecophilus, Kies. (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Lathrobium, Gr. 

elongatum, L. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

boreale, Hoch. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

fulvipenne, Gr. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

brunnipes, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

multipunctum, Gr. Rare, 

Denoent, Tyae, etc. (Bold) 
Cryptobium, Man. 

- glaberrimum, Hbst. (?Bold) 
Stilicus, Lat. 

rufipes, Germ. Rare (Bold) 

orbiculatus, Pk. (Bold) 

affinis, Er. (Bold, Gardner) 
Medon, Steph. 

pocofcr, Peyr. Rare. South 

Shield (Bold) 
103 



Medon, Steph. 

fusculus, Man. Rare. South 

Shields (Bold). The only 
north record (?) 

melanocephalus, F. Not 

common (Bold) 

obsoletus, Nor. Very rare. 

South Shields (Bold) 
Lithocharis, Lac. 

ochracea, Gr. (Bold) 
Evaesthctus, Gr. 

- fcaber, Gr. (Bagnall ?) 
Dianous, Curt. 

ccerulescens, Gyll. (Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Stenus, Lat. 

biguttatus, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

guttula, Moll. (Bold) 

bimaculatus, Gyll. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

juno, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

speculator, Lac. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

providus, Er., v. rogeri, Kr. 

Rare (Bold, Bagnall) 

buphthalmus, Gr. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

melanopus, Marsh. (Bold) 

atratulus, Er. (Bold) 

canaliculatus, Gyll. (Bold) 

- pusillus, Er. (Bold, Bagnall) 

declaratus, Er. (Bold) 

argus, Gr. Very rare (Bold) 

nigritulus, Gyll. Rare (Bold, 

Gardner) 

brunnipes, Steph. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

subxneus, Er. (Bold,Gardner) 

ossium, Steph. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

impressus, Germ. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

pallipes, Gr. Rare. Gibside 

and Ravensworth (Hardy) 

flavipes, Steph. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

pubescens, Steph. (Bold) 

binotatus, Ljun. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

pallitarsis, Steph. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

bifoveolatus, Gyll. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

nitidiusculus, Steph. (Bold) 

picipet, Steph. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

similis, Hbst. (Bold, Bagnall) 

paganus, Er. Rare. Gibside 

and Ravensworth (Bold) 
Bledius, Man. 

arenarius, Pk. (Bold) 

subterraneus, Er. Dement 

(Bold) 

opacus, Block. Deneent (Bold) 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Platystethus, Man. 

arenarius, Fourc. (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Oxytelus, Gr. 

- rugosus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

sculptus, Gr. (Bold) 

laqueatus, Marsh. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

sculpturatus, Gr. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

maritimus, Th. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

nitidulus, Gr. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

complanatus, Er. (Bold) 

tetracarinatus, Block. (Bold) 
Haploderus, Steph. 

caelatus, Gr. Rare (Bold) 
Trogophlceus, Man. 

arcuatus, Steph. Very rare 

(Bold) 

- bilineatus, Steph. (Bold) 

elongatulus, Steph. Rare. 

Algx on coast (Bold) 

pusillus, Gr. (Bold) 
Syntomium, Er. 

seneum, Mttll. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Coprophilus, Kr. 

striatulus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Anthophagus, Gr. 

testaceus, Gr. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Geodromicus, Redt. 

plagiatus, Heer., v. nigrita, 

Mttll. Dervient (Bold) 
Lesteva, Kr. 

longelytrata, Gcez. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

punctata, Er. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Acidota, Steph. 

crenata, F. (Hardy, Gard- 

ner) 

cruentata, Man. Teeidale 

(Gardner) 
Olophrum, Er. 

piceum, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

fuscum, Gr. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 
Lathrimaeum, Er. 

atrocephalum, Gyll. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

unicolor, Steph. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Deliphrum, Er. 

tectum, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Micralymma, West. 

brevipenne, Gyll. Sparingly. 

On coast (Bold) 
Philorinum, Kr. 

sordidum, Steph. (Bold) 



Coryphium, Steph. 

angusticolle, Steph. (Bold) 
Homalium, Gr. 

rivulare,Pk. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

rugulipenne, Rye. Hartle- 

pool (Gardner) 

laeviusculum, Gyll. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

riparium, Th. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

allardi, Fair. (Bold) 

exiguum, Gyll. Rare (Bold) 

oxyacanthae, Gr. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

excavatum, Steph. (Bold) 

caesum, Gr. (Bold) 

pusillum, Gr. (Bold) 

rufipes, Fourc. Not com- 

mon (Bold) 

vile, Er. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

iopterum, Steph. Rare (Bold) 

concinnum, Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

striatum, Gr. Boldon Flats 

(Bold) 
Acrulia, Th. 

inflata, Gyll. Ravensworth 

(Hardy) 
Eusphalerum, Kr. 

primula;, Steph. Gibside 

(Bold), Primrose and 
Guelderrose ; Gibside (Bag- 
nail) ; Hartlepool (Gard- 
ner) 
Anthobium, Steph. 

mmutum, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

ophthalmicum, Pk. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

torquatum, Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

- sorbi, Gyll. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Proteinus, Lat. 

ovalis, Steph. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

brachypterus, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Megarthrus, Steph. 

denticollis, Beck. (Bold) 

- affinis, Moll. (Bold) 

depressus, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

sinuatocollis, Lac. (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Phlceocharis, Man. 

snbtilissima, Man. (Bold) 
Clambus, Fisch. 

armadillo, De G. (Bold) 

minutus, Stm. (Bold) 

SILPHIDjE 

Agathidium, 111. 

nigripenne, Kug. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

I0 4 



Agathidium, 111. 

atrum, Pk. (Bagnall ?) 

marginatum, Stm. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

varians, Beck. (Bold, Bag- 

nail ?) 

rotundatum, Gyll. Rare 

(Bold). Lockhaugh (Bagnall) 

nigrinum, Stm. Gibside 

(Bold) 
Liodes, Lat. 

humeralis, Kug. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

glabra, Kug. Rare (Bold, 

Bagnall) 
Cyrtusa, Er. 

minuta, Ahr. One specimen 

in a pond near Hartlepool 
(Gardner) 
Anisotoma, 111. 

dubia, Kug. (Bold, Gard- 

ner, Bagnall) 

badia, Stm. Hartlepool (Gard- 

ner) 

ovalis, Schm. (Bold) 

punctulata, Gyll. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

calcarata, Er. (Gardner) 

curvipes, Schm. Hartlepool, 

one specimen (Gardner) 

triepkei, Schm. Hartlepool, 

one specimen (Gardner) 

rugosa, Steph. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 
Colenis, Er. 

- dentipes, Gyll. (Bold) 
Hydnobius, Schm. 

perrisi, Fair. Gateshead,vvry 

rare (Bold) ; Hartlepool, 
numerous (Gardner) 

punctatissimus, Steph. Very 

rare. Saltwell (Kirwood) 

punctatus, Stm. Hartlepool, 

one specimen (Gardner) 
Necrophorus, F. 

humator, Gcez. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 

mortuorum, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

vestigator, Hers. Birtley 

(Robson) 

ruspator, Er. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

vespillo, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Necrodes, Wilk. 

littoralis, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Silpha, L. 

- tristis, 111. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

nigrita, Cr. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

obscura, L. Rare (Bold, 

Gardner) 

quadripunctata, L. Rare 

Gibside (Perkins) 









INSECTS 



Silpha, L. 

- thoracica, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

rugosa, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- sinuata, F. Rare (Bold, 

Gardner) 

dispar, Hbst. South Shields, 

rare (Bold) 

- laevigata, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

- atrata, L. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 
v. brunnea, Hbst. Uncom- 
mon, Dement Valley (Bag- 
nail, Gardner) 
Choleva, Lat. 

- angustata, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- cisteloides, Fr8h. (Bold, Bag- 

nal, Gardner) 

spadicea, Stm. (Bagnall) 

- agilis, 111. Marsden (Hardy, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

- velox, Spence. (Bold, Bag- 

nal, Gardner) 

- wilkini, Spence. (Bold, Bag- 

nal, Gardner) 

anisotomoides, Spence. (Bold) 

- fusca, Pz. (Gardner) 

nigricans, Spence. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

longula, Kell. Hartlepool, 

very rare. (Gardner) 

morio, F. Rare (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

grandicollis, Er. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

- nigrita, Er. (Bold, Bagnall) 

tristis, Pz. (Bold, Gardner) 

kirbyi, Spence. (Bold) 

chrysomeloides, Pz. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

- fumata, Spence. (Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- watsoni, Spence. (Bold) 
Catops, Pk. 

- scriceus, Pz. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Colon, Hbst. 

- brunneum, Lat. Rare (Bold) 

dcnticulatum, Kr. Hartlepool, 

one specimen. (Gardner) 



Scydmxnus, Lat. 

- collaris, Moll. (Bold) 

- pusillus, Mall. Hotbeds, 

Gileigate Moor, Durham. 
(Little) 
Euconnns, Th. 

- hirticollis, 111. Hotbeds, 

Giltsgate Moor, Durham. 
(Little) 
fimetarius, Chaud. (Bold) 



Eomicrus, Lap. 

tarsatus,Mall. DurA<im(Bo\d), 

Tetsdale (Gardner) 

PSELAPHID^E 

Bythinus, Leach. 

- puncticollis, Den. (Bold) 

- bulbifer, Reich. (Bold, Bag- 

nall r) 

- curtisi, Den. Gibside (Hardy) 

- securiger, Reich. Ravensivorth 

(Bold) 

burrelli, Den. Hartlepool 

(Blatch) 
Bryaxis, Leach. 

juncorum, Leach. (Bold) 
Euplectus, Leach. 

nanus, Reich. (Bold) 

minutus, Marsh. (Bold) 
Trichopteryx, Kirb. 

- thoracica, Waltl. (? Bold) 

atomaria, De G. (Bold) 

grandicollis, Man. (? Bold) 

lata, Mots. Rather rare (Bold) 

fascicularis, Hbst. Very rare 

(Bold) 

- sericans, Heer. Very rare 

(Bold) 

- picicornis, Man. Rare (Bold) 

montandoni, All. Very rare 

(Bold) 

- chevrolati, All. Rare (Bold) 
Nephanes, Th. 

titan, New. Very rare (Bold) 
Ptilium, Er. 

- fbveolatum, All. Rare (Bold) 
Ptenidium, Er. 

punctatum, Gyll. Coast, on 

Alg* (Bold) 

nitidum, Heer. (Bold) 

evanescens, Marsh. (Bold) 

- wankowiezi, Mat. (?Bold) 

fbrmicetorum, Kr. Very rare 

(Bold) 

PHALACRID^E 

Phalacrns, Pk. 

corruscus, Pk. South Shields 

(Hardy) 
Olibrus, Er. 

aeneus, F. Winlatw Mill 

(Bagnall) 

COCCINELLID.* 

Hippodamia, Muls. 

ij-punctata, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 
Adalia, Muls. 

obliterata, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

bipunctata, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

105 



Mysia, Muls. 

oblongoguttata, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 
Anatis, Muls. 

ocellata, L. Not common 

(Bold, Bagnall, Gardner) 
Cocci nella, L. 

lo-punctata, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

hieroglyphica, L. Rare (Bold) 

- u-punctata, L. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 

- 5-punctata, L. (Bold) Rare 

(Bagnall) 

7-punctata, L. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 
Halyzia, Muls. 

14-guttata, L. (Bold) 

- 1 8-guttata, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

- 22-punctata, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Micraspis, Redt. 

- l6-punctata, L. (Bold) 
Scymnus, Kug. 

pygmasus, Fourc. Hartlepool 

(Hardy) 

suturalis, Thumb. (Bold) 

testaceus, Mots. (Bold) 
Exochomus, Redt. 

- quadripustulatus, L. (Bold) 
Rhizobius, Steph. 

- litura, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Coccidula, Kug. 

- rufa, Hbst. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

ENDOMYCHID^E 

Mycetsea, Steph. 

hirta, Marsh. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Endomychus, Pz. 

- coccincus, L. (Bold) 

EROTYLIDjE 

Triplax, Pk. 

- russica, L. Gibside (Bagnall) 

- aenea, Schal. (Bold, Bagnall) 

bicolor, Gyll. Gibiide (Bag- 

nall) 

COLYDIID^E 

Cerylon, Lat. 

histeroides, F. Rare (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

fagi, Bris. Winlaton Mill, 

rotten wood, one specimen 
(Bagnall) 

fcrrugincum, Steph. Wm- 

laton, Gibiide, &c., in rotten 
oak (Bagnall) 
Murmidius, Leach. 

ovalis, Beck. Has been found 

lire in Bengal rice (Bold) 

'4 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



HISTERID^E. 

Hister, L. 

unicolor, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

cadaverinus, HofF. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

succicola, Th. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

purpurascens, Hbst. Very 

rare (Bold) 

neglectus, Germ. Very rare 

(Bold) 

carbonarius, 111. (Bold, Bag- 

nall F) 

12-striatus, Schr. (Bold) 

bimaculatus, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Carcinops, Mars. 

14-striata, Steph. Rare, South 

Shields and Jarrovi (Bold) 
Gnathoncus, Duv. 

nannetensis, Mars. Rare. 

Roker (? Peacock) 
Saprinus, Er. 

nitidulus, Pk. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

aeneus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

virescens, Pk. Marsden 

(Wailes, Gardner) 
Hypocaccus, Th. 

rugifrons, Pk. South Shields 

(Bold) 
Pachylopus, Er. 

maritimus, Steph. (Bold) 

Stockton 
Acritus, Lee. 

minutus, Hbst. (Bold) 
Onthophilus, Leach. 

striatus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

MICROPEPLID^E. 

Micropeplus, Lat. 

porcatus, Pk. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

staphylinoides, Marsh. Rare 

(Bold, Gardner) 

margaritz, Duv. Rather rare 

(Bold, Gardner) 

NITIDULID^E. 

Brachypterus, Kug. 

gravidus, 111. Winlaton (Bag- 

nall) 

pubescens, Er. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

urticae, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Cercus, Lat. 

pedicularius, L. (Bold) Gib- 

side (Bagnall) 

bipustulatus, Pk. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

rufilabris, Lat. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 
Carpophilus, Leach. 

hemipterus, L. (Bold) 



Epuraea, Er. 

aestiva, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

melina, Er. Very rare (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

longula, Er. Gib side, one 

male (Bagnall) 

deleta, Er. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

parvula, Stm. Rather rare 

(Bold, Bagnall) 

obsoleta, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

pusilla, 111. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Nitidula, F. 

bipustulata, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

rufipes, L. Tyneiide (Hardy) 

flexuosa, F. South Shields, in- 

troduced (Bold) 
Soronia, Er. 

punctatissima, 111. (Bold) 

grisea, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Omosita, Er. 

depressa, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

colon, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

discoidea, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Pocadius, Er. 

ferruginous, F. Gibside (Bold) 
Meligethes, Kirb. 

rufipes, Gyll. Rare (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

lumbaris, Stm. Not common 

(Bold, Gardner) 

aeneus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

viridescens, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

pedicularius, Gyll. Very rare 

(Bold) 

flavipes, Stm. (Bold, Bagnall) 

picipes, Stm. (Bold, Bag- 

nail ?) 

obscurus, Er. Near Winlaton 

(Bagnall) 

erythropus, Gyll. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

brevis, Stm. (Bold) 

v. mutabilis, Rosen. Hartle- 

pool (Gardner), rare 
Cychramus, Kug. 

luteus, F. Rare (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

fungicola, Heer. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Ips, F. 

quadriguttata, F. Rare 

(Bold) 

quadripunctata, Hbst. (Bold) 

Rare. Winlaton Mill (Bag- 
nall) 

quadripustulata, L. (Bold) 

Teesdale (Gardner) 
Pityophagus, Shuck. 

ferrugineus, F. (Bold) 

106 



Rhizophagus, Hbst. 

cribratus, Gyll. Teesdale 

(Gardner) 

depressus, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

perforatus, Er. Rowland's Gill 

(Bagnall) 

parallelocollis, Gyll. (Bold) 

ferrugineus, Pk. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

dispar, Pk. (Bold) Lock- 

haugh (Bagnall) 

bipustulatus, F. (Bold) Der- 

went Valley, common (Bag- 
nail) 

coeruleipennis, Sahl. Rare. 

Dertaent (Hardy) 

TROGOSITID^: 

Tenebrioides, Pill. 

mauritanicus, L. Imported 

in rice (Bold) . Byermoor (F 
Johnson) 
Thymalus, Lat. 

limbatus, F. Very rare. 

Ravensworth (Bold) 

MONOTOMID-ffi 
Monotoma, Hbst. 

picipes, Hbst. (Bold) 

rufa, Redt. Very rare. South 

Shields (Bold) 

tongicollis, Gyll. (Bold) 

LATHRIDIID.E 

Holoparamecus, Curt. 

depressus, Curt. Sunder/and 

(Bold) 
Lathridius, Hbst. 

lardarius, De G. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

bergrothi, Reit. Common 

in cellars of Winlaton (Bag- 
nail) 
Coninomus, Th. 

nodifer, West. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 
Enicmus, Th. 

transversus, Ol. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

brevicornis, Man. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 
Corticaria, Marsh. 

pubescens, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

crenulata, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

denticullata, Gyl. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

serrata, Pk. (Bold) 

umbilicata, Beck. Sea banks 

(Bold) 

fulva, Com. (Bold, Bagnall) 

elongata, Gyll. (Bagnall) 

fenestralis, L. (Bold) 






INSECTS 



Melanophthalma, Mots. 

gibbosa, Hbst. (Bold) 

fuscula, Hum. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

CUCUJID.fi 

Lzmophloeus, Er. 

ferrugineus, Steph. Imported 

in grain (Bold, Gardner) 
Nausibius, Redt. 

dentatus, Marsh. Imported 

(Bold) 
Silvanus, Lat. 

surinamensis, L. (Bold) 

BYTURID.fi 

Byturus, Lat. 

sambuci, Scop. Not frequent 

(Bold) 

tomcntosus, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

CRYPTOPHAGIDjE 

Antherophagus, Lat. 

nigricornis, F. (Bold) 

- pallens, Ol. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Cryptophagus, Hbst. 

setulosus, Stm. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

pilosus, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

punctipennis, Bris. South 

ShieUs (Bold) 

saginatus, Stm. (Bold) 

umbratus, Er. (Bold) 

scanicus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

badius, Stm. Rare (Bold) 

validus, Kr. South Shields 

(Bold) 

dentatus, Hbst. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

distinguendus, Stm. Rare 

(Bold) 

- acutangulus, Gyll. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

fumatus, Gyll. Very rare 

(Bold) 

cellaris, Scop. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

- affinis, Stm. (Bold, Gardner) 

pubescens, Stm. Wtnlatm 

MiU (Bagnall) 
Micrambe, Th. 

vini, Pz. (Bold) 
Henoticus, Th. 

serratus, Gyll. Washington, 

very rare (Bold) 
Paramecosoma, Curt. 

melanocephalum,Hbst. (Bag- 

nail) 
Atomaria, Steph. 

fumata, Er. (Bold) 

nigriventris, Steph. (Bold) 



Automaria, Steph. 

umbrina, Gyll. Very rare 

(Bold) 

fuscipes, Gyll. (Bold) 

nigripennis, Pk. (Bold) 

fascata, Sch. (Bold) 

pusilla, Pk. (Bold) 

atricapilla, Steph. (Bold) 

berolinensis, Kr. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

apicalis, Er. (Bold) 

analis, Er. (Bold) 
Ephistemus, West. 

gyrinoides, Marsh. (Bold) 

SCAPHIDIID.fi 

Scaphidium, Ol. 

quadrimaculatum, Ol. Gib- 

//<& (Handcock andTaylor), 
Winlatan MiU (Bagnall) 
Scaphisoma, Leach. 

agaricinum, L. (Bold) 

MYCETOPHAGID.fi 

Typhxa, Curt. 

fumata, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Triphyllus, Lat. 

- suturalis, F. (Bold) 
Mycetophagus, Hell. 

quadripustulatus, L. Tetsdale 

(Gardner) 

DERMESTID.fi 

Dermestes, L. 

vulpinus, F. (Bold) 

frischi, Kug. South Shields 

(Bold) 

murinus, L. (Bold) 

lardarius, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Attagenus, Lat. 

pellio, L. (Bold) 
Florilinus, Mull. 

muszorum, L. Gib side 

(Wailes) 

BYRRHIDJS 

Byrrhus, L. 

pilula, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

fasciatus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

dorsalis, F. (Bold) 
Cytilus, Er. 

varius, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Simplocaria, Marsh. 

semistrtata, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Aspidiphorus, Lat. 

orbiculatus, Gyll. Rare 

(Bold) 

I0 7 



GEORYSSID.fi 

Georyssus, Lat. 

pygmcus, F. (Bold) 

PARNID.fi 

Elmis, Lat. 

aeneus, Mall. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

volkmari, Pz. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

cupreus, Mall. Heileden 

(Gardner) 

nitens, Mall. Hededen 

(Gardner) 
Limnius, Mull. 

tuberculatus, Moll. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 
Parnus, F. 

prolifericornis, F. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

auricubtus, Pz. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

HETEROCERID.fi 

Heterocerus, F. 

marginatus, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

LUCANID.fi 

Lucanus, L. 

cervus, L. Sunderland, intro- 

duced (Bagnall) 
Sinodendron, F. 

cylindricum, L. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 

SCARABjEID.fi 

Onthophagus, Lat. 

nuchicornis, L. Very rare. 

South Shields (Bold) 
Aphodius, 111. 

erraticus, L. (Bold, Gardner) 

subterraneus, L. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

ibssor, L. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

hzmorrhoidalis, L. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

foetens, F. (Bold) 

fimetarius, L. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 

scybalarius, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

ater, De G. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

granarius, L. Rare. South 

ShieUs (Bold), HartUfool 
(Gardner) 

sordidus, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 

rufescens, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

lapponum, Gyll. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

foetidus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

borealis, Gyll. (Bold) 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Aphodius, 111. 

- pusiUus,Hbst. (Bold,Bagnall) 

merdarius, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

inquinatus, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

tesselatus, Pk. Hartkpool 

(Gardner) 

conspurcatus, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

punctato-sulcatus, Stm. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

- prodromus, Brahm. (Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

- contaminatus, Hbst. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 
' luridus, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

rufipes, L. (Bold, Gardner) 

depressus, Kug. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
yEgialia, Lat. 

- sabuleti,Pk. (Bold, Bagnall) 

arenaria, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Geotrupes, Lat. 

stercorarius, L. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 

- sylvaticus, Pz. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

- vernalis, L. (Bagnall, Gard- 

ner) 
Serica, McL. 

- brunnea, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Melolontha, F. 

- vulgaris, F. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

hippocastani, F. (Bagnall) 
Phyllopertha, Kirk. 

- horticola, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Anomala, Sam. 

- frischi, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

ELATERID^E 

Lacon, Lap. 

murinus, L. (Bold, Gardner) 
Cryptohypnus, Esch. 

maritimus, Curt. Rare (Bold) 

riparius, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

dermestoides, Hbst. (Bold) 
Elater, L. 

balteatus, L. Not common 

(Bold) 
Melanotus, Esch. 

rufipes, Hbst. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Athous, Esch. 

niger, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

longicollis, Ol. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

haemorrhoidalis, F. (Bold, 

Robson, Gardner) 

- vittatus, F. (Bold) 



Limonius, Esch. 

cylindricus, Pk. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

minutus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Adrastus, Esch. 

limbatus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Agriotes, Esch. 

sputator, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

obscurus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

lineatus, L. (Bold, Bagnal), 
Gardner) 

sobrinus, Kies. (Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

pallidulus, 111. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Dolopius, Esch. 

marginatus, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Corymbites, Lat. 

castaneus, L. Rare. On the 

coast near Hawthorne Dene 
(Kirwood) 

pectinicornis, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

cupreus, F. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 
v. asruginosus, F. Not so 
common as type (Bagnall) 
Corymbites, Lat. 

tessellatus, F. Not common 

(Bold) 

quercus, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

holosericeus, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 
Campylus, Fisch. 

linearis, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

DASCILLID^E 
Dascillus, Lat. 

cervinus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Helodes, Lat. 

minuta, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

marginata, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Microcara, Th. 

livida, F. (Bold, Bagnall F) 
Cyphon, Pk. 

coarctatus, Pk. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

nitidulus,Th. (Bold, Bagnall) 

variabilis, Thunb. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

padi, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Hydrocyphon, Redt. 

deflexicollis, Mull. Rare 

(Bold) 
Eubria, Germ. 

palustris, Germ. Near Castle 

Eden Dene (Bold) 
108 



LAMPYRID^ 
Lampyris, L. 

noctiluca, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

TELEPHORID^ 
Podabrus, West. 

alpinus, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Ancistronycha, Mark. 

abdominalis, F. (Bold) Tees- 

dak (Harris and Blatch), 
(Bagnall) 
Telephorus, Schaef. 

rusticus, Fall. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

lividus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

pellucidus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

nigricans, Mull. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

lituratus, Fall. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

figuratus, Man. (Bold, Bag- 

nall ?, Gardner) 

bicolor, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

hsemorrhoidalis, F. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

flavilabris, Fall. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Rhagonycha, Esch. 

unicolor, Curt. (Bold) 

fulva, Scop. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

testacea, L. (Bagnall ?, Gard- 

ner) 

limbata,Th. (Bold, Bagnall) 

pallida, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

elongata, Fall. (Bold) 
Malthinus, Lat. 

punctatus, Fourc. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

frontalis, Marsh. Rare. Win- 

laton Mill (Bagnall) 
Malthodes, Kies. 

marginatus, Lat. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

mysticns, Kies. (Bold) 

pellucidus, Kies. Not com- 

mon. GUslde (Bold) 

minimus, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

atomus, Th. Rare (Bold) 
Malachius, F. 

seneus, L. Rare. Stockton 

(Hogg's Stockton) ? 

bipustulatus, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 
Dasytes, Pk. 

aerosus, Kies. Rare. (Bold) 
Psilothrix, Redt. 

nobilis, 111. Has been re- 

corded from Durham (Bun- 
gey), but is probably an 
error 



INSECTS 



Phloeophilus, Steph. 

edwardsi, Steph. Rare (Bold) 

CLERID.fi 
Tillus, 01. 

elongatus, L. Durham (Orns- 

by's Durham) I 
Thanasimus, Lat. 

formicarius, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Johnson, Gardner) 
Necrobia, Lat. 

ruficollis, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 

violacea, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

rufipcs, De G. (Bold) 

quadra. South Shields, intro- 

duced (Bold) 

PTINID.fi 
Ptinus, L. 

fur, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Niptus, Boiel. 

hololeucus, Fall. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 

crenatus, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Gibbinm, Scop. 

- scotias, F. (Bold, Robson, 

Gardner) 

ANOBIID^E 

Priobium, Mots. 

castaneum, F. (Bold) 
Anobium, F. 

domesticum, Fourc. (Bold, 

Robson, Bagnall, Gardner) 

- paniceum, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

Introduced 
Ernobius, Th. 

- mollis, L. (Bold) 
Ptilinus, Geof. 

- pectinicornis, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

BOSTRICHID.E 

Rhizopertha, Steph. 

- pusilla, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

LYCTID.fi 
Lyctus, F. 

- canaliculatus, F. Rare (Bold) 

CISSID.fi 
Cis, Lat. 

- boleti, Scop. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- bidentatus, Ol. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

nitidus, Hbst. Teesdale 

(Gardner) 

- fcstivus, Pz. Ravensteortb 

(Bold) 
Octotemnus, Mel. 

- glabriculus, Gyll. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 



CERAMBYCID.fi 

Tetropium, Kirb. 

castaneum, L., black form 

(Gardner) 
Callidium, F. 

violaceum, L. Hartlepool 

(Gardner), probably im- 
ported 

variabile, L. Hartlepool 

(Gardner), probably im- 
ported 

alni, L. Gibside (Wailcs) 
Clytus, Laich. 

- arcuatus, L. (Bold). Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 

arietis, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Gracilia, Serv. 

minuta, F. Sunderland (Pea- 

cock), Hartlepool (Gardner) 
Molorchus, F. 

minor, L. Hartlepool (Gard-' 

ner) 
Rhagium, F. 

inquisitor, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

bifasciatum, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Toxotus, Ser. 

- meridianus, L. Red variety 

once at Lockbaugb (Bagnall) 
(Gardner) 
Pachyta, Ser. 

cerambyciformis,Schr. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 
Strangalia, Ser. 

- quadrifasciata, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

armata, Hbst. (Bold, Bagnall) 

- melanura, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Grammoptcra, Ser. 

- tabacicolor, De G. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

rnficornis, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 

LAMIID.fi 

Acanthocinus, Steph. 

- aedilis, L. (Bold, Robson, 

Johnson, Gardner) 
Leiopus, Ser. 

nebulosus, L. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall) 
Pogonochzrus, Lat. 

fasciculatus, DeG. Hartlepool, 

common (Gardner) 

bidentatus, Th. (Bold), tfin- 

laton Mill, under bark 
(Bagnall) ; Hartlepool(GuA- 
ner) 

- dcntatus, Fourc. Hartlepool, 

very rare (Gardner) 
Monohammus, Muls. 

sartor, F. SunJerland, intro- 

duced (Corder) ; Hartlepool 
(Gardner) 

109 



Monohammus, Muls. 

sutor, L. Bumopjield, intro- 

duced (Johnson) ; Hartle- 
pool, shipyards (Gardner) 
Saperda, F. 

scalaris, L. Langley, pasture 

(Crosby's Durham), rare ; 
Hartlepool (Gardner) 
Tetrops, Steph. 

praeusta, L. Gibside (Wailes) 
Stenostola, Muls. 

ferrea,Schr. Gibside (Hardy), 

Dirwent Galley (Bagnall) 

BRUCHID.fi 
Bruchus, L. 

pisi, L. In pea introduced 

(Bagnall) 

rufimanus, Boh. Introduced 

(Bold, Gardner) 

CHRYSOMELID.fi 

Donacia, F. 

versicolora, Brahm. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

- simplex, F. (Bold) 

vulgaris, Zsch. (Bold) 

sericea, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

- discolor, Pz. (Bold) 
Hzmonia, Curt. 

curtisi.Lac. Grtatbam (Gard- 

ner) 
Lcma, F. 

- cyanella, L. (Bold) 

lichenis,Vcet. G/Ar/<&(Bagnall) 

melanopa, L. (Bold) 
Clythra, Laich. 

- quadripunctata, L. (Bold, 
Cryptocephalus, Geof. 

bipunctatus, L.; v. lincola, F. 

Castle Eden Dene (Ornsby's 
Durham) 

aureolus, Suf. Not common 

(Bold) 

- hypochxridis, L. Manden 

(Handcock) 

morxi, L. Castle Eden Dene 

(Wailes) 

fulvus, Goez. One specimen, 

near Winlatm (Bagnall) 

- labiatus, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Chrysomela, L. 

- marginata, L. (Bold) 

staphylea, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

polita, L. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

orichalcia, Mall. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

v. hobsoni, Steph. South Hyl- 
ton, very rare and local 
(Bagnall) 

hxmoptcra, L. (Bold) 

varians, Schal. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Chrysomela, L. 

fastuosa, Scop. (Bold) 

didymata, Scrib. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

hyperici, Forst. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Melasoma, Steph. 

:eneum, L. Durham (Orns- 

by's Durham), Sharnberty 
Gill, not uncommon on 
alders (Gardner) 
Phytodecta, Kirb. 

viminalis, L. Durham (Orns- 

by's Durham) 

olivacea, Forst. (Bold) 

pallida, L. (Bold) 
Gastroidea, Hope. 

viridula, De G. (Bold) 

polygon!, L. (Bold) Winlatm 

(Bagnall, Gardner) f 

tenella, L. (Bold, Gardner) 
Adimonia, Laich. 

tanaceti, L. (Bold, Gardner) 
Sermyla, Chap. 

halensis, L. (Bold, Gard- 

ner). Also greenish purple 
variety 
Longitarsus, Lat. 

luridus, Scop. Near Stvakucll 

(Bagnall) 

brunneus, Duft. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 
Longitarsus, Lat. 

suturellus, Duft. v. fusci- 

collis, Steph. (Bold, Bag- 
nall) 

atricillus, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 

melanocephalus, De G. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

suturalis, Mars. Rare (Bold) 

femoralis, Marsh. Not com- 

mon (Bold, Bagnall) 

pusillus, Gyll. (Bold) 

jacobasae, Wat. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 

ochroleucus, Marsh. Sparing- 

ly on the coast (Bold) 

laevis, Duft. (Bold) 
Haltica, Geof. 

ericeti, Al. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

pusilla, Duft. (Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Phyllotreta, Foud. 

undulata, Kuts. This is the 

Turnip Fly of this district. 
(Bold, Bagnall, Gardner) 

nemorum, L. Rare (Bold, 

Gardner) 

tetrastigma, Com. (Bold) 

exclamationis,Thunb. (Bold) 
Aphthona, Chev. 

atroccerulea, Steph. Hartle- 

pool (Hardy) 
Batophila, Foud. 

rubi, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall) 



Sphaeroderma, Steph. 

testacea, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

cardui, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Apteropeda, Redt. 

orbiculata, Marsh. (Bold) 
Mniophila, Steph. 

muscorum, Koch. (Bold) 
Mantura, Steph. 

rustica, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Crepidodera, Chev. 

tranversa, Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

ferruginea, Scop. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

rufipes, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

helxines, L. (Bold, Gardner) 

aurata, Marsh. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 
Hippuriphila, Foud. 

modeeri, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Plectroscelis, Redt. 

concinna, Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 
Psylliodes, Lat. 

chrysocephala, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

napi, Koch. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

cuprea, Koch. Coast (Bold) 

affinis, Pk. (Bold) 

marcida, 111. Coast (Bold) 

picina, Marsh. Rare (Bold) 
Cassida, L. 

sanguinolenta, F. Very rare 

(Bold) 

fiaveola, Thunb. Not com- 

mon (Bold) 

viridis, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 



TENEBRIONIDjE 



_ 

mucronata, Lat. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Scaphidema, Redt. 

metallicum, F. (Bold, Gard- 
ner, Bagnall) 

Tenebrio, L. 

molitor, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Corder) 

obscurus, F. (Bold) 
Alphitobius, Steph. 

diaperinus, Pz. In shops, im- 

ported, and in deep hot 
coalmines (Bold) 

piceus, Ol. In grain ware- 

houses, Hartlefool (Gard- 
ner) 
Gnathocerus, Thunb. 

cornutus, F. In bakehouses 

(Bold) 

1 10 



Tribolium, McL. 

ferrugineum, F. Imported in 

sugar (Bold). Hartlepool 
(Gardner) 
Palorus, Duv. 

ratzeburgi, Wiss. In shops. 

Introduced. (Bold) 
Helops, F. 

striatus, Fourc. Gibside 

(Handcock) ; Lockhaugh, 
one specimen in grass 
(Bagnall) 

LAGRIID^E 

Lagria, F. 

hirta, L. (Bold, Gardner) 

CISTELID^E 

Cistela, F. 

murina, L. Wlnktm Mill 

(Bagnall), Hartlepool '(Gard- 
ner) 



MELANDRYID-ffi 

Tetratoma, F. 

fungorum, F. TeesJale (Gard- 

ner) 

ancora, F. (I Wailes) 
Orchesia, Lat. 

micans, Pz. (Bagnall, Gard- 

ner) 
Clinocara, Th. 

tetratoma, Th. Stvalwell 

(Bold) 

undulata, Kr. Very local, 

often in numbers (Bagnall) 
Melandrya, F. 

caraboides, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

flexuosa, Pk. Teesdale (Gard- 

ner) 

PYTHID^E 

Salpingus, Gyll. 

castaneus, Pz. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

aeratus, Muls. (? Gardner) 

ater, Pk. (Bold) 
Rhinosimus, Lat. 

ruficollis, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

viridipennis, Steph. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

planirostris, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 



(EDEMERID^E 

CEdemera, Ol. 

lurida, Marsh. Durham 
(Ornsby's Durham) 



INSECTS 



Nacerdes, Schm. 

melanura, L. Sunderland and 

South Shieldt (Bold). Very 
abundant on Quayside, 
Hartlepool (Gardner) 

PYROCHROID.E 

Pyrochroa, Geof. 

serraticornis, Scop. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

MORDELLID^E 

Anaspis, Geof. 

- frontalis, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

pulicaria, Costa. Very rare 

(Bold) 

rufilabris, Gyll. 

geoffroyi, Mall. Rare (Bold) 

ruficollis, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 

costs, Emery. Rare (Bold) 

subtestacea, Steph. (Bold) 

macula ta, Fourc. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

RHIPIDOPHORID^E 

Metcecus, Gers. 

paradozus, L. Not common 

(Bold) Lockbaugh. Very 
rare (Bagnall), Castle Eden 
Dent (Trechmann) 

ANTHICID.fi 

Anthicus, Pk. 

floralis, L. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

MELOttX<E 

MeloC, L. 

proscarabzus, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

violaceus, Marsh. Blanchland 

Moor (Bagnall), Teesdale 
(Gardner) 

ANTHRIBIOE 

Macroccphalus, Ol. 

albinus, L. Gibside, of old, 

not lately (Bold, Corder) 

CURCULIONID.fi 

Apoderus, Ol. 

- coryli, L. Castle Eden Dene 

(Ornsby's Durham) 
Attclabus, L. 

curculionoidcs, L. Wtnktm 

Mill, on hazel ; Lockhaugh, 
etc. (Bagnall) 
Byctiscus, Th. 

betuleti, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 

TeesJale (Gardner) 



Rhynchites, Schn. 

zneovirens, Marsh. Winlaton 

Mill (Bagnall) 

cceruleus, De G. Rare (Bold) 

minutus, Hbst. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

pauxillus, Germ. Very rare 

(Bold) 

nanus, Pk. Not common 

(Bold, Bagnall) 

uncinatus, Th. Rather rare 

(Bold) 
Deporaus, Leach. 

megacephalus, Germ. Dur- 

ham (Ornsby's Durham) 
Apion, Hbst. 

craccz, L. Swatoell (Hardy) 

cerdo, Gers. Gibtide (Bold) 

ubulatum, Kirb. (Bold) 

ulicis, Font. (Bold) 

cruentatum, Walt. (Bold) 

hzmatodes, Kirb. (Bold) 

pallipcs, Kirb. Very rare. 

(Bold) Hartlepool (Gardner) 

rufirostre, F. Very rare 

(Bold) 

vicise, Pk. (Bold) 

varipes, Germ. Very rare 

(Bold) 

apricans, Hbst. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

assimile, Kirb. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

trifolii, L. Rare (Bold) 

dichroum, Bed. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

nigritarse, Kirb. (Bold) 

sorbi, F. Very rare (Bold) 

amcum, F. (Bold) 

radiolus, Kirb. (Bold) 

onopordi, Kirb. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

carduorum, Kirb. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

virens,Hbst. (Bold, Gardner) 

punctigerum, Pk. (Bold) 

pisi, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 

aethiops, Hbst. (Bold, Gard- 

ner). 

striatum, Kirb. (Bold) 

immune, Kirb. (Bold) 

ononis, Kirb. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

spencei, Kirb. (Bold) 

ervi, Kirb. (Bold) 
Apion, Hbst. 

vonut, Hbst. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

gyllenhali, Kirb. Very rare 

(Bold) 

unicolor, Kirb. (Bold) 

loti, Kirb. (Bold, Gardner) 

seniculum, Kirb. (Bold) 

marchicum, Hbst. Rare 

(Bold, Bagnall, Gardner) 

afiinc, Kirb. (Bold, Bagnall) 

III 



Apion, Hbst. 

violaceum, Kirb. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

humile, Germ. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Otiorhynchus, Germ. 

atroapterus, De G. (Bold) 

Hartlepool (Gardner) 

maurus, Gyll. (Corder) 

raucus, F. Hartlepool (Gard- 

ner) 

ligneus, Ol. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

picipes, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

sulcatus, F. Wmlaton (Bagnall) 

ligustici, L. Hartlepool, rare 

(Gardner) 

rugifrons, Gyll. (Bold, 

Corder, Gardner) 

ovatus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

muscorum, Bris. (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Trachyphkeus, Germ. 

aristatus, Gyll. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 

scaber, L. (Bold, Gardner, 

Bagnall) 

scabriculus, L. (Hardy, 

Gardner) 
Strophosomus, Sch. 

coryli, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

capitatus, De G. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

retusus, Marsh. (Bold) 

faber, Hbst. (Bold, Bagnall) 

lateralis, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Omias, Sch. 

mollinus, Boh. Near Swakvell 

(Hardy), Hartlepool (Gard- 
ner) 
Brachysomus, Steph. 

echinatus, Bons. (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Sciaphilus, Steph. 

muricatus, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Tropiphorus, Sch. 

tomentosus, Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 
Liophlceus, Germ. 

nubilus, F. (Bagnall, Gard- 

ner) 
Polydrusus, Germ. 

micans, F. (Bold, Gardner) 

tereticollis, De G. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

pterygomalis, Sch. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

cervinus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Phyllobius, Sch. 

oblongus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Phyllobius, Sch. 

- calcaratus, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 

urticze, De G. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 

- pyri, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- argentatus, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

- maculicornis, Germ. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

pomonae,Ol. (Bold, Gardner) 

- viridiseris, Laich. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 

- viridicollis, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Tanymecus, Sch. 

- palliatus, F. (Bold). Great- 

ham, one specimen (Gard- 
ner) 
Philopedon, Steph. 

geminatus, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Atactogenus, Tourn. 

- exaratus, Marsh. (Bold) 
Barynotus, Germ. 

- obscurus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- schonherri, Zett. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

elevatus, Marsh. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Alophus, Sch. 

- triguttatus, F. (Bold) 
Sitones, Sch. 

griseus, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

regensteinensis, Hbst. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

- lineellus, Gyll. Hartlepool 

(Blatch, Gardner) 

- tibialis,Hbst. (Bold,Gardner) 

hispidulus, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

humeralis, Steph. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

- meliloti, Walt. Rare, South 

Shields (Bold) 

flavescens, Marsh. (Bold) 

- puncticollis, Steph. (Bold, 

Gardner) 

- suturalis, Steph. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

- lineatus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

sulcifrons, Thunb. (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Limobius, Sch. 

dissimilis, Hbst. Not com- 

mon (Bold). Hartlepool, at 
the roots of Geranium 
sanguineum (Gardner) 
Hypera, Germ. 

punctata, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

fascictilata, Hbst. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 



Hypera, Germ. 

rumicis, L. (Bold) 

polygon!, L. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

suspiciosa, Hbst. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

- variabilis, Hbst. (Bold) 

plantaginis, De G. (Bold) 

trilineata, Marsh. Not fre- 

quent (Bold). Birtley, plen- 
tiful (Robson, Gardner) 

nigrirostris, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Cleonus, Sch. 

sulcirostris, L. (Bold). Com- 

mon (Gardner) 
Liosoma, Steph. 

ovatulum, Clair. (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Curculio, L. 

- abietis, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Pissodes, Germ. 

- pini, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- notatus, F. Sunderland, pro- 

bably introduced in Scotch 
timber ships (Kirwood) 

gyllenhali, SchOn. Found 

by a miner in a colliery 
woodyard, who exhibited 
it as ' The Norway Wood 
Louse ' (Bold) 

piniphilus, Hbst. Sunderland, 

imported in timber ships ; 
(Bold).ff<?r/&/<w/(Gardner) 
Orchestes, 111. 

quercus, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

scutellaris, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

fagi, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

rusci, Hbst. (Bold) 

stigma, Germ. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

- salicis, L. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

- saliceti, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Rhamphus, Clair. 

flavicornis, Clair. (Bold, Bag- 
nall) 
Orthochxtes, Germ. 

setiger, Beck. Durham (Bold) 
Grypidius, Steph. 

equiseti, F. (Bold, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 
Erirhinus, Sch. 

bimaculatus, F. Greatham, 

one specimen (Gardner) 

acridulus L. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Dorytomus, Steph. 

vorax,F. Rare (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

tortrix, L. Durham (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

112 



Dorytomus, Steph. 

hirtipennis, Bed. Castle Eden 

Dene (Ornsby's Durham) 

validirostris, Gyll. (Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

maculatus, Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

- melanophthalmus, Pk. v. 

agnathus, Boh. Axwell 
Park (Bold) 

- pectoralis, Gyll. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

majalis, Pk. Castle Eden Dene 

(Bold) 
Bagous, Sch. 

alismatis, Marsh. (Bold) 
Anoplus, Sch. 

plantaris, Naez. (Bold) 
Miccotrogus, Sch. 

picirostris, F. Very rare. 

Marsden. (Hardy) 
Gymnetron, Sch. 

beccabungje, L. Not abun- 

dant (Bold) 

labilis, Hbst. (Bold) 
Mecinus, Germ. 

pyraster, Hbst. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Anthonomus, Germ. 

ulmi, De G. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

pedicularius, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

pomorum, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

rubi, Hbst. (Bold) 

comari, Crotch. (Bold) 
Cionus, Clair. 

scrophularise, L. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 

blattariae, F. Durham (Orns- 

by's Durham) 

pulchellus,Hbst. (Bold, Rob- 

son, Bagnall, Gardner) 
Orobitis, Germ. 

cyaneus, L. Not common 

(Bold) 
Cryptorhynchus, 111. 

lapathi, L. (Bold) 
Acalles, Steph. 

ptinoides, Marsh. Gibside, 

very rare. (Bold) 
Cosliodes, Sch. 

rubicundus, Hbst. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

quercus, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 

ruber, Marsh. (Bold, Bagnall) 

cardui, Hbst. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

quadrimaculatus, L. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

geranii, Pk. (Hardy, Bagnall, 

Gardner) 

exiguus, Ol. (Bold) 
Poophagus, Sch. 

sisymbrii, F. (Bold) 



INSECTS 



Ccuthorhynchus, Duv. 
- assimilis, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall, 
Gardner) 

ericae, Gyll. (Bold) 

erysimi, F. (Bold) 

contractus, Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

quadridens, Pz. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

geographicus, Goez. Rare. 

(Bold) 

pollinarius, FOrst. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

pleurostigma, Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall, Gardner) 

marginatus, Pk. (Bold) 

rugulosus, Hbst. Rare (Bold, 

Gardner) 

asperifoliarum, Gyll. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 

litura, F. (Bold) Dertoent 

Valle) and Weardale (Bag- 
nall) 
Ceuthorhynchidius, Duv. 

floralis, Pk. (Bold, Bagnall) 

pyrrhorhynchus, Marsh. Not 

common (Bold) 

melanarius, Steph. Durham 

(Ornsby's Durham) 

terminatus, Hbst. Rare. 

(Bold) 



Ccuthorhynchidins, Duv. 

horridus, F. Very rare. 

Wcstoe (Bold) 

troglodytes, F. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 
Rhinoncus, Steph. 

pericarpius, L. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

gramincus, F. Very rare. 

South Shields (Bold), Har- 
tlffool (Gardner) 

perpendicularis, Reich. (Bold) 

castor, F. Gibside, rare. 

(Bold) 
Litodactylns, Redt. 

leucogaster, Marsh. (Bold) 
Phytobius, Schm. 

4-tuberculatus, F. (Bold, 

Gardner) 
Limnobaris, Bed. 

t-album, L. (Bold) 
Balaninus, Germ. 

villosus, F. Rare. (Bold) 

salicivorus, Pk. (Bold, Bag- 

nail) 
Calandra, Clair. 

granaria, L. (Bold) 

oryzz, L. Imported (Bold) 
Magdalis, Germ. 

carbonaria, L. Near Gtbslde 

Bold) 



Magdalis, Germ. 

armigera, Fourc. (Bold) 

SCOLYTID.E 

Scolytus, MQll. 

destructor, Ol. (Bold) 
Hylastes, Er. 

ater, Pk. (Bold) 

opacus, Er. Rare (Bold) 
- palliatus, Gyll. (Bold) 

Hylesinus, F. 

crenatus, F. (Bold, Bagnall) 

fraxini, Pz. (Bold, Bagnall) 

vittatus, F. Gtbstde (Hardy) 
Myelophilus, Eich. 

piniperda, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 
Phlocophthorus, Mall. 

rhododactyIus,Marsh. (Bold, 

Bagnall) 
Dryocaetes, Eich. 

villosus, F. Gibside (Bold) 
Tomicus, Lat. 

laricis, F. Byermoor (John- 

son) imported 
Pityogenes, Bed. 

chalcographus, L. Sunderland 

(Kirwood) 

bidentatus, Hbst. (Bold) 
Trypodendron, Steph. 

domesticum,L.(Bold,Bagnall) 






LEPIDOPTERA 

ButterJKii and Moths 

Though the surface characteristics of Durham will be discussed under other heads, it 
appears desirable to refer briefly here to those affecting the Lepidopterous fauna. Durham 
is not one of the larger counties of England, having a superficial area of less than a thousand 
square miles, but this includes an unusual diversity of surface. It has a coast-line of some 
thirty-five miles. The river Tees is the southern boundary of the county, and on the 
Durham side of the river mouth is an extensive salt marsh, with characteristic plants and 
insects. From this point to Seaton Carew, the southern boundary of the Hartlepools, is about 
six miles. Following the windings of the shore, the Hartlepools take about other six miles ; 
from their northern boundary it is nearly ten to Seaham Harbour, this distance being occupied 
with banks of blown sand, alternating with limestone cliffs and earthy banks. The cliffs are 
worn in several places, by the action of small streams of water, into ravines, locally called 
' Denes.' Some of these are of considerable length, have well-wooded sides, and afford shelter 
to a great variety of insects. Castle Eden Dene, the largest of these ravines, winds inward 
for several miles. It is not only the longest, but is the widest of all, and has long been known 
as a famous habitat of Lepidoptera. Hesleden Dene, a few miles nearer Hartlepool, is 
of considerable length, but is not nearly so wide, nor so favourable for collectors, being without 
open paths. Hawthorn Dene is nearer Seaham Harbour, but is less extensive and has been 
very little examined, being inconvenient of access. There are many other smaller places along 
the coast, the shorter ravines being called ' Gills.* After this range of cliffs and sand banks, 
we reach Seaham Harbour, over ten miles to the north of Hartlepool. A few miles further 
north, and we reach Sunderland, Ryhope Dene lying between these towns. Seven or eight 
miles further is South Shields, on the south side of the river Tyne, which forms the boundary 
to the north. The longest stretch of shore, unbroken by town or even village, is between 
Hartlepool and Seaham Harbour, and there, and in the Denes, a great variety of insects may 
be found. At Hartlepool, Sunderland, and South Shields are extensive ' Ballast Hills,' formed 

i "3 J 5 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

of dredgings from various rivers and other materials brought as ballast by sailing ships. These, 
as laid down, are overgrown with a vast variety of plants, many of which are not indigenous 
to Durham ; and it would almost appear as though pupae had been brought in the ballast, as 
well as seeds of strange plants, for many insects have occurred at these places that are not 
otherwise known, some of which appear to have established themselves. 

Westward from the coast the land gradually rises, and after a wide expanse of arable and 
pasture land, well wooded in places, we reach boggy moors, and high basaltic cliffs, almost 
mountainous in altitude. Thus we have in Durham a littoral fauna, that pertaining to 
cultivated land and to woods, and the fauna more closely allied with moor and mountain. A 
deposit of coal underlies much of the county, which has been extensively mined, and in all 
places where the pits open, large piles of waste accumulate. These take fire and burn for 
many years, sending forth volumes of sulphurous smoke, which exercises a very deleterious 
influence on all vegetable life for a considerable distance around. These have unquestionably 
caused the disappearance of Lepidoptera in their districts. The growth of towns, and increase 
of large works, sending forth volumes of smoke and vapour, have also had a very injurious 
effect. In the suburbs, white butterflies and similar species occur freely enough, but others 
need more secluded haunts. In many other ways the district is being altered. Even the 
swamp at the mouth of the Tees is being pumped for brine, and roads and railways are 
reaching even the most out-of-the-way places. 



RHOPALOCERA 

Butterflies 

The most noteworthy fact with regard to the butterflies of Durham to-day is the large 
number that have disappeared during the Victorian era. Of the thirty-five butterflies 
enumerated below, it would now be quite impossible to capture half of that number, even in 
a most favourable season ; in fact, I doubt if many more than a dozen could be got with 
certainty, even by visiting certain restricted haunts. 

The Common Whites, Pieris brassiere and rapa, are found everywhere except on the 
higher moorland. They are most abundant in the outskirts of towns and villages, and about 
market gardens, where cabbage and nasturtium are grown. The Green-veined White, 
P. napi, is also common, but it is more frequently found in woods and country lanes than near 
towns. The Orange-tip, Anthocaris cardamines, is generally common, but never so plentiful as 
the preceding. It disappeared from the coast district about 1860, but has gradually returned to 
its old haunts and is again plentiful there. The Clouded Yellow, Colias edusa t is but a casual, 
occasional visitor, generally appearing when extra large swarms are visiting the south. In 
1870, the great Edusa year, it was quite common in all parts of the county, and certainly bred 
here, the imago, in perfect condition, being plentiful in the autumn, and a few apparently 
hybernating, and appearing in the following spring. The Brimstone, Gonopteryx rhamni, is 
not a native of this part of England ; indeed, the food-plant does not grow wild in Durham, 
and only one or two stray specimens of the butterfly have been noticed within the boundaries 
of the county. 

The Silver-washed Fritillary, Argynnis paphia, was taken in Castle Eden Dene at least as 
late as 1855. It also occurred at Gibside and other places in the north-west of the county. 
In 1853 it was taken at Darlington, but I have seen no more recent records than these, 
even of stray specimens. The Dark Green Fritillary, A. agtaia, was formerly comparatively 
common, occurring in Castle Eden and Hesleden Denes, and on the coast at Black Hall 
Rocks, and elsewhere. It was common, also, in most of the cultivated area within the 
county, Bishop Auckland, Chester-le-Street, and various places in the Derwent Valley. It 
has now quite left the coast, but is still plentiful in the Wear Valley, and westward. At 
Byers Green a very fine dark variety was taken some years ago by Mr. Thomas Hann. It was 
all suffused with dark scales, not like the Vahzina variety of Paphia, but a rich, dark fulvous. 
The Pearl-bordered Fritillary, A. euphrosyne, was formerly common in all parts of the county. 
It disappeared from Castle Eden Dene and other coast localities in the early sixties, but it 
is still common in the west, and especially in the north-west. It is abundant about Stanley, 
and larva; may be found freely. The small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, A. se/ene, was also widely 
distributed and common, but not so abundant as Euphrosyne. It still occurs about the western 
portions of the county and adjoining district. A specimen was taken in Hesleden Dene some 

114 



INSECTS 

fifteen years ago, the only one I know of there. A. adippe has been several times recorded 
as occurring in the Wear Valley. I have investigated every case that came under my notice, 
and always found the examples so-called were only Aglala. I mention this here to avoid 
subsequent error. The Greasy Fritillary, Mellt&a artemis, was formerly common at Black 
Hall Rocks, near Hartlepool ; at Flass, near Durham ; at High Force, Upper Teesdale, and a 
few other places. It disappeared from Black Halls in the early sixties, and I have seen no 
record of its appearance elsewhere since 1872. The Comma, Vanessa c-ali>um t was an 
abundant insect in Castle Eden Dene fifty years ago, and occurred more sparingly in a few 
places in the west of the county. I have seen it so plentiful that they were shouldering each 
other on the Scabious flowers, and I have taken five specimens at one stroke of my net. I 
know of no records for at least forty years. The Small Tortoiseshell, V. urtica, is common 
everywhere, and the larvae may be found on every bed of nettles. It is locally called the 
King William. Of the Large Tortoiseshell, V. po/ycklaros, an old work speaks as if it were a 
regular resident in the woods in the vale of the North Tyne. During the last fifty or sixty 
years but one or two wandering specimens have been seen. The Camberwell Beauty, 
V. . autiopa, has been casually taken in all parts of the county, especially near the coast. ' About 
the year 1820' the late William Backhouse found this species in vast numbers on the sands at 
Seaton Carew, washing in with the tide. Some were dead, but many were still living. The 
late George Wailes, who wrote a ' List of the Butterflies of Northumberland and Durham ' in 
the Transactions of the Tyneside Natural History Society, referred to a friend who professed to 
know the species well and called it the ' White Petticoats.' This is a very appropriate name, 
and Mr. Wailes argued from these facts that the species was then a well-known and regular 
resident. I doubt if Lepidopterists would consider these sufficient evidence now. On 
8 February, 1869, a specimen was taken near Castle Eden, by Mr. Barren, a woodman, 
who was burning some undergrowth, among which the insect had evidently retired for 
hybernation. It was much worn, but was evidently hybernating. The Peacock, V '. io, was 
widely distributed half a century ago, but it left us with the others in the early sixties, 
and only odd specimens have been seen since. Mr. Barrett thinks this species dislikes 
manufacturing districts and large towns ; but that would not explain its absence from the west 
and north-west of the county, nor from the wide coast area between Hartlepool and Seaham 
Harbour. The Red Admiral, V. atalanta, disappeared with the last, but it has gradually 
returned, and occurs in all parts of the county now. I have seen it far up the Teesdale 
Hills. The Painted Lady, V. cardui, appears at intervals, occasionally in large numbers, and 
is met with in every part of the county. It does not appear able to perpetuate its race, and 
long intervals sometimes elapse without it being seen. I have observed the larvas in November 
on withered thistles, where there was no chance of their being able to feed up. It was 
unusually abundant in the autumn of 1 903, after several years of absence. 

The Mountain Ringlet, Ereb'ta blandina, was, I believe, first described as a British insect 
from specimens taken at Castle Eden Dene. It still occurs there, even down to the mouth of 
the Dene, scarcely above the level of the sea, and all the way up the gill to open woods at 
Thornley and Wellfield stations. There it is plentiful, and in the wood to the west of the 
railway, but it does not occur beyond the turnpike road to Wingate, which passes through the 
wood, though the portion to the west of this road appears to be of precisely the same character. 
The Speckled Wood, Satyrus ageria, was the earliest butterfly to leave the county. It 
formerly occurred in all the woods and denes, but left us altogether quite ten years prior to 
any other species. The Wall, S. megiera, was plentiful all over the county up to 1 86 1 . On 
the coast it was perhaps the commonest butterfly. It disappeared quite suddenly in 1861, and 
has never returned. The Grayling, S. semele, was also well distributed along the coast, 
wherever the locality was suitable. It was plentiful on the limestone cliffs, and equally so on 
the ballast hills. It left us gradually, seeming slowly to die out. The last was seen at Black 
Hall Rocks some ten or twelve years ago. The Meadow Brown, S. janira, is yet common in 
all grassy places, continuing on the wing till September. The Gate Keeper, 5. tithonus, is still 
plentiful in many places, but it has gone from some of its old haunts, and seems to be gradually 
disappearing. The Ringlet, 5. hyperanthus, has gone altogether. It was common enough fifty 
years ago. The last specimen I took was the variety arete, being entirely without rings. 
This was taken on the railway side, near Hart Station. The Marsh Ringlet, Chortobius davus, 
is common on the higher moors in the west. It is fairly intermediate between the dark 
Lancashire form, with many distinct rings, and the light Scotch form, with few or none. The 
Small Heath, C. pamphi/us, occurs everywhere, and is common from June to September. A 
variety of the underside with a dark fascia behind the tip spot is comparatively common. This 

"5 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

fascia sometimes spreads and makes the entire underside dark. It does not appear to affect the 
upper side at all. 

The Purple Hair Streak, Tbecla quercus, occurs only in the north-west of the county, 
about Gibside and the Derwent Valley. It is far from common, and is the only Hair Streak 
occurring in the county. The Copper, Polyommatus phlteas, is plentiful. Varieties approaching 
Schmidtii have been met with near Hartlepool and elsewhere. The Brown Argus, Lyctena 
agestis, occurs on the coast, extending up the Denes almost as far as they run. The local 
form, which is generally without the orange marginal spots, was considered distinct, and was 
named salmacls by Stephens. Artaxerxes, the Scotch White Spot, occurs occasionally, and 
sometimes has, as well as the type, the marginal row of orange spots. I have twice taken a 
variety in which the spots on the underside are without the white line around them. The 
insect is slowly disappearing from the banks at Black Halls. It has already left Marsden, but 
it is still plentiful between Black Halls and Seaham Harbour. The Common Blue, Lycana 
a/exis, is very common everywhere. The Little Blue, L. alsus, was well distributed over the 
county, and still occurs at a few places. The Holly Blue, L. argiolus, was also well dis- 
tributed, occurring apparently everywhere. There has been no record of its capture for over 
fifty years. 

The Dingy Skipper, Thanaos tages, is tolerably well distributed, and there are few places 
where it may not be taken. The Common Skipper, Hesperia sylvanus, has been taken at 
Darlington, Castle Eden Dene, and other places. The last I know of were taken in Castle 
Eden Dene in 1860, and in Hesleden Dene in 1861. 

HETEROCERA 

Moths 
NOCTURNI 

The Eyed Hawk Moth, Smerinthus ocellatus, has occurred occasionally, but it is not a 
resident species, though the larvae have been met with more than once. The Poplar Hawk 
Moth, S. populi y is abundant everywhere. The Death's Head, Acherontia atropos, occurs all 
over, not regularly, but almost every year. I have had the imago brought me that had come 
on board fishing boats at sea. The larvae is also occasionally found. The Convolvulus Hawk, 
Sphinx convolvuli, is rarer than the last, and generally occurs singly. The larva has never 
been met with, but in the adjoining county more than fifty were found on a hedge overgrown 
with Convolvulus septum. The Privet Hawk, S. /igustri, was once found, unexpanded, in a 
street in Hartlepool. It ought to occur in the Denes, where privet abounds, but we have 
never found it. The Bedstraw Hawk, Deleiphila ga/ii, has been taken on the coast whenever 
the insect has appeared in Britain. The larvae has also been found on the Bedstraw more than 
once. D. lineata has been recorded three times near Sunderland, by the late William Back- 
house, on the moor at Hartlepool in 1888, and again there in 1896. Chtsrocampa celerlo has 
been met with a few times in the same way. The Small Elephant, C. porcellus, was formerly 
common along the coast, and may probably occur yet, between Black Halls and Seaham 
Harbour, but there are no records for several years. A single specimen of C. nerii was taken 
by Mr. Gardner at Hartlepool on 23 July, 1885. The Humming Bird Hawk, Macroglossa 
stellatarum, is generally common on the coast, but much rarer inland. M. bombyliformis 
appears to occur near Durham city. It was taken at Shull over fifty years ago by the late 
William Backhouse ; Mr. Wood also took it near Durham (E. W. I., i. 150). Mr. Hedworth 
saw it in May, 1869, near Winlaton Mill. I know of no more recent records. Sesia formic<e- 
formis, the Red-tipped Clearwing, has been taken once, by Mr. Thomas Pigg, who took three 
on an umbelliferous plant at Gibside. It also occurs in the Chester-le-Street district. S. tipuli- 
formis, the Currant Clearwing, is commoner, and no doubt occurs in old gardens in many 
parts of the county. It has been taken at Darlington, Wolsingham, and Durham city. 
S. bembeciformis occurs commonly in most parts of the county. S. apiformis was taken once 
near High Force, Upper Teesdale, by the late William Backhouse, over fifty years ago. The 
Goat Moth, Cossus ligniperda, is sparingly distributed about the county. All the genus Hepialus 
occur freely. The Golden Swift, H. hectus, in woods and denes, flying at sunset for a few 
minutes only. The Common Swift, H. lupulinus, is most abundant everywhere. The 
Beautiful Swift, H. sylvinus, is perhaps the least plentiful ; it occurs in open ground in August. 
The Northern Swift, H. ve/Ieda, in woods and open ground. The Ghost, H. humuli, is the 
most abundant of all, the male flying everywhere in its endeavour to attract the female. The 

116 



INSECTS 

Forester, Inn statices, occurs at Gibside ; near Darlington ; and at other places away from the sea. 
/. gtryon is abundant on the sea banks from Black Halls, northward, but not inland. Zygeena 
lonictrte at Shull and other places well in the centre of the county. Z. filipendul<e appears to 
be common everywhere. The Lithosidte are very sparingly represented, most of the specimens 
captured being but single stray specimens. Nudaria mundana is the only common member of 
the family. It does not occur on nor even very near the coast, but is very abundant west- 
ward. The late John Sang took Litboiia hetueola once at lamps at Darlington. L. complana 
was taken by the late William Backhouse, both at Darlington and Seaton Carew, over fifty 
years ago, but it has not been recorded again. L. complanula was taken at Hartlepool in 1873. 
I took it again in 1876, and one or two more were taken by others at the same time. 
Common as it is generally, I have seen no later record. (Enistis quadra occurred oddly, in 
different parts of the county, from 1872 to 1875, in which year I took six. It has not been 
seen since. 

EucheKa jacobeea, the Cinnabar, occurs all along the coast, but is not nearly so common as 
it was fifty years ago. It has not been recorded inland. Euthemonia russula, the Clouded Buff, 
is found on the moors in the extreme west of the county. It has been recorded for Shull and 
for Wolsingham, and occurs elsewhere. Nemeophila p/antaginis, the Wood Tiger, occurs on 
the coast and on the moors. It is especially abundant on the railway banks near Hartlepool, 
but is being gradually driven away by the growth of the town. The Common Tiger, Arctia 
caja, abounds everywhere in the larval state. Specimens with dark and yellow hind wings 
have been reared. An example, entirely black, was reared from a Hartlepool larvae. The 
Ruby Tiger, Phragmatobia foliginosa, occurs all over the county, generally in some numbers. 
The Muslin (Spilosoma mena'ica) occurs all over the county, extending quite to Upper Teesdale. 
The Buff and White Ermines (S. lubrlcepeda and menthrastri) are generally common. I have 
taken the dark form of menthastri near Throston. The Brown Tail (Liparis chrysorrhtea) is 
but a casual visitor. It was taken at Darlington quite fifty years ago by the late William Back- 
house. In 1875 several were taken, two at South Shields and I got about a dozen at Hartlepool. 
It has not been seen since. The Gold Tail (. auriflua} was taken in 1875 at South Shields 
and recorded as new by Mr. Eales in error. It is common about Hartlepool and Greatham and 
westward to Bishop Auckland and Upper Teesdale. The Satin Moth (L. sa/icis) occurred in 
1875 both at South Shields and Hartlepool, but it has not been recorded since. The Dark 
Tussock (Orygia fasce/ina) is found in the west of the county, about Shull, Wolsingham, etc. 
A solitary larva was found on the Sea Banks near Hesleden Dene mouth in 1859. The 
Vapourer (O. antiqua) is common in all the county, the larva feeding on hawthorn generally, 
and on Rosa spinosissima on the sand banks. The Pale Oak Eggar (Trichiura crattegi) is given 
in Stainton's Manual as occurring at Darlington, and it is in the list in Ornsby's Durham, but 
I have no other knowledge of its appearance in the county. The December Moth (Pcecilo- 
campa popult) is well distributed over the county, but it is in the perfect state at a time when 
collectors are not much on the look out, and most of our specimens are bred. The Small 
Eggar (Erlogaster lanestris) is common, but, emerging in February, it is seldom seen on the 
wing, and, like the last, most of our specimens are reared. The Lackey (Bombyx neustria) has 
only twice been taken at South Shields. The Oak Eggar (B. quercus] is tolerably common. 
It generally passes one winter as a larva and the next as pupa. The Fox Moth (B. rubii) is 
common on the sandhills and on all moors and heaths, sometimes very abundant. I bred some 
very curious varieties a few years ago. The Drinker (Odonestis potataria) is common generally, 
out does not occur in the Auckland district. A specimen of the Small Lappet (Gastropacha 
iiicifo/ia) was sold in 1895 in Dr. Wheeler's collection, labelled ' Castle Eden, J. Sang.' I 
have grave doubts, not that the specimen was British, but as to the place where it is said to 
have occurred, and of its reputed captor. It was much more likely to have been taken in 
Upper Teesdale, but it certainly was not a species that Mr. Sang ever had in duplicate or ever 
took. The Emperor Moth (Saturnia carpini) is abundant on the moors in the west, but 
rarely occurs elsewhere. 

GEOMETRY 

The Swallow-Tail Moth (Ourapteryx tambucata) is well distributed in Durham, but 
never very common. Ep'tone veipertaria has occurred sparingly in most parts of the county. 
Rumia crat&gata, the Brimstone, is abundant everywhere. PenU'ia maculata was taken by 
Mr. Sang around Darlington, but no one else appears to have met with it. The Light 
Emerald (Metrocampa margaritata) is common in woods everywhere. The Barred Red 
(Ellopia faiciaria) is rare in Durham. It has been taken in Upper Teesdale ; at St. John's, 
Weardale ; and at Edder Acres, near Hartlepool. A single specimen also came to the 

117 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Hartlepool lighthouse. A solitary example of Eurymene dolobrarla was taken at little Polam, 
Darlington, many years ago, by the late William Backhouse. Pericallla syringaria also has 
only once been met with, a single specimen being taken by Mr. Hedworth in the north-west 
of the county. It ought to occur in the denes on the coast, where privet grows freely. 
The Common Thorn (Selenia illunaria] is common in most parts of the county. The Lunar 
Thorn (S. lunarla) is decidedly rare. It has been recorded from several places, but appears only 
to occur singly, and less than a dozen local specimens are known. Odontopera bidentata and 
Crocallh elinguaria are both common, but least so near the coast. Four of the genus Ennomos 
have been taken within the county, but none appear to have any station where they may always be 
found. E. tiliaria, the Canary-Shouldered Thorn, has occurred over most of the county, but 
always singly or very sparingly. E. fuscantaria was taken at Darlington in 1855. Two speci- 
mens of E. erosaria are recorded : one in August 1873, at Hartlepool, by the late P. W. Robson, 
and one at Thornley, in the north-west corner of the county, by the late W. Maling, two years later. 
E. angularia has been taken only in the Derwent Valley, and very rarely there. The Feathered 
Thorn (Himera pennaria) is widely distributed, but has only been taken singly. The Pale Brindled 
Beauty (Phigalia pilosaria) is well distributed and not uncommon, occurring from February to 
April, according to the weather and locality. Nyaia hispidaria was reared recently from larvae 
found by Mr. Sticks at Lintz Green. The Peppered Moth (Amphidasis betularia) is well 
distributed, and the black variety, Doubledayaria, also occurs freely in most places. Intermediate 
forms are quite rare. The Barred Umber (Hemerophila abruptaria) has occurred at Darlington 
and Hartlepool. Chora lichenaria is marked in Stainton's Manuals being taken at Darlington. 
I do not know the authority. Boarmia repandata is common everywhere, and the banded 
variety conversaria is not very uncommon. B. rhomboidaria is equally plentiful, except on the 
coast, where it is not often seen. Tephrosia crepuscularia is common in the denes, Castle 
Eden and Hesleden particularly. I have seen no other record, but it is sure to occur. The 
Little Emerald (lodts lactearia) is met with in the north-west and in the south-east of the 
county, but is not common in either. The Common Emerald (Hemithea tbymiaria) has 
occurred once at Darlington. Ephyra trilinearia has only once been taken in the north of 
the county. E.punctaria is distributed over almost all the county, but is of very rare occurrence. 
Asthena luteata occurs in the far west Upper Teesdale and along to Thornley Wood (near 
Newcastle) in the north. It has never been seen near the coast. A. candtdata occurs commonly 
in the denes, and in the Derwent area. It is not recorded elsewhere, but almost certainly 
will be found. A. sylvata is recorded from Darlington in Stainton's Manual. A. bkmeri was 
first taken in Castle Eden Dene, in July 1831. It may still be found there and in Hesleden 
Dene. Euphteria heparata occurs sparingly in damp places. It has been met with at 
Darlington, Hartlepool, and in the north-west of the county. Venwia cambrica is scarce and 
very local, and only seems to have been taken in the south of the county. The rare Addalia 
rubricata was taken at Winch Bridge, Upper Teesdale, in 1875, by Dr. Lees. The specimens 
are in my possession. A. scutulata is widely distributed, but never very common. A. bhetata 
is more numerous. A, trigeminata was taken once, two specimens. A. osseata is common on 
the coast. It does not appear to have been taken elsewhere. A. virgularia is well distributed 
and common. A. subsericeata is very abundant around Hartlepool, but does not occur else- 
where within a distance of at least 100 miles. I took a single specimen of A. immutata at 
Black Hall Rocks in 1895, and one only of A. remutata was taken nearer Hartlepool. 
A.fumata, the Smoky Wave, is found in Upper Teesdale, as also is A. imitaria, the Small 
Blood Vein. This has also been found at Darlington, and I took one in Hart Lane, 
Hartlepool, and one in Upper Teesdale. A, aversata is the commonest of the genus in 
Durham, occurring everywhere, and generally fairly plentiful. A. inornata occurs at Black 
Hall Rocks and at Wolsingham, always sparingly. The Blood Vein (Bradypetes amataria) is 
given in the Manual as occurring at Darlington. I have no personal knowledge of it. The 
Cabera occur everywhere : pusaria among birch, exanthemaria among willow. The variety of 
pusaria rotundaria is bred occasionally ; I have not known it taken on the wing. Macaria 
liturata is well distributed, but not common. Halia wavaria is generally a garden insect, 
but not always. It is tolerably common. Strenia clathrata is common on the coast, and 
occurs occasionally elsewhere. A variety without cross-bars has been taken. Lozogramma 
petraria is a moor insect, but is recorded here only from the coast at Ryhope Dene. Numeria 
pulveraria is recorded from the woods on the Derwent, from Hoffall Wood, from Darlington, 
and from Hesleden Dene. It is quite a scarce species. Mceua bclglaria is common on the 
moors both of Teesdale and Weardale. It does not occur anywhere else. Only the two 
common Fidonia occur ; atomaria on all the moors, piniaria in woods where there is plenty of 

118 



INSECTS 

Scotch fir. Aspilatts strigil/aria was recorded at Shull by the late W. Backhouse over fifty 
years ago. There are no more recent records, but it is certain to occur in the west. Abraxas 
grossu/ariata occurs everywhere, and some curious varieties have been taken ; one with a 
deep yellow ground at Byers Green, one nearly black at Throston, and others elsewhere. 
Larvz nearly black occur at Shields and Sunderland, producing absolutely ordinary forms of 
the imago. A. ulmata occurs plentifully in the denes and woods ; it varies considerably in 
the depth and extent of the markings; but extreme forms do not occur, except that one 
specimen was taken in Castle Eden Dene of an unusually pale character. Lomaspilis marginata 
is common in woods. It is an excessively variable species, but extreme forms are rare. All 
the Hybernid<e occur : rupicapraria and progremmaria common everywhere, leucophearia and 
aurantiaria rare, defoliaria and Anisopteryx ascularia rare on the coast, but common inland. 
The Winter Moth (Cheimatobia brumata) is abundant everywhere. C. boreata has only been 
reported from Darlington, but it is certain to occur elsewhere. It occurs in Northumberland. 
Oporabia dilutata is common everywhere ; O. JUigrammaria common on the moors ; 
0. autumnaria has been taken only once or twice. Larentia didymata abounds everywhere. 
L. multistrigaria is common along the coast, and wherever Galium verum grows freely. 
L. casiata absolutely swarms on the higher moors in Upper Teesdale and Weardale. 
L. flavmnctata is at present only recorded from the Middleton-in-Teesdale district. It 
probably occurs in all the higher land. L. sallcaria has also been taken in Upper Teesdale, 
but not commonly ; L. otivaria is tolerably common inland, but has not been taken near the 
coast. L. miaria is the most generally distributed, and most plentiful of the genus, except 
didymata. It occurs in woods all over the county. Nearly all the Emmtlesia occur : affinitata 
and alchemillata in denes and woods, but neither very common ; albulata plentiful among 
Rhinanthus chr'nta-galli ; decolorata decidedly scarce, but occurring, generally singly, almost 
everywhere. Tteniata was first taken in Castle Eden Dene by the late J. C. Dale ; many 
years passed and the late George Wailes was in the dene and found an Emmelesia flying very 
freely ; thinking it to be albulata, he took two or three only, but on arriving at home, he 
found they were tteniata ; he went the next day, but never saw one, nor did he meet with it 
again. Hundreds of collectors have been since, but no one has taken it there again. Dr. Lees 
met with it far up the hills in Upper Teesdale. Unifasciata was common at the foot of 
Hart Lane, near Hartlepool, some forty years ago. It has not been taken recently, but is certain 
to occur. Blandiata was once taken at Hartlepool. No less than twenty-eight species of the 
genus Eupithecia have been met with in the county, viz., venosata, which has an old record 
for Darlington, and has been taken at Hartlepool once or twice. Linariata has been reared at 
Seaham Harbour and Hartlepool. Pulchellata, common wherever foxglove grows, more 
particularly in the extreme west. It is never seen on the coast limestones. Centaureata is 
well distributed, but local, and never very plentiful. Subfulvata is fairly common, occurring in 
most places. Pygm<eata is given in the Manual as occurring at Darlington. Satyrata and 
castigata are generally common. Lariciata is well distributed, but not very abundant. 
Pimpinellata was only once taken at Hartlepool. Albipunctata and valerianta have been taken 
at Hesleden Dene. Innotata has a little doubt attached to its occurrence, as only melanic 
specimens are known, and they might be some other species, but there is every reason to 
believe that it does occur. Indigata is widely distributed. Nanata is abundant on the moors, 
and common on the coast wherever heather grows. Subnotata has been taken occasionally 
about Hartlepool. Vulgata is tolerably common and is found all over the county. Abiynthiata 
is only recorded from the coast, where it occurs for the entire length ; Minutata only in the 
west, where it is plentiful on the moors. Aaimilata is a garden insect, and widely distributed, 
but never very common. Tmulata is to be found in the larval state in all woods, but the 
imago is seldom seen at large. Subciliata is given in the Manual as occurring at Darlington. 
Abbreviata has occurred in most places, but always scarce. Exiguata is generally common 
among whitethorn. Sobrinata occurs all along the coast and again on the hilly land in the 
west. The food plant appears to be dying off on the cliffs, and the insect must of course 
disappear also. Togata is on the list from a solitary specimen taken at a gas lamp at 
Darlington by the late John Sang. It is likely to occur in the many fir woods of the county. 
Rectangulata occurs in orchards and is far from common. The black variety, nigrosericeata, 
has not been recorded, but is sure to occur ; it is plentiful at Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Lobophora viretata was taken freely in 1881, at Gibside, by the late Mr. Hedworth. I do 
not know that it has been taken since, but the large number that were taken then could not 
have been immigrants. L. lobulata occurs in Castle End Dene and many of the larger woods. 
Thtra juniperata occurs in Upper Teesdale, above High Force Fell. Except that it was once 

119 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

taken at Sunderland, it has never occurred on the coast, and as the juniper is dying off there it 
is not likely to occur now. T. simulata occurred on the coast, wherever Eupitheda iobrinata 
was found. This also has not been taken there lately. It occurs, not very commonly, among 
juniper on the high land in the west. T. variata occurs in fir woods, is not very plentiful, 
though generally distributed. T. firmata has only been taken in the west of the county, 
Witton le Wear, Upper Teesdale, etc. Tpsipetes ruberaria occurs in the Derwent Valley and in 
Hesleden Dene. Wonderful varieties may be reared. T. impluviata occurs both in Castle 
Eden and Hesleden Denes, also at South Shields and in Upper Teesdale. T. elutata is generally 
distributed all over the county and is very common. Melantbia rubiginata is well distributed 
over the county, but never very abundant. M. ocellata is also widely spread, occurring almost 
everywhere, but, like the last, it is never in great numbers. M. albicillata is decidedly scarce, but 
has been met with, generally singly, almost all over the county. M . hastata has not been taken 
for quite fifty years. It was then found at Hoppylands. M. tristata appears to avoid the coast, 
but it is fairly common elsewhere. M. unangulata and rivata were both taken by the late 
William Backhouse in Houghall Wood near Durham. It does not occur there now. A 
coal mine near has destroyed much of the lepidoptera in this wood. There is no other locality 
in the county for either. M. biriviata and montanata are abundant everywhere. M. galiata 
has only occurred once or twice, but at distant localities. M. fluctuate is abundant all over the 
county. The specimens are large and darker than those from the south. The variety 
Neapolisata occurs. Anticlea badiata is common everywhere, by hedges mixed with rose, and 
similar places. A derivata is widely distributed but rare. Coremia munitata is even more widely 
distributed, and rather more plentiful than the last, but it is still a rare species. It is generally 
found in or near marshy ground. C. propugnata has occurred in the west of the county, 
but never elsewhere. C. ferrugaria is common in Upper Teesdale, but scarcely taken else- 
where. Camptogramma bilineata is abundant everywhere. A variety with a black band is not 
uncommon. Pbibalapteryx lignata has occurred near Sunderland and at Hell Kettles, 
Darlington. Scotosia dubitata has occurred, generally singly, in most parts of the county. A 
single specimen of S. certata was taken at Hartlepool in 1864, and of 5. undulata in Upper 
Teesdale in 1875. Cidaria psittacata is widely distributed, but is very scarce. C. miata is also 
widely distributed and often common. C. corylata is in all the woods and denes, and never 
rare. The variety albo-crenata occurs occasionally. C. russata is everywhere, always 
common. The variety comma-notata, with red centre to the fore-wings occurs also, but 
not very abundantly. C. immanata is also common in woods and denes, to which it 
appears to be more closely confined than is russata. C. suffumata, the earliest of the genus, 
occurs everywhere ; a dark variety, piceata, is also very common. C. silaceata is very generally 
distributed, but not so common as the last few species. A second brood may be reared in 
confinement, but is never found at large. C. prunata is only recorded from the south-west of 
the county. I think it must occur elsewhere, as it is commonly distributed both in Yorkshire 
and Northumberland. C. testata is common all over. Moorland specimens are generally 
dark. C. populata occurs over the entire county, most plentifully in the west. C. fuhata 
appears everywhere among rose. C. pyraliata, like so many others, may be met with any- 
where, but it is least plentiful near the coast. C. dotata is scarce and very local, appearing 
only in the west of the county. Pelurga comitata is well distributed, but rarely abundant. 
Eubolia cerv'mata is scarce and very local. An erroneous idea that the food plant of this insect 
(Malva sylvestris) is marsh mallow (Althcea officinalis], much used by herbalists, has almost led 
to its extermination, and has greatly reduced the number of the insect, which was common 
when I began collecting. E. mensuraria is abundant everywhere. E.plumbariais common on 
waste ground. E. bipunctaria appears confined to limestone. It occurs all along the coast on 
Magnesian limestone, and in Upper Teesdale on Mountain limestone. It is plentiful where it 
occurs, easily disturbed by day, and flying freely at dusk. Anaith plaglata is well distributed, 
and occurs regularly, but is never very abundant. It is found well up the hills in the west. 
Chesias spartiata occurs wherever there is broom. This excludes the coast, where broom does 
not grow. Odezia chteropbyllata is common everywhere in meadows, pastures, hedgesides, and 
similar places where the food plant grows. 

DREPANULID^; 

Platypteryx lacertula, the Scalloped Hook-tip, is widely distributed, but never plentiful. 
P. falcula y the Pebbled Hook-tip, occurs sparingly over most of the county. Cilix spinula, the 
Goose-egg, may be found all over the county among hawthorn. It does not occur on the 
higher moorland. 

1 20 



INSECTS 

PSEUDO-BOMBYCES 

Centra furcula, the Sallow Kitten, occurs sparingly in the larval state in most parts of the 
county. I do not know that the imago has been taken. C. bifida, the Poplar Kitten, has 
occurred about Hartlepool, but it is much rarer than it was twenty-five or thirty years ago. 
Like the last the imago is never seen. C. vinula, the Puss Moth, occurs everywhere on willow 
and poplar in the larval state. The moth is seen now and then at rest. Petasia cassinea 
occurred at Darlington in 1853, when the late John Sang took it at gas lamps. Mr. Winter, 
of Beccles, told the writer that he had taken it at Hartlepool. I can only say I never saw or 
heard of it. Pygara bucephala, the Buff-tip, was very common half a century ago. It has now 
almost, or entirely, left the coast area, but is plentiful enough elsewhere. Clostera curtula, the 
Chocolate-tip, was once taken at South Shields a stray specimen. C. reclusa, the Small 
Chocolate-tip, occurs at Wolsingham, and, probably, elsewhere, where dwarf-willow grows. 
It has not, however, been taken on the sea banks, north of Black Halls, where the plant grows 
very freely. Ptilodontus palpina has only once been found. I took a larva many years ago in 
Crimdon Cut, near Hartlepool. Notodanta camelina is to be found over all the county ; never 
abundantly, but of regular occurrence. N. dictiea, the Swallow Prominent, occurs all over the 
county, wherever there is plenty of poplar. N. dictteoides is much rarer, but appears to be 
very generally distributed, especially to the west of the county, where birch is more plentiful. 
I have beaten the larva both in Castle Eden and Hesleden Denes. N. dramedarius is also widely 
distributed, but never common. N. ziczac is the most plentiful of the group. It may be 
found in the larval state on poplars anywhere in the county. N. chaonia is rare. Larvz have 
been taken in Upper Teesdale and in Hesleden Dene, but only once or twice. Diloba 
cecrultocephala is uncommon, but has been met with inland mostly. My brother found larvae 
near Stockton-on-Tees, and a single imago was taken at Hartlepool in 1874, which is the only 
coast record. 

NOCTU.fi 

Thyatira derasa is rare ; it has only occurred near the River Tyne. 7. bath is much 
more plentiful, and has occurred in most places ; never abundantly. Cymatophora duplaris is 
widely distributed, but not common. C. or is recorded in Ornsby's Durham, but no other 
record is known. C. diluta is common in the north-west, but has not been met with else- 
where, the variety nubilata with three or more dark bands is not uncommon about Gibside. 
C.flavlcormt is generally distributed. C, ridens was bred from a larva found at Gibside. The 
specimen is now in the Museum at Newcastle-on-Tyne. Bryophila per/a is generally common. 
Acronycta tridens is recorded, but I feel some doubt as to the correctness of the name. A. psi 
is common generally, and it may be that it has been mistaken for tridens. A. leparlna is widely 
spread, but is either rare, or we have not learned how to find it. A. aceris has occurred once 
at Sunderland. A. megacephala, not at all common, though widely spread. A. rumicis is 
plentiful everywhere ; the dark variety taKch has been reared. A. menyanthidis occurs freely 
on the moors in the west. Leucania conigera, fithargyria, comma, impura, and pollens are all 
very common. Nonagria fulva is tolerably plentiful in September. N. elymi formerly occurred 
at South Shields. So far as I know it is now found only at Hartlepool, where it is fairly 
common in its now much-restricted habitat. N. lutosa has been taken at Greatham only, 
where it was sometimes abundant ; the reed has disappeared there, but it is quite likely to exist 
in other places. Gortyna flavago is generally common. Hydraecia nictitans occurs all over the 
county, but is most plentiful in the higher lands in the west. H. petasitis occurs at Greatham, 
and at Dalton le Dale, near Seaham Harbour, and, probably, in all places where the food is 
plentiful. H. micacea is common everywhere. Xylophasia rurea and the unicolorous variety 
combusta are generally plentiful. X. Kthoxylea is very uncertain, sometimes plentiful, and at 
other times not seen at all. X. polyodon and the black variety injfuscata are generally common. 
The variety is just as uncertain as Kthoxylea and very similar in its manners. H. hepatica is 
much rarer than the others of the genus, though widely distributed. Htliophobus popularis is 
sometimes common. Charaas graminis occurs everywhere, but is seldom plentiful. Cerigo 
cytherea is often common. Luperina testacea is always plentiful. L. cespitis is rare. It was taken 
at Shotley Bridge by the late W. Backhouse, and in Upper Teesdale by Dr. Lees. Single 
specimens have occurred at South Shields and Hartlepool. Mamettra abjecta occurs about 
Hartlepool and Greatham, probably all along the coast. It is decidedly rare. M. anceps is 
taken regularly at Hartlepool, and has been met with at South Shields and Darlington. This 
also is rare. M. albicolon is rather common at Hartlepool and South Shields. I have seen no 
I 121 l6 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

other record, but it will be found all along the coast. It comes freely to campion flowers. 
M. furva has occurred in small numbers, at campion flowers, along the coast. M. brassier, 
of course, is abundant everywhere. M. persicaria is very rare, one or two only having been 
taken at sugar at Ryhope, Durham, and Bishop Auckland. Apamea basilinea is generally 
plentiful, as is A. gemma and the variety remissa. A. unanimis is generally distributed, but not 
often plentiful. A. ophiogramma was once recorded from Hartlepool. A. fibrna was taken in 
1875, which was a very marvellous year for lepidoptera at sugar, but it has not been seen since. 
A. oculea is always abundant. The black variety only occurs now. Fifty years ago light forms 
were commonest. All the genus Mlana occur, strigi/is, fasciunc ula, literosa, and furuncula are 
common. Expallta has been taken freely at Darlington and Hartlepool. It probably occurs 
elsewhere, but it is not easy to find unless its habits are known. M. arcuosa is not very rare ; 
it occurs in grassy places. Celeena haworthii is common on the moors in the west. Grammesia 
trilinea, though generally plentiful, is very rare in Durham. It has been taken once or twice 
on the Derwent, and once only at Hartlepool. Caradrina morpheus is not uncommon on the 
coast, but it is not recorded elsewhere. C. blanda is scarcer, and has only been taken at 
Darlington and Hartlepool. C. cubicularis is abundant everywhere. Rusina tenebrosa rather 
common in most places. Agrotis valligera plentiful on the coast. A. suffusa is neither common 
nor well distributed. It occurs sparingly on the coast, and has been taken at Bishop Auckland. 
A. saucia has only been twice taken at Bishop Auckland. A, segetum and exclamationls are both 
common everywhere. A. corticea appears numerously at Bishop Auckland, but not elsewhere. 
A. cursorta is a coast species, much rarer now than fifty years ago. A. nigricans general in the 
county, and far from uncommon. A. tritici, another coast insect, and generally abundant. 
A. agathina rare on the moors. A. porphyrea is another moorland species, but much more 
abundant, occurring where there is very little heather. A. preecox has been twice met with 
at South Shields. A. ravida occurs on the coast, but is never very plentiful. Axylia putris is 
exceedingly rare, only four specimens, all taken in the west of the county, having been recorded. 
Tripheena fimbrla is rather scarce, but appears to occur in most places. T. janthina seems to 
be a garden insect in Durham. It is well distributed, but never plentiful. T. interjecta occurs 
in August on Hartlepool sand hills, which appear to be the northern limit of its range. 
T. orbona is common everywhere. T. pronuba is also common everywhere and very variable. 
Noctua g/areosa is found all over the county, but it is scarce near the sea. N. augur, pkcta, and 
c.-nigrum are all abundant. N. depuncta occurs at Bishop Auckland, and has been taken in 
Hesleden Dene ; it is a rare insect. N. triangulum is widely distributed, but, perhaps, is only 
a wanderer. It is generally a common insect, but here has only occurred singly. N. brunnea 
is well distributed, occurring at edges of woods and open places. N. festiva is common, and 
the variety conflua is equally plentiful on the moors. N. rubi is widely spread, but never 
common ; it appears rarest near the coast. N. umbrosa and baja are fairly well distributed, 
and generally plentiful, but not always. N, xanthographa is always much too numerous. 
Trachea piniperda, in pine woods, generally distributed, but not very common. Tanio- 
campa gothica, abundant everywhere and wonderfully variable. T. leucograpba is only 
recorded by one collector, who says it is decidedly scarce. T. rubricosa is generally 
common and well spread. T. instabilis is plentiful everywhere and very variable. T, opima 
has been taken at Darlington once, but occurs regularly about Hartlepool never common, 
but a few each year. T. popuktt is very scarce. T. stabilis is the most abundant of the 
genus, always plentiful everywhere. T. gracilis is common at Hartlepool, and has been 
taken once or twice in the west. T. munda is recorded from Hartlepool only, where it is 
very rare. T, cruda is generally common, but does not appear to associate much with the 
other members of the genus. Orthttsia suspecta is very scarce and local. In occurs in Hesleden 
Dene. O. ypsilon has occurred in Teesdale and Hartlepool, but very seldom. O. lota is more 
generally distributed, but never abundant. O. macilenta is tolerably common, except on the 
coast, where it is never seen. Anchocelis rufina is well spread over the county, but has not 
often been recorded. A. phtadna also occurs sparingly in most places. A. lunosa is very 
scarce and has only occurred singly. Cerastis vaccinii and spadicea are generally plentiful, but 
not common on the coast. Scopelosoma satetlitia, common generally in autumn, not often seen 
in spring. Xanthia citrago occurs in the neighbourhood of Durham only. X. cerago and 
si la go are common in autumn, and ferruginea appears everywhere, though not so plentiful as 
the other two. Cirrcedia xerampelina occurs occasionally, but has not yet been taken more 
than once at any place. Tethea subtusa is very rare, and has only been met with at Darlington 
and near Hartlepool. Cosmia trapezina is common and well distributed, least plentiful near 
the sea. C. diffinis was taken in 1898 near Hartlepool by Mr. Gardner one specimen only. 

122 






INSECTS 

Dianthacia carpophaga is common on the coast, but does not occur inland. D. cucuba/i, also a 
coast species, but not so plentiful as the last. D. capsincola, commoner than either, and much 
more generally distributed. D. compersa is a rare insect and very irregular in its appearance. 
It has only been taken at Hartlepool and Durham. Polia chi is tolerably common, and the 
variety olivacea occurs in most places ; the variety is scarcest on the moors. P. fiavocincta is 
very general, but never very common. Dasypolia templi is perhaps more plentiful than 
appears. Its habits are peculiar, and it comes out so late in the year that it is seldom seen. 
It is recorded from Barnard Castle, Darlington, Durham, and Hartlepool, and probably occurs 
everywhere. Epunda lutu/enta, on the sandhills and about Hartlepool generally. It comes 
freely to light. It probably occurs all along the coast, but it also flies late in the year, though 
earlier than templi. E. nigra is reported from Bishop Auckland. E. vimina/is is not very 
common, but well distributed. Miselia oxyacantha, generally common. Agriopis aprilina, 
common in the centre and west of the country, but very rare on the coast. Phlogophora 
meticulosa is common enough in the autumn, but much rarer everywhere in spring. Euplexia 
lucipara is generally distributed, but abundant nowhere. Aplecta herbida is not common, but 
occurs all over the county. A. occulta is but an occasional visitor, sometimes disappearing 
for years. A. ntbuloia is fairly common in woods and denes. A. advena is a rare species. 
Mr. Sang took three between 1853 an< ^ l $S7- A single specimen was taken at Elwick near 
Hartlepool about the same time, but there are no more recent records. Hadena admta has 
been taken around Hartlepool and once in Teesdale. H. protea has only been met with in 
the west Upper Teesdale and Weardale. H. dentina, generally distributed and not 
uncommon. H. chenopodii y very rare, odd specimens only have been met with. H. suasa 
appears to occur only on Greatham salt marsh, where it is rare. H. ohracea swarms every- 
where. H. piii is common in most places, perhaps more abundant on the coast. H. tha/assina, 
well distributed, but never very common. Xylocampa lithoriza, not uncommon in early spring. 
Calocampa vetusta is very rare, only occurring singly. C. exoleta, common generally in autumn 
and spring. A single specimen of Xylina petrificata was taken in Hesleden Dene in 1898 
by Mr. Gardner. Cucullia chamomilla has occurred occasionally at Hartlepool, both larvae 
and imagines. C. umbratica is generally distributed and never very rare. Heliothis marginata 
is very common on the coast. In some years it is quite the commonest noctua at Hartlepool. 
The larvse are abundant on Rest-harrow, and are most persistent cannibals. H. peltigera has 
been taken, singly only at South Shields and Byers Green and twice at Hartlepool. H. armigera 
has also been taken twice at Hartlepool and once at Sunderland. Anarta myrtilli is common 
on the moors and not unfrequent wherever there is ling. Brephos parthenias occurs at 
Wolsingham and in that district, but has not been observed elsewhere. Abrostola urtlcte is 
common in the south-west of the Tyne river, and occurs occasionally elsewhere. It is not 
very rare about Hartlepool. A, triplasia is a scarce insect. It was taken by Dr. Lees in 
Upper Teesdale occasionally, and I took one at Hartlepool long ago. Plusia chrysitis is 
generally distributed, but never very common. P. bractea is a great rarity. It has been taken 
only at Darlington and at Durham. P. festuas is also very scarce, but it may be that it has 
not been sought for in the right places. Mr. Sang took it at Hell Kettles in 1880. Near 
Hartlepool I have taken three, but no one else has met with it. P. iota is generally distributed 
and common. P. v-aurtum, even more plentiful than the last. P. gamma swarms in autumn 
and spring. P. inttrrogationis, on the moors. A solitary specimen was taken at rest on palings 
at Hartlepool some years ago. Gonoptera libatrix is well distributed, but not common 
anywhere, and apparently becoming scarcer ; it has almost left the coast. Ampbipyra 
tragopogonis is generally plentiful in autumn. Mania typica is another generally abundant 
insect. Its larger relation M. maura is very much rarer than typica, but occurs all over the 
county. Stilbia anomala was once taken at Black Hall Rocks by Mr. Gardner, flying in the 
sun. Catocala fraxini was taken at Hartlepool by the same gentleman, at rest on the paling 
of his own timber yard. Euclidia mi is generally common in rough pastures and grassy 
places. E. glyphica, not plentiful and very local, occurring on railway banks and similar places. 
Phytomttra tenea is well distributed, but never abundant. It occurs all along the coast and in 
many places inland. 

DELTOIDES PYRALIDES 

Hypcna proboscidalis. Common among nettles Pyralis glaucinalis. Once in HesleJen Dene 
Rivula scriccalis. Once in Hetleden Dene larinalis. Generally common 

Henninu grisealis. Common in woods Aglossa pinguinalis. Common in stables 

123 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Pyrausta punicealis. Common in Heskden Dene 

purpuralis. Black Hall Rocks 

ostrinalis. Black Hall Rocks. Rare, probably 

not distinct 

Herbula cespitalis. Dry banks and pastures 
Ennychia cingulalis. Darlington (Stainton's Manual) 
Cataclysta lemnata. Not very plentiful 
Hydrocampa nymphasata. Generally common 

stagnata. Not very common. 
Botys lupulina. Once at Hartlepool 

verticalis. Generally common 

fuscalis. Very common 

urticata. Very common 

Ebulea crocealis. Common among flea-bane 

sambucalis. Darlington. Once at Hartlepool 
Pionea forficalis. Common in gardens 
Spilodes sticticalis. Once at Hartlepool 
Scopula lutealis. Very common 

olivalis. Very common 

prunalis. Common about Hartlepool 

ferrugalis. Once at DarRngton 
Stenopteryx hybridalis. Generally distributed 
Nola cuculatella. Darlington and Greatham 

cristulalis. Generally common 
Scoparia ambigualis. Generally distributed 

ulmella. Common in woods, etc., around 

Hartlepool 

cembrae. Common among coltsfoot 

pyralalis. Generally common. 

murana. Common in the west of the county 

lineola. Hoffal Wood, near Durham 

mercurella. Common in Upper Teesdale 

cratsgella. Common in Upper Teesdale 

truncicolella. Common in Upper Teesdale 

angustea. Hartlepool 

CRAMBITES 

Crambus pratellus. Abundant everywhere 

hamellus. Hartlepool, once or twice 

pascuellus. Very local 

margaritellus. Has been taken at Wolsingham 

perlellus. Occurs freely on a dry bank near 

Hesleden church 

warringtonellus. Occurs on Greatham sal tmarsh, 

a low damp locality, totally different from 
that where perlellus is found. The specimens 
too are always smaller. 

selasellus. Hell Kettles, Darlington 

tristellus. Common generally 

geniculeus. Sand banks, Hartlepool 

culmellus. Very common 

hortuellus. Very common 

Chilo phragmitellus. Hell Kettles, Darlington 
Anerastia lotella. Sand banks, Hartlepool 
Homoeosoma nimbella. Along the coast 

cretacella. Hartlepool 

Ephestia ficulella. Recorded by Mr. Sang as bred 
from a larva found in a growing hazel nut. 
The larva feeds on dried fruits generally, and 
there may be a mistake. There is no other 
record. 

Plodia interpunctella. Darlington and Hartlepool 
Phycis betulella. Once in Upper Teesdale 

carbonariella. Wolsingham and Hartlepool 

dilutella. Near Darlington 



Phycis genistella. Bred from larvae found near Wols- 
ingham 

roborella. Darlington 

Dioryctria spendidella. Once at Hartlepool 
Rodophaea advenella. Darlington 

tumidella. Hesleden Dene 
Onocera ahenella. Black Hall Rocks 
Aphomia colonella. One at Hartlepool in 1874 

For the remainder, the arrangement of Stainton's 
Manual will be followed. 

CHLCEPHORID^E 

Chloephora prasinana. Generally common in 
woods. 

TORTRICINA 
TORTRICID^E 

Sarrothripa revayana. One at Hartlepool 
Amphisa gerningana. On moors in the west 

prodromana. Abundant on the moors and on 

coast sand hills 

Hypermecia angustana. The true angustana was 
first taken at High Force, Upper Teesdale, in 
1866, by Lord Walsingham. It has been 
taken there by others subsequently, and also 
at Darlington and Hartlepool 

cruciana. Common amongst sallows 
Eulia ministrana. Woods and denes 
Brachytaenia semifasciana. Castle Eden Dene 
Antithesia corticana. On birch trunks, not un- 
common 

betuletana. Hesleden Dene 

praelongana. Generally distributed, but not 

common 

cynosbatella. Common 

pruniana. Common 

dimidiana. Boggy places in the west 

marginana. Teesside near Darlington, etc. 

palustrana. Upper Teesdale 
Penthina salicella. Darlington 

Clepsis rusticana. Boggy moors in the west 
Tortrix icterana. Generally distributed, but not 
very common 

viburnana. Swarms on the moors in Upper 

Teesdale, etc. 

viridana. Common everywhere 

forsterana. Darlington, Hartlepool, etc. 

heparana. Generally common 

ribeana. Generally common 

cinnamoneana. Darlington 

corylana. Generally common 

PLICATE 

Lozotaenia sorbiana. Hell Kettles, near Darlington 
and Wolsingham 

musculana. Generally common 

latiorana. This, I presume, is but a variety of 

costana, but being given separately in Stain- 
ton, I give it separately here. Mr. Gardner 
took a single specimen at Greatham 

costana. Common in marshy places 

unifasciana. Common among privet 

fulvana. Common generally 

roborana. Common generally 



124 



INSECTS 



Lozotsenia xylosteana. Common generally 

- rosana. Common generally 
Ditula angustiorana. Darlington 
Ptycholoma lecheana. Common generally 
Notocelia udmanniana. Recorded only from 

Durham and Hartlepool, but probably com- 
mon generally 

Pardia tripunctana. Swarms in gardens 

Spilonota roborana. Hartlepool 

- roszcolana. DarRngton and Hartlepool 

trimaculana. Common among elm 

amoenana. On the coast among Rosa spinosis- 

sima 
Lithographia compoliliana. Common among willows 

cinerana. Darlington 

nisella. Larvae common in sallow catkins. 

penklcriana. Among birch 

Phlzodes tetraquetrana. Abundant among birch 

crenana. Mr. Sang found this insect at 

Waskerley 

Poedisca piceana. Wolttngham, High Force, and 
Thorp Bulmer near Hartlepool. Probably in 
other marshy places 

stabilana. Hell Kettlei near DarRngton 

solandriana. Common among birch 

opthalmicana. On black poplar in Cattle Eden 

Dene 
Catoptria scopoliana. Common among thistles 

fulvana. Hetleden Dene 

hohenwarthiana. Generally distributed, but not 

common 

expallidana. DarRngton 

Halonota bimaculana. Generally distributed, but 
not common 

trigeminana. Seattm Careto 

cirsiana. Among thistles and centaurea. 

scutulana. Among thistles and centaurea. 

grandzvana. Confined as a British species to 

South Shields and Hartleptol. I believe it is 
extinct at South ShleUi, but it still occurs 
about Hartlepool 

brunnichiana. Plentiful amongst coltsfoot. A 

curious variety, without the white spot on 
the forewings, was common in a quarry in 
Hetleden Dene a few years ago. The colts- 
foot disappeared there and the insect with it, 
nor have I seen the variety since 

tetragonana. Very local. Wolsingham, Darting- 

ton, Hetleden Dene. The lame is said to be 
found under moss at the roots of beech 
trees. Mr. Gardner bred a specimen from 
a larva found on Lotus corniculatus 

turbidana. Teeside from ConitcRffe to Black- 

weU: (J. Sang) 

inopiana. Taken at Seaton Carew in 1874 by 

the late John Sang 

- fcenella. Heileden Dene, once or twice 
Dicrorampha petiverella. DarRngton and Hartlepool 

politana. Eggleston, Upper Teetdale 

alpinana. Mr. Sang took this southern species 

at Coniiclife 

- tanaccti. ConitcRffe, DarRngton, and near 

Hartlepool 

- plumbagana. Hartlepool 

acuminitana. ConitcRffe Moor, DarRngton, and 

Hartlepool 



125 



Dicrorampha consortana. DarRngton 
Coccyx hyrciniana. ConitcRffe Moor 
Capua ochraceana. Eggleston, Upper Teetdale 
Cartella bilunana. HesleJen Dene 

ANCHYLOPERIDjE 
Hedya paykuUiana. Wolsingham and HesUden Dene 

ocellana. DarRngton and ConiscRffe Moor 

dealbana. Dinsdale Wood and Neasham Lane 

near DarRngton, and in Heiledev Dene 

neglectana. 

aceriana. Gas lamps, DarRngton, by Mr. Sang 

in 1860 

trimaculana. I know of no record for this 

insect and never met with it, but it is cer- 
tain to occur 

Steganoptycha naevana. Cattle Eden Dene and 
Cockerton near DarRngton 

geminana. WolAngham 

Anchylopera mitterbacheriana. Gibiide, and prob- 
ably elsewhere 

biarcuana. Winch Bridge, Upper Teetdale, near 

DarRngton, and probably elsewhere 

myrtillana. 

lundana. South Shields, Sunderland, Barnard 

Castle, and Hartlepool, probably everywhere 

paludana. Meyrick limits the range of this 

species to the fens of Norfolk and Cam- 
bridge, but Mr. Sang took it at Hell Kettles 
near Darlington 

comptana. Chiefly a chalk down species, but 

extending on the west coast to Cheshire. 
Mr. Sang took it in a lane near DarRngton 
in 1859, DUt never met with it again. It 
may only have been a stray specimen 

unguicella. On the moors in the west. Has 

been taken at Wolstngham and on the Teet- 
dale Moors 

Bactra lanceolana. Abundant among rushes 
Argyrotoza conwayana. Generally among privet, 

but not a common insect 

Dictyopteryx contaminana. Very common by 
hedge sides 

loeflingiana. Lanes and woods 

Croesia bergmanniana. Common everywhere 
among rose 

fbrskaleana. Common among maple 

holmiana. Generally common 

Hemerosia rheediella. Not scarce, has been re- 
corded at Sunderland, DarRngton, and Hartlepool 

PERONEID.E 

Cheimatophila mixtana. Rather common in 
heathery places. Is recorded from Waskerley, 
Wolsingham, and the Teesdale Moon 

Oxygrapha literana. Mr. Sang took this at Eggles- 
ton and near DarRngton; I took a single 
specimen at Hartlepool, and Mr. Gardner 
another near the mouth of Cattle Eden Dene 

Peronea schallcriana. Generally common. 

perplexana. Of this comparatively new species 

Mr. Gardner took two at Greatbam, near 
Hartlepool 

commariana. Mr. Gardner took a single 

specimen of this on the Teetdale Moon 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Peronea comparana. Generally common 

tristana. This insect has occurred at Gibside 

and at Darlington, both records being sixty 
or seventy years ago. I know of no recent 
occurrence 

rufana. Has occurred Tery generally, and in 

places such as Hartkpool sand hills, where 
there is neither poplar nor willow 

favillaceana. Heskden Dene, etc. 

maccana. Upper Tynedale 

hastiana. Black Hall Rocks among dwarf sallow, 

and Cole Hill Wood near Hartkpool 

-umbrana. Taken by Mr. Maling in 1875 in 

Thornky Dene in the valley of the Derwent 

variegana. Very common everywhere 
Paramesia aspersana. Generally distributed and 

common 

ferrugana. Generally distributed and common 

caledoniana. Common on the moors of Upper 

Teesdak 
Teras caudana. Generally common among sallows 

STIGMONOTID-ffi 

Pcecilochroma corticana. Well distributed, but 
not very common 

bouchardana. Among fir trees 

tenerana. Conisc&ffe Moor, near Darlington, and 

once in Heskden Dene 

Anisotaenia ulmana. Has only been taken in 
Heskden Dene by Mr. Gardner, but is cer- 
tain to occur elsewhere 

Semasia populana. I found larvae and bred this 
insect at Hartkpool in 1884 

woeberana. DarRngton, in gardens 

rufillana. Common in the south of Durham, 

though limited to Tork by Mr. Meyrick 
nanana. Among spruce fir in Teesdale 

vacciniana. Has only been met with at Wol- 

singham 
Eucelis aurana. Castle Eden Dene and the railway 

cutting north of Hart station 
Ephippiphora regiana. Eggleston, Upper Teesdale, 

and Heskden Dene; probably all woods 

where there is sycamore 

argyrana. Generally distributed among oaks 
Stigmonota internana. Among whins as far as 

Castle Eden. I do not know if it occurs 
further north. Meyrick limits it to Tork 

perlepidana. Darlington (]. Sang). The re- 

puted food plants Orobus niger (Wilk) and 
Lathyrus macrorrhizus (Meyr) do not grow 
in the county 

dorsana. Railway banks near Croft. Sang bred 

this species from larvae found on Lathyrus 
sylvestris. Meyrick says Lathyrus macror- 
rhizus and perhaps L. pratensis. This gives 
an additional food, on which perhaps 
Perlepidana also feeds 

Asthenia coniferana. Mr. Sang bred this insect 
from larvae in bark of Scotch fir. (Ent. 
W. Intel!, vii. 76) 

splendidulana. Occurs around DarRngton and 

in Upper Teesdale 

Retinia pinicolana. Has only been taken near 
Darlington 



Retinia pinivorana. Conisclijfe Moor and near 
Darlington 

occultana. Castle Eden Dene, Edder Acres, and 

near Darlington 

Pamplusia monticolana. This insect occurs freely 
on the moors in Northumberland and in York- 
shire, and is certain to occur in Teesdale, but 
I know of no records 

CARPOCAPSID.E 

Endopisa ulicana. On railway banks at Darlington 
and Hartkpool 

germarana. Meyrick limits the range of this 

species to Tork, but it certainly reaches 
Durham, for Mr. Sang took it in a lane near 
the railway at Darlington 

nigricana. Mr. Sang reared this insect from 

larvae found at Coniscliffe feeding on Vicia 
sylvatica. This is not the food generally 
named 

proximana. Probably the same species as 

nigricana. Occurring at the same place and 
time 
Carpocapsa splendana. Near Darlington 

pomonella. No records except at Hartkpool, 

and these are probably from apples grown 
elsewhere, as no apple trees grow there now 
Grapholita albersana. Bred by Mr. Sang from 
larvae found near DarRngton. (E.M.M., 
vi. 170) 

ulicetana. Swarms everywhere around whin 

hypericana. Common in Castle Eden and 

Heskden Dene, and probably elsewhere among 
Hypericum 

CNEPHASID^E 

Cnephasia hybridana. Among fir trees, not un- 
common 

subjectana. Generally common 

virgaureana. 

alternella. Rather local and only recorded 

from Darlington and Seaton Carew 

conspersana. Generally distributed 

octomaculana. Only recorded around Hartk- 

pool, but certain to occur elsewhere 
Ablabia pratana. Rough pastures and moors. 
Very plentiful where it occurs. On the 
wing about mid-day and later 

SERICORID.E 

Euchromia ericetana. I took this species regularly 
in my garden at West Hartkpool, some twenty 
years ago. The garden was surrounded by 
fields, &c. There is no other record 

striana. Middkton-One-Rovi and Greatham 
Orthotaenia antiquana, Hell Kettles near Darlington 
Sericoris conchana. Castle Eden Dene, Darlington, 

&c. 

lacunana. Generally common 

urticana. Plentiful in most places 

micana. In boggy places near Darlington, 

Hartkpool, &c. 

cespitana. I know of no records except near 

Hartkpool 

politana. Moors in the west of the county 



126 



INSECTS 



Scricoris bifasciana. The late John Sang took this 
species near DarRngton in 1870 and again in 
1872, according to his diary 

Mixodia schultziana. Boggy places on the moon 
in the west of the county 

palustrana. Mr. Gardner found this insect 
abundant in one locality on the Teeidale 
Moors. I do not know any other English 
habitat. 



LOZOPERID^;. 

Phtheochroa rugosana. Dlnsdak Wood and Conii- 
cltffe. The food plant Bryonia dioica 
only grows in extreme South Durham 

Eriopsela fractifasciana. A single specimen was 
taken by Mr. Gardner at Black Hall Rockt 

quadrana. Taken in 1 896 by Mr. Gardner 

at Winch Bridge, Upper Teeidale. This is, 
perhaps, its most northern habitat 

Chrosis tesserana. Has only been taken near Dar- 
lington. The food plant scarcely occurs in 
the county 

Argyrolepia baumanniana. Generally distributed 
and not uncommon 

subbaumanniana. Only taken by Mr. Sang 

nearly fifty years ago 

badiana. Among burdock in the denes 



Argyrolepia cnicana. Rather common amongst 
thistles 

Calosetia nigromaculana. Hartlepool, on the rail- 
way side, among ragwort 

Eupoecilia maculosana. Taken by Mr. Sang, pro- 
bably only a casual, as the insect docs not 
occur so far north 

atricapitana. DarRngton, Hartlepool, &c., among 

ragwort 

nana. Wolsingham is the only district where 

this has occurred 

angustana. Common about Hartlepool. No 

other records 

rupicola. Only in South Durham, Hesleden 

Dene, and Darlington 

vectisana. Greatham saltmarsh, very plentiful 

manniana. Occurred on the railway banks at 

DarRngton 

affinitana. Occurs at Greatham saltmarsh, the 

larva; feeding on Aster tripolium 

ruficiliana. Common among cowslips at Dar- 

lington, Hartlepool, &c. 
Lozopera straminea. Generally common 
Xan those tia hamana. Generally distributed, but 

not very abundant 

zoegana. Generally distributed, but not very 

abundant 
Tortricodes hyemana. Common in oak woods 



TINEINA 

This group has been very little collected in Durham. The following list has been 
compiled principally from notes left by the late John Sang, which appear to have been 
memoranda for future guidance rather than a regular diary, and from a list supplied by 
Mr. John Gardner, F.E.S., of his own captures. Stainton's Manual has references to ' Da, J 
Darlington, but as these referred rather to the residence of the captor than to the actual place 
where the species were found I have added Stainton's Manual, in all cases where I have no 
other knowledge of its occurrence. Sang, who, I believe, supplied Stainton with the list, 
collected in Yorkshire as far as Richmond inland, and down the coast to Redcar and Salt- 
burn, and it is possible that some of these references ought to have been in the Yorkshire list. 
No one has collected the Tineina in North Durham since the late George Wailes, and his 
records are given in the Manual as ' Ne' Newcastle, so that it is impossible now to say which 
were Durham species, and which Northumberland. 



EXAPATID^E 

Exapate gelatella. Generally common 
Chimabacche phryganella. In woods, but not 
common 

fagella. Abundant everywhere. Dark forms 

often occur, but not so black as those I have 
seen at Liverpool and elsewhere 
Semioscopis avellanella. Occurs in Upper Teeidale. 
Not common 

tteinkellneriana. The Manual gives DarRngton, 

but Sang does not appear to have met with 
it. I took a single specimen near the work- 
house, Hartlepoot, many years ago 

TINEID.* 

Talxporia pseudo-bombycella. Barnard Castle and 

Castle Eden Dene 
Solenobia clathrclla. This insect was found by 

Dr. Mason in a small collection formed by 



John Sang, and purchased at his death by 
Dr. Mason. They were all taken after 
Sang's return to Darlington, and these 
(two <Js and three $s) were there named 
Triquetrella, as Clathrclla had never been 
recorded as British. Dr. Mason wrote me 
of his discovery that they were a new species 
as soon as he had satisfied himself. There 
is an incorrect reference to these specimens 
in Tutt's work (vol. ii. 197). The syno- 
nomy of the genus is much confused 

Diplodoma marginepunctella. Sang found cases 
of this insect ' low down on tree trunks ' 
near DarRngton 

Ochsenheimera birdella. Taken by Mr. Gardner 
near the mouth of Hesleden Dene 

bisontella. Found by Mr. Gardner with the 

last, and also in Teesdale by Mr. Sang 

vacculella. Found by Mr. Gardner with the 

last, and also in Tcesdale by Mr. Sang 



127 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Euplocamus boleti. I took a single specimen 
of this insect in my own house in Hartle- 
pool m 1862 

Tinea rusticella. Generally common 

fulvimitrella. Teesdale and Hesleden Dene 

tapetzella. Generally common 

arcella. Middleton-One-Row and Hesleden Dene 

picarella. A very rare insect. Bred by Mr. 

Gardner from fungi in Upper Teesdale 

corticella. Taken by the late W. Backhouse 

in Kepler Wood near Durham 

parasitella 

granella. Common in granaries 

cloacella. Common 

albipunctella. DarRngton and Seaton Carew 

confusella. I took a single specimen of this 

insect on the wing near the mouth of Hes- 
leden Dene 

miscella. Castle Eden Dene and Black Hall 

Rocks 

pellionella. Common in houses 

pallescentella. Common generally, especially 

in timber yards 

lapella. Darlington (Stainton's Manual). Mr. 

Gardner bred it from a bird's nest found 
in Hesleden Dene 

biselliella. Very common in houses 

semifulvella. Birds' nests and in houses 

bistrigella. Generally distributed 
Lampronia quadripunctella. Not uncommon in 

South Durham 

luzella. Darlington, Castle Eden and Hesleden 

Denes 

praelatella. Local, but plentiful where it 

occurs 

rubiella. Common among both wild and 

garden raspberries 
Teichobia verhuellella. Mr. Sang found this both 

at Castle Eden and Black Halls, and reared it 

from larvae found there 
Incurvaria musculella. Generally common 

canariella. Taken by Mr. Gardner among 

Rosa spinosissima 

pectina. Teesdale, among birch. Not very 

common 

Nemophora swammerdammella. General in plan- 
tations 

schwarziella. General in plantations 

Adeia fibulella. Darlington, Castle Eden Dene, and 
Hartlepool 

rufimitrella. Generally distributed 

viridella. Darlington. Common in the denes 

cuprella 

Nematois cupriacellus. Darlington 

MICROPTERYGID.E 

Micropteryx calthella. Common 

seppella. Common 

allionella. Wolsingham 

thunbergella. Darlington 

purpurella 

salopiella. High Force 

semipurpurella. Teesdale. Common in Hes- 

leden Dene 

sangii. Darlington 



Micropteryx unimaculella. Teesdale 

sparmannella. High Force 

subpurpurella. Generally distributed 
Swammerdamia apicella. Darlington, Hesleden 

Dene, etc. 

caesiella. Darlington (Stainton's Manual) 

griseo-capitella. Darlington, Wolsingham, Hesle- 

den Dene 

lutarea. DarRngton, Whessoe, etc. 

pyrella. Darlington, Hesleden Dene 
Hyponomenta padellus. Teesdale and Weardak 

evonymellus. Among spindle near Hartlepool 

padi. Not uncommon 
Anesychia funerella. Barnard Castle 
Prays curtisellus. Common in woods 

PLUTELLID^E 

Plutella cruciferarum. Common. This some- 
times appears in myriads 

porrectella. General in gardens 

annulatella. Hartlepool 

dalella. Waskerley 
Cerostoma sequella. Teesdale 

radiatella. Common 

costella. Common 

lucella. Darlington, among young oaks 

scabrella. Generally common 

nemorella. Castle Eden and Hesleden Denei 

xylostella. Generally common 

GELECHID^E 

Orthotaelia sparganella. Hell Kettles 

Anacampsis sangiella. DarRngton 

Phibalocera quercana. Darlington (Stainton's 

Manual) 

Exsretia allisilla. Hartlepool and Durham 
Depressaria costosa. Generally distributed 

liturella. Generally distributed 

umbellana. Generally distributed 

assimilella. Darlington (Stainton's Manual) 

nanatella. Hartlepool 

atomella. Darlington 

arenella. DarRngton, Castle Eden and Heskden 

Denes 

subpropinquella. Black Halls 

alstrcemeriella. Common among hemlock 

conterminella. Darlington 

hypericella. Darlington, Hartlepool, and the 

denes. Common among Hypericum 

angelicella. DarRngton, Hartlepool, and the 

denes 

ocellana. Darlington (Stainton's Manual) 

applana. Very common 

ciliella 

pulcherrimella. Teesdale, Darlington, and the 

denes 

weirella. Teesslde 

chaerophylli. Darlington 

nervosa. Greatham 

badiella. DarRngton 

pastinacella. Greatham 

heracliana. Generally common 
Gelechia cinerella. Generally common 

rufescens. Greatham, Seaton Carew 

populella 

ericetella. Common on the moors 



128 



INSECTS 



GeJchia mulinella. Generally distributed 

longicornis. Wolsingham 

- terrella. Generally common 

desertella. Shield,, Hartlefool, Staton Careto, 

probably on all coast sandhills 

politella. TeesJale, Hartlefool 

intaminatella. Darfmgton 

accuminatella. Generally common 

gracilella. South Shields 

senectella. Greatham 

- obscurella. CrimJon Cut 

similis. CrimJon Cut 

affinis. TeesJale 

tetragonella. A new species, taken at Greatham 

by Mr. Sang. It has been erroneously 
recorded as occurring at Redcar (Yorks.) 

urabrosclla. South Shields 

- rhombella. Common in crab-apple. The 

insects are very dark grey, none light like 
those in the south. 

proximella. Teesdalt and HesieJen Dene 

notatella. DarRngton and HesieJen Dene 

vulgella. DarRngton and HesieJen Dene 

fugitivella. Darlington 

aethiops. TeesJale and Weardalt 

solutella. Wolsingham 

distinctella. South Shields 

- celerella. Hartlefool. Rare 

- maculea. DarRngton and HesieJen Dene 

tricolorella Darlington 

fraternclla. DarRngton and Hartlefool 

viscariella. Darfington and HesieJen Dene 

marmorea. Castle Eden, Black Halls, Seaton 

Carew. On the sea banks, probably all 
along the coast 

instabilella. Black Halls, Hartlefool, Greatham 
Greatham Salt marsh 
Greatham and Hartlefool 
Darlington, Greatham, and Seaton 



Castle Eden and HesieJen 
Among juniper in the 



salicornix. 

atriplicella. 

obsoletella. 

Careto 

plantaginella. Greatham. Plentiful 

sequax. Castle Eden to Hartlefool 

mouffetella. Darlington 

- dodecella. Darlington and Cole Hill 

tenebrella. DarRngton and Wolsingham 

tenebrosella. DarRngton 

ligulella. DarRngton and Greatham 

vorticella. Darlington 

tzniolella. DarRngton (Stainton's Manual) 

sircomella. DarRngton 

anthyllidella. DarRngton and Greatham 

ungiella. DarRngton and Hartlefool 

albipalpella. DarRngton 

atrella. DarRngton, Castle Eden and HesieJen 

Denes 

intaminella. DarRngton and Wtlsingham 

nstviferella. DarRngton and Barnard Castle 

hermanella 

- pictella. Railway bank, Hartlefool 

osseella. DarRngton 

brizella. Greatham 

- subocella. HesieJen Dene 
Parasia lappella 

- metzncriella. DarRngton, Seaton Carew, and 

Hartlefool 

carlinella. DarRngton (Stainton's Manual) 

129 



Chelaria hubnerella. 
Denes 

Ypsolophas marginellus. 
dales 

Sophronia humerella. Castle Eden Dene 

Pleurota bicostella. High Force 

Harpella bractcella. This species was recorded as 
British in the E. W. I. (iii. 179) f rom 
specimens taken and bred at Shotley near 
Gateshead, and I took a beautiful specimen 
at light near Throston, Hartlefool in June 1 880. 
It is therefore widely spread in the county, 
but not enough is known of its habits for it 
to be often taken. I believe less than a 
dozen British specimens exist, all from 
Durham but one. The larva feeds on rotten 
wood 
Hypercallia christiernella. Castle Edtn Dene 

(ECOPHORID^E 

Dasycera sulphurella. Generally common about 

old hedges 
CEcophora flavimaculella. DarRngton, Castle Eden 

and HesieJen Denes 

similella. High land in west of county, Wol- 

singham, Eggleston, etc. 

tubaquilea. High land in west of county 

One at Black Halls 

pseudospretella. Swarms everywhere. I once 

had larvz brought me from Stockttn-m-Tees, 
where they had been feeding on flour in 
casks. I expected to rear Kuhniella, but 
this species only emerged 

Endrosis fenestrella 

Butalis fuscocuprea. DarRngton 

incongruella. Waskerley 

Atemelia torquatella. Wolsingham, Castle Eden and 

HesieJen Denes 
Pancalia lewenhoekella. Wolsingham, Castle Eden 

and HesieJen Denes 

GLYPHIPTERYGID^E 

Acrolepia granitella. Darlington 

betuletella. This rarity was first taken at 

Castle Eden Dene, and has only been met 
with there and once at High Force. Most 
of the specimens in existence were taken by 
the late John Sang. I have taken it but 
once, my specimen being beaten out of yew 
in October 

Glyphipteryx fuscoviridella. Black Halls, dry 
banks 

cladiella. Darfington 

- thrasonella. DarRngton, HesieJen Dene, etc. 

fischeriella. Darfington, Hartlefool, etc. 
Tinagra staneellum. Darlington 

- resplendellum. DarRngton, at Hell Kettles 
Douglasia ocnerostomella. DarRngton 



ARGYRESTHID.S 

Argyresthia ephippella. Darlington, common 

nitidella. Very common 

- semitestacella. Generally distributed 

spiniella. High Force 

albistria. Not scarce among sloe 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Argyresthia conjugella. Teesdale, etc. 

semifusca. Darlington, Hesleden Dene 

mendica. Darlington (Stain ton's Manual) 

retinella. Darlington, Castle Eden Dene 

dilectella. High Force, among juniper 

curvella. Cole Hill near Hartkpool 

sorbiella. Wolsingham and Teesdale 

pygmaeella. Darlington, Edder Acres, Hesleden 

Dene, etc. 

- goedartella. Darlington, Hartkpool, etc. 

brockeella. Generally distributed among birch 

arceuthinella. Wolsingham, among juniper 
Cedestis farinatella. Darlington 

Ocnerostoma piniariella. Woods near Darlington, 

Hartlepool, etc. 
Zellaria hepariella. Darlington, Castle Eden Dene, etc. 

- insignipennella. Probably the same as last, 

occurring at same places 
Gracillaria swederella. Generally common 

stigmatella. Darlington 

stramineella. Upper Teesdale 

elongella. High Force, Darlington, Castle Eden, 

Black Halls, etc. 

- tringipennella. Generally distributed 

syringella. Generally distributed 

- aurogutella Darlington, Castle Eden and Hei- 

leden Denes 

Coriscum cuculipennellum. Castle Eden Dene 
Ornix avellanella. Darlington, Hesleden Dene 

anglicella. Darlington, Hesleden Dene 

betulae. Wolsingham, High Force 

torquillella. Darlington 

scoticella. Barnard Castle 

loganella. Wolsingham and Hesleden Dene 

guttea. Darlington 

COLEOPHORID^E 

Coleophora tengstromella. Darlington, Seaton Careni 

laricella. General among larch 

lutipennella. Darlington, Barnard Castle, etc. 

fuscedinella. Darlington (Stainton's Manual) 

viminetella. Darlington, Hartlepool 

siccifolia. Darftngton 

~ gryphipennella. Darlington, Hartlepool, pro- 
bably everywhere on rose 

nigricella. Darlington 

- orbitella. High Force, Stanhope, Wolsingham, etc. 

paripennella. High Force 

- albitarsella. Darlington, Hesleden Dene 

- alcyonipennella. Stockton-on-Tees, Castle Eden, etc. 

frischella. Darlington, Hartlepool, etc. 

fabriciella. Darlington 

anatipennella. Darlington 

albicosta. Darlington, Wolsingham 

- pyrrhulipennella. Wolsingham 

- lixella. Castle Eden Dene and Black Halls 

discordella. Generally distributed 

onosmella. Darlington 

therinella. Darlington, Black Halls 

- troglodytella. DarRngtm, Crindon Cut, etc. 

apicella. Darftngton 

annulatella. Darlington, Castle Eden, and Black 

Halls 

murinipennella. Darlington, Greatham 

glaucicolella. Greatham 

cespititiella. Darlington 



ELACHISTID^E 

Bidella somnulentella. Generally distributed 
Batrachedra preangusta. Darlington, Castle Eden 
and Hesleden Denes 

pinicolella. Coniscliffe Moor 
Oinophila v-flava. Wine cellar in Darlington 
Chauliodus chaerophyllellus. Generally com- 
mon 

Laverna propinquella. Coniscliffe Moor, Castle 
Eden and Hesleden Denes, &c. 

lacteela. Darlington, Dinsdale, Hesleden Dene 

miscella. Black Halls 

ochraceella. Rather common 

atrai. Rather common 
Chrysoclysta shrankella. Hesleden Dene 

flavicaput. Darlington, Greatham, Hesleden 

Dene 
Asychnia profugella. Darlington 

terminella. Castle Eden 

Chrysocorys festaliella. High Force, on wild rasp- 
berries 

Stephensia brunnichella. Generally distributed 
Elachista trapeziella. Barnard Castle 

gleichenella. Barnard Castle 

apicipunctella. Darlington, Crimdon Cut 

albifrontella. Generally common 

cinereopunctella. Stockton-on-Tees 

luticomella. Darlington, Stockton, Hesleden 

Dene, &c. 

atricomella. Darlington, Stockton, Hasleden 

Dene, &c. 

kilmunnella. Hartlepool 

monticola. Darlington and Teesdale 

nigrella. Darlington and Hasleden Dene 

gregsoni. Darlington 

obscurella. Darlington, var. subobscurella. 

The type occurs in Teesdale commonly 

perplexella. Generally distributed 

adscitella. Darlington, Stockton, Castle Eden, 

&c. 

megerella. DarKngton, Castle Eden, Sec. 

zonanella. Generally common 

taeniatella. Darlington, &c. 

cerusella. Darlington (Stainton's Manual) 

rhyncosporella. Darlington and Hartlepool 

paludum. Hell Kettles 

biatomella. Darlington 

triatomea. Darlington, Greatham, &c. 

pollinariella. Darlington, Castle Eden and 

Hesleden Denes 

subocellea. Castle Eden 

rufbcinerea. Abundant everywhere 

- cygnipennella. Abundant everywhere 
Tischeria complanella. Generally distributed 

marginea. Darlington 

LITHOCOLLETID.E 

Lithocolletis amyotella. Darlington 

roboris. Darlington 

sylvella. Darlington 

cramerella. Darlington, Hesleden Dene 

heegeriella. Darlington, Batnard Castle 

alnifoliella. General among alder 

nigrescentella. Darlington 



130 



INSECTS 



Lithocolletis insignitella. Very abundant between 
Hart Station and Castle Eden, but not recorded 
elsewhere in England. It is so very plenti- 
ful that I have collected 1,000 mines within 
twenty yards. It feeds here only on 
Trifolium pratense, though medium and 
repens are common. The insect occurs by 
hedges or waste ground, and is especially 
common on the railway side 

irradiella. DarRngton 

- bremiella. Dorfingtort, Barnard Castle, &c. 

ulmifbliella. Generally common 

spinolella. Generally common 

sorbiella. Upper Teesdale 

salicicolella. Black Halls 

pomifoliella. Darlington and Greatham 

- spinicolella. DarRngton and Hesleden Dene 

- fcginella. DarRngton, Hesleden Dene and Teesaale 

- coryli. DarRngton, Barnard Castle, &c. 

vacciniella. Stockton-on-Tees 

- quinqueguttella. Castle Eden and Black Halls 

quercifoliella. Generally common 

- messaniella. DarRngton (Stainton's Manual) 

- scopariella. Teetdale and ConiscRffe Moor 

viminiella. DarRngton 

corylifoliella. Generally common 

caledoniella. Darlington and Hesleden Dene 

nicellii. DarRngton and Hesleden Dene 

dunningiella. Barnard Castle 

frolichiella. Stanhope, DarRngton, Hartlepool. 

Not common 

stettinensis. DarRngton (Stainton's Manual) 

Klemannella. Stanhope, DarRngton, Edder 

Acres, &c. 

emberizaepennella. DarRngton, Barnard Castle, 

Hesleden Dene, &c. 

- tristrigella. DarRngton, Hesleden Dene, &c. 

trifasciella 

compariella. jfycfijfe 

LYONETID^E 

Lyonetia derkella. Generally distributed. 
Cemiostoma spartifoliella. DarRngton 

wailesella. DarRngton 

- scitella. DarRngton, Barnard Castle and Greatham 
Opostega salaciella 

- crepusculella. DarRngton, Castle Eden, &c. 
Bucculatrix aurimaculella. DarRngton 



Bucculatrix cidarella. Hell Kettles 

crataegi. Dinsdale Wood 

maritima. Greatham 

NEPTICUL* 

Nepticula atricapitella. DarRngton 

ruficapitella. DarRngton 

pygmzella. DarRngton, Castle Eden 

pomella. DarRngton 

oxyacanthella. DarRngton 

viscerella. DarRngton 

aucupariella. Stanhope, Barnard Castle, &c. 

lapponica. High Force, &c. 

anomalella. DarRngton 

septembrella. DarRngton, Castle Eden, &c. 

cryptella. DarRngton, Castle Eden, &c. 

ulmivoriella. DorRr.gtm 

subbimaculella. DarRngton 

argyropeza. DarRngton 

trimaculelk. DarRngton 

salicis. DarRngton 

myrtillella. Barnard Castle 

floslactella. Barnard Castle, DarRngton 

luteella. Barnard Castle, DarRngton, H'otsingham, 

&c. 

ignobilella. DarRngton 

arcuata. DarRngton 

angulifasciella. DarRngton 

atricollis. DarRngton 

microtheriella. DarRngton, Barnard Castle 

argentipedella. Among birch in the west. 

Wobingham, High Force, Barnard Cattle, &c. 

betulicola. General in the west 

plagicolella. Darlington, &c. 

malella. DarRngton 

tityrella. DarRngton, &c. 

glutinosx. Stanhope 

gratiosella. DarRngton, &c. 

ulmivorella. DarRngton, &c. 

splendidellum. DarRngton, &c. 

regiella. DarRngton, &c. 

aeniofasciella. DarRngton, Castle Eden 

alnetella. DarRngton, Barnard Castle, Stanhope 

marginicolella. Darlington 

aurella. DarRngton, &c. 

splendidissima. DarRngton 
Trifurcnla immundella. Darlington, &c. 

pulverosella. Darlington 



PTEROPHORINA 
These insects are now placed elsewhere and divided into other genera. 

for convenience only. 

Adactyla bennetii. Salt marsh at Greatham 

Pterophorus ochrodactylus. Tees Side, near Dar- 
Rngton 

bertrami. Late ConiscRffe 

- trigonodactylus. Generally distributed and 

common 

- parvidactylus. Black Halls, very scarce, but 

abundant on the sides of the railway-cutting 
near Hesleden Dene 

hieracii. DarRngton 

- bipunctidactylus. Darlington, Hesleden Dene, 

Edder Acres, &c. 

- plagiodactylus. South Shields, Black Halls, Dar- 

Rngton, &c. 



I follow Stainton 



Pterophorus fuscus. Castle Eden and Hesleden Denes, 
DarRngton, &c. 

lithodactylus. DarRngton, Edder Acres, Black 

Halls, &c. 

ptcrodactylus. DarRngton, Castle Eden, Durham, 

Hesleden Dene, &c. 

microdactylus. Hesleden Dene, Black Halls, Crim- 

don Cut, &c. 

tetradactylus. DarRngton, Black Halls, &c. 

- pentadactylus. Very common wherever con- 
volvulus grows 

ALUCITINA 
Alucita polydactyla. Common 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

DIPTERA 

Flies 

In this county the two-winged flies have been neglected. The following list of species is 
the result of observations and collections made during the six years which formed the close of 
the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, before which time no collections 
had been made or records kept for this county. It is, therefore, very imperfect. But it shows 
that the county, with its great diversity of natural features, is the home of a large variety 
of flies. 

Among the long grasses on the sand hills of the southern coast-line Asilidaa and Therevidae 
lie waiting for their prey. Along the flower-clad cliff-tops bright Syrphids and more homely 
Anthomyids disport themselves in the sunshine. In the rush-lined gullies worn in the boulder 
clay, Leptidae and the larger Crane flies abound, while on the beach, among the heaps of 
seaweed left by the receding tide are many species of shore flies, both the Fucellias, Orygma, 
Chersodromia, and others. The deep wooded denes, so characteristic of this part of the 
coast, are the haunts of swarms of sandflies and midges of many kinds. Farther inland, 
along the marshy flats through which runs the sluggish Skerne, and on the upland burns 
and among the rushes of the hill pastures, the water-loving Dolichopods skim over the streams 
and pools or lurk among the herbage. By the banks of the numerous brooks and rivers 
where willows hang over the waters, the black Bibio of St. Mark may be found, while its 
smaller relative of St. John and several other species swarm among the herbage. Along the 
field borders, and in the meadows or in the neglected corners, the numerous tribes of 
Acalypterous Muscids, hovering Syrphids, and indeed flies of almost every family, hide them- 
selves beneath the leaves, or feed on the yellow pollen. The upper dales and the many glens 
which seam the hillsides are the resort of great numbers of the Limnobidas. And on 
the heathery moors the hum of the bright wasp-coloured Sericomyia mingles with that of 
the bees. 

The county, therefore, with its considerable range of altitudes from the sea level to 
over 2,000 feet, and its varied topography and vegetation, is well calculated to possess a fairly 
wide range of insect life, notwithstanding its northern latitude, its eastern exposure, and its 
often smoke-laden atmosphere. The following lists of species probably give only a small 
proportion of those inhabiting the county. 

CECIDOMYIDjE 

The Gall Gnats of the county have not yet been studied, and although many species 
have been collected and the galls of many more observed, the names of the species have not 
been determined. 

MYCETOPHILID^ 

The Fungus Gnats also have been but little worked out. The following very meagre 
list contains all that have as yet been identified. 

Sciara praecox, Mg. Lasiosoma luteum, Mcq. Macrocera centralis, Mg. 

Mycetophila punctata, Mg. hirtum, Mg. stigma, Curt. 

signata, Mg. Sciophila ornata, Mg. Bolitophila fusca, Mg. 

- cingulum, Mg. Macrocera fasciata, Mg. cinerea, Mg. 
Glaphyroptera fascipennis, Mg. lutea, Mg. 

BIBIONID^E 

Several of this family are common throughout the county, especially the Fever Fly, and 
the black, heavy-looking St. Mark's Fly. Its red-legged cousin is not uncommon in the 
upper dales, and the smaller St. John's Fly and its woolly relative are generally to be found 
near wooded streams. This county is the only recorded locality for D. femoratus. 

Scatopse notata, L. Dilophus femoratus, Mg. Bibio nigriventris, Hal. 

- brevicornis, Mg. Bibio pomonae, F. laniger, Mg. 
Dilophus febrilis, L. marci, L. johannis, L. 

1 3 2 






INSECTS 

SIMULID.E 

Reptans is the only common species of the Sandflies, and is sometimes to be met with in 
countless swarms in the coast denes. 



Simulium reptans, L. 



Simulium latipes, Mg. 



CHIRONOMID^: 

The beautiful and delicately-coloured members of the Midge family are everywhere 
present. The local species are very numerous, but the difficulty of preserving their colours 
and the confused state of the British list render their identification difficult. 



Chironomus plumosus, L. 

annularis, Dcg. 

flaveolus, Mg. 

venustus, Stseg. 

pcdellus, Deg. 

brevitibialis, Ztt. 

pictulus, Mg. 

nubeculosus, Mg. 



Cricotopus tremulus, L. 

bicinctus, Mg. 

annulipes, Mg. 

sylvestris, F. 
Orthocladius niveipennis, Ztt. 

stcrcorarius, Mg. 
Tanytarsus tenuis, Mg. 



Tanytarsus flavipes, Mg. 
Metriocncmus fuscipes, Mg. 
Tanypus varius, F. 

nebulosus, Mg. 

choreus, Mg. 

carneus, F. 

melanops, Mg. 



The following small families have not been studied. The individuals of several species 
of Gnats and Psychods are numerous enough, but at present they remain mostly unidentified. 



Culcx ncmorosus, Mg. 



CULICID^E 

Culex pipiens, L. Culex ciliaris, L. 

DIXIDJE 

Dixa aprilina, Mg. 

TIPULIDjE (Sensu lato) 

The Crane flies, large and small, are very abundant, and a fair number of species have 
been observed. The four kinds of Winter Gnats may all be seen on fine days throughout the 
winter. The beautiful little Idioptera is to be found on the moors, and the Spotted 
Acyphona in the woods of the coast denes. The large and handsome Pedicia and the Great 
Crane fly are not uncommon. The Marsh Tipula (T. paludosa) seems to be more abundant 
than the common Daddy Long-legs, and the large Orange Tipula is plentiful. 



PTYCHOPTERIDjfc 



Ptychoptera contaminata, L. 
lacustris, Mg. 









Limnobia quadrinotata, Mg. 

nubeculosa, Mg. 

flavipes, F. 

- tripunctata, F. 

- trivitta, Schm. 
Dicranomyia modesta, Mg. 

chorea, Mg. 

- dumetorum, Mg. 
Rhiphidia maculata, Mg. 
An toe ha opalizans, O.Sack. 
Empeda flava, Schum. 

- nubila, Schum. 
Gonomyia tenclla, Mg. 

- scutellata, Egg. 
Acyphona maculata, Mg. 
Molophilus appendiculatus, Stzg. 

propinquus, Egg. 



LIMNOBID^E 

Molophilus bifilatus, Verr. 

obscurus, Mg. 
Rhypholophus lineatus, Mg. 

nodulosus, Mcq. 

varius, Mg. 

hcemorrhoidalis, Ztt. 
Erioptera flavesccns, Mg. 

macrophthalma, Lw. 

tcenionota, Mg. 

fuscipcnnis, Mg. 

trivialis, Mg. 
Lipsothrix crrans, Wlk. 
Idioptera pulchella, Mg. 
Dactylolabis gracilipcs, Lw. 
Limnophila Meigenii, Verr. 

dispar, Mg. 

lineola, Mg. 

'33 



Ptychoptera albimana, F. 
scutellaris, Mg. 



Limnophila lineolella, Verr. 

ochracea, Mg. 

discicollis, Mg. 

lucorum, Mg. 

nemoralis, Mg. 
Trichocera annulata, Mg. 

hiemalis, Deg. 

fuscata, Mg. 

regclationis, L. 
Ula pilosa, Schm. 
Dicranota bimaculata, Schm. 
Amalopis immaculata, Mg. 

unicolor, Schm. 
Pedicia rivosa, L. 
Pachyrrhina crocata, L. 

- histrio, F. 

maculosa, Mg. 






A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Pachyrrhina cornicina, L. Tipula truncorum, Mg. Tipula vittat.i, Mg. 

guestfalica, Westh. hortensis, Mg. gigantea, Schrk. 

analis, Schm. varipennis, Mg. lutescens, F. 

quadrifaria, Mg. scripta, Mg. oleracea, L. 

lunulicornis, Schm. plumbea, F. paludosa, Mg. 

annulicornis, Mg. lunata, L. fascipennis, Mg. 
Tipula pagana, Mg. lateralis, Mg. peliostigma, Schum. 

- confusa, V. de Wulp vernalis, Mg. ochracea, Mg. 

longicornis, Schm. 

RHYPHIDjE 

Rhyphus fenestralis, Scop. Rhyphus punctatus, F. 

STRATIOMYID^E 

The Soldier-flies are not largely represented in this county. None of the three first sub- 
families have as yet been observed, and of the rest only S. cuprarius and irridatus and 

B. chalybeata are common. 

Chrysonotus bipunctatus, Scop. Sargus iridatus, Scop. Beris vallata, Forst. 

Sargus flavipes, Mg. Microchrysa polita, L. chalybeata, Forst. 

cnprarius, L. flavicornis, Mg. geniculata, Curt. 

Of the next five families only the Cleg is common among the Tabamdtt, although 

C. c&cutiens is sometimes fairly plentiful. All the Leptidts are common, except L. lineola and 
5. crassicornit. D. rufipes, among the Asilidte, is generally distributed and very common along 
the banks of the Gaunless. Philonicus is only found on the sand hills near Hart. Our only 
Bee-fly is common in April where primroses abound, and the two Therevidte are fairly 
abundant among the Bent grass on the coast. 



Hsematopota pluvialis, L. Therioplectes solstialis, Mg. Chrysopscoecutiens, L. 
Therioplectes montanus, Mg. Tabanus autumnalis, L. 

LEPTID^E 

Leptis scolopacea, L. Leptis conspicua, Mg. Chrysopilus auratus, F. 

tringaria, L. lineola, F. Symphoromyia crassicornis 

ASILID./E 

Dioctria rufipes, Deg. Philonicus albiceps, Mg. Dismachus trigonus, Mg. 

BOMBYLID^ 

Bombylius major, L, 

THEREVID^: 

Thereva nobilitata, F. Thereva annulata, F. 

EMPID.E 

Several species of these two-winged robbers are among our commonest flies. They may 

often be seen with their long snipe-like beaks buried deeply in the body of some unfortunate 
victim. Most of them are generally distributed, but Chersodromia is confined to the shore 
rocks, while Clinocera and Ardoptera have only as yet been found in the upper dales. 

Hybos grossipes, L. Empis borealis, L. Hilara chorica, Fin. 

femoratus, Mull. stercorea, L. thoracica, Mcq. 
Cyrtoma spuria, Fin. trigramma, Mg. CEdalia holmgreni, Ztt. 
Rhamphomyia nigripes, F. punctata, Mg. Oxydromia glabricula, Fin. 

sulcata, Fin. pennipes, L. Clinocera fontinalis, Hal. 

dentipes, Ztt. vernalis, Mg. - bistigma, Curt. 

- variabilis, Fin. vitripennis, Mg. Ardoptera irrorata, Fin. 

- umbripennis, Mg. - chioptera, Fin. Chersodromia arenaria, Hal. 

- flava, Fin. Hilara maura, F. Tachydromia flavipes, F. 
Empis tessellata, F. manicata, Mg. - cursitans, F. 

-- livida, L. - quadrivittata, Mg. - bicolor, F. 

'34 




INSECTS 

DOLICHOPODIDiE 

Several of the genus Dolichopuf are very common. The first five are numerous in marshy 
places in the dales ; trivia/is, tfneus, and G. teroius are common everywhere ; of the others, 
only a few have been met with here and there. 



Psilopus platypterus, F. 
Ncurigona quadrifasciata, F. 
Dolichopus a tripes, Mg. 

- vitripennis, Mg. 

atratus, Mg. 

- picipes, Mg. 

plumipcs, Scop. 

pennatus, Mg. 

popular!*, W. 



Dolichopus urbanus, Mg. 

griseipennis, Stan. 

trivialis, Hal. 

brevipennis, Mg. 

xneus, Deg. 
Hercostomus nigripennis, Fin. 
Gymnopternus cupreus, Fin. 

zrosus, Fin. 
Chiysotiu gramincus, Fin. 

LONCHOPTERIDJE 



Argyra diaphana, F. 

argentina, Mg. 
Syntormon pallipes, F. 
Xiphandrium caliginosum, Mg. 

monotrichum, Lw, 
Sccllus notatus, F. 
Hydrophorus prjecox, Lehm. 
Liancalus virens, Scop. 
Campsicnemus curvipes, Fin. 



Flies of this family are very common everywhere, and they seem to be of four varieties, 
but whether these are really different species is open to question. 



Lonchoptcra punctum, Mg. 
trilineata, Ztt. 



Lonchoptcra lacustris, Mg. 
tristis, Mg. 



The individuals of the next two families are by no means common ; one or two specimens 
of a few species are all that have as yet been observed. 

PLATYPEZID^E 

Callimyia speciosa, Mg. Callimyia amoena, Mg. 



Verrallia pilau, Ztt. 



PIPUNCULIDjE 

Pipunculus furcatus, Egg. 
terminalis, Thorns. 

SYRPHID^E 



Pipunculus campestris, Ltr. 
pratorum, Fin. 



The Hoverer or Hawk-flies are fairly well represented in this county, about 4.0 per cent, 
of the British species having been taken within its borders. Ischymyrphus glaucius was very 
abundant at Gibside in 1896, but usually it is rather uncommon, though generally distributed. 
Arctopkila mussitans is a strangely local fly. It has appeared year after year in fair numbers 
within a day or two of the 28th August, at the corner of a certain field near Hesleden, but 
has only once been observed at any other time or place. Merodon has been getting commoner 
of late, doubtless owing to the importation of foreign bulbs. 



Pipizella virens, F. 
Pipiza noctiluca, L. 
Liogaster metallina, F. 
Chrysogaster hirtella, L. 
Chilosia maculata, Fin. 

sparsa, Lw. 

pulchripes, Lw. 

variabilis, Panz. 

- intonsa, Lw. 

- illustrata, Har. 

- imprcssa, Lw. 

- albitarsis, Mg. 

- fraterna, Mg. 

I vernal is, Fin. 
proxima, Ztt. 
Platychirus manicatus, Mg. 

- peltatus, Mg. 

- scutatus, Mg. 

- albimanus, F. 



Platychirus clypeatus, Mg. 

angustatus, Ztt. 
Pyrophxna granditarsa, Forst. 

rosarum, F. 
Melanastomum mellinum, L. 

- scalare, F. 
Leucozona lucorum, L. 
Ischyrosyrphus glaucius, L. 
Catabomba pyrastri, L. 

selenitica, Mg. 
Syrphus albostriatus, Fin. 

albostriatus var. confusus 

tricinctus, Fin. 

venustus, Mg. 

lunulatus, Mg. 

torvus, Ost. Sack. 

vittiger, Ztt. 

grossularix, Mg. 

ribesii, L. 

'35 



Syrphus vitripennis, Mg. 

latifasciatus, Mcq. 

corolla;, F. 

luniger, Mg. 

hifasciatus, F. 

balteatus, Deg. 

cinctellus, Ztt. 

cinctus, Fin. 

auricollis, Mg. 

auricollis var. maculicornis, 

Ztt. 

umbellatarum, F. 

- compositarum, Verr. 

- labiatarum, Verr. 
Sphacrophoria scripta, L. 

- scripta var. nigricoza, Ztt. 

menthastri, L. 

menthastri var. picta, Mg. 

menthastri var. taeniata, Mg. 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



Eristalis tenax, L. 

intricarius, L. 

arbustorum, L. 

nemorum, L. 

pertinax, Scop. 

rupium, F. 

horticola, Deg. 
Myiatropa florea, L. 
Helophilus pendulus, Mg. 
Merodon equestris var. narcissi, 

F. 

equestris var. validus, Mg. 

CONOPIDJE 
Myopa buccata, L. 

TACHINID.E 

With the exception of Onesia and Sarcopkaga, most of the Tachtnidte are not common. 
They are, during the larval stage, mostly parasitic in the larvae of Lepidoptera, and the 
breeding cages of local lepidopterists have been the chief source of supply. 



Baccha elongata, F. 
Sphegina clunipes, Fin. 
Ascia podagrica, F. 

floral is 

Brachyopa bicolor, Fin. 
Rhingia campestris, Mg. 
Volucella bombylans, L. 

bombylans var. plumata.DeG. 

bombylans var. (a) haemor- 

rhoidalis, Ztt. 

pellucens, L. 
Eristalis aeneus, Scop. 



Criorrhina floccosa, Mg. 
Xylota segnis, L. 

lenta, Mg. 

sylvarum, L. 

abiens, W. 
Syritta pipiens, L. 
Chrysochlamys cuprea, Scop. 
Arctophila mussitans, F. 
Sericomyia borealis, Fin. 

lappona, L. 
Chrysotoxum arctuatum, L. 

bicinctum, L. 



Ceromasia spectabilis, Mg. 
Gymnochaeta viridis, Fin. 
Parexorista fugax, Rnd. I 
grossa, B. and B. 
Blepharidea vulgaris, Fin. 
Phorocera cilipeda, Rnd. 
Aporomyia dubia, Fin. 
Somolia simplicitarsis, Ztt. 
Melanota volvulus, F. 
Olivieria lateralis, F. 



Micropalpus vulpinus, Fin. 

pictus, Mg. 
Erigone rudis, Fin. 

consobrina, Mg. 
Plagia ruralis, Fin. 
Urophylla seria, Mg. 
Digonochaeta setipennis, Fin. 
Thryptocera crassicornis, Mg. 
Siphona cristata, F. 

geniculata, Deg. 



Stevenia maculata, Fin. 
Brachycoma devia, Fin. 
Cynomyia alpina, Ztt. 

mortuorum, L. 
Onesia sepulchralis, L. 

cognata, Mg. 
Sarcophaga carnaria, L. 

atropos, Mg. 

cruentata, Mg. 



Of the remaining numerous families, the Muscidie proper, the nearer relations of the 
House-fly, are well represented, most of them very common. The list of Anthomyds is, probably, 
very incomplete, and the same applies to the Acalypterous Muscides. The more noticeable 
species are, among the Antkomyidiz, Cienosia elegantula and tricolor and Lisporephala alma. 
The red-legged variety of Fucellia (F. maritima) was fairly common on the shore, 1 900, but it 
has not been observed since. Helomyza ustulata is a very rare species in this county. The 
smaller Muscidte, sensu lato, have been very little collected, and there is nothing in the 
following lists calling for further notice. 



Stomoxys calcitrans, L. 
Haematobia stimulans, Mg. 
Pollenia vespillo, F. 

rudis, F. 

Mysospila meditabunda, F. 
Graphomyia maculata, Scop. 
Musca domestica, L. 

corvma, F. 



Polietes lardaria, F. 

albolineata, Fin. 
Hyedotesia incana, W. 

lucorum, Fin. 

marmorata, Ztt. 

serva, Mg. 

nivalis, Rnd. 

obscurata, Mg. 

variabilis, Fin. 

longipes, Ztt. 

umbratica, Mg. 



MUSCID.E 

Cyrtoneura stabulans, Fin. 

pabulorum, Fin. 
Morellia simplex, Lw. 

hortorum, Fin. 
Mesembrina meridiana, L. 
Pyrellia cyanicolor, Ztt. 

lasiophthalma, Mcq. 

ANTHOMYID^E 

Hyedotesia lasiophthalma, Mcq. 

rufipalpis, Mcq. 

populi, Mg. 

variegata, Mg. 

palida, F. 
Alloeostylus flaveola, Fin. 
Mydea vespertina, Fin. 

nigritella, Ztt. 

urbana, Mg. 

tincta, Ztt. 

pagana, F. 

136 



Protocalliphora groenlandica, Ztt. 
Calliphora erythrocephala, Mg. 

vomitoria, L. 
Euphoria cornicina, F. 
Lucilia caesar, L. 

sericata, Mg. 

ruficeps, Mg. 



Mydea impuncta, Fin. 

separata, Mg. 
Sphecolyma inanis, Fin. 
Spilogaster nigrinervis, Ztt. 

duplicata, Mg. 

communis, Dsv. 

duplaris, Ztt. 

ciliatocosta, Ztt. 
Limnophora compuncta, W. 

solitaria, Ztt. 
Melanochila riparia, Fin. 




INSECTS 



Macrorchis meditata, Fin. 
Hydrotara occulta, Mg. 

irritans, Fin. 

dcntipes, F. 
Ophyra leucostoma, W. 
Drymia hamata, Fin. 
Trichopticus hirsutulus, Ztt. 

pulcher, Mde. 
Hydrophoria conica, W. 

- linogrisea, Mg. 
Hylemyia variata, Fin. 

seticrura, Rnd. 

pullula, Ztt. 

strigosa, F. 

nigrimana, Mg. 

coarctata, Fin. 
Mycophaga fungorum, Deg. 
Lasiops adclphc, Kow. 



Lasiops ctenoctema, Kow. 
Anthomyia pluvialis, L. 

radicum, L. 
Chortophila trapczina, Ztt. 

sepia, Mg. 
Phorbia floccosa, Mcq. 

pudica, Rnd. 

intersecta, Mg. 

trichodactyla, Rnd. 

ignota, Rnd. 
Pegomyia rufipes, Fin. 

transversa, Fin. 

bicolor, W. 

nigritarsis, Ztt. 
Homalomyia hamata, Mcq. 

manicata, Mg. 

scalaris, F. 

canicularis, L. 



Homalomyia aCrea, Ztt. 

coracina, Lw. 

serena, Fin. 

indsurata, Ztt. 
Azelia macquarti, Stacg. 

zetterstedti, Rnd. 

triquetra, W. 

aterrima, Mg. 
Ccelomyia mollissima, Hal. 
Caricea tigrina, F. 

intermedia, Fin. 
Coenosia elegantula, Rnd. 

tricolor, Ztt. 

sexnotata, Mg. 
Lisporephela alma, Mg. 
Fucellia fucorum, Fin. 

maritim.i, Hal. 



Parallelomma albipes, Fin. 
Amaurosoma tibiella, Ztt. 
Norellia spinimana, Fin. 



CORDYLURIDjE 

Spathiophora hydromyzinae, Fin. 
Scatophaga inquinata, Mg. 
lutaria, F. 



Scatophaga stercoraria, L. 
squalida, Mg. 



PHYCODROMID^E 

Orygma luctuosum, Mg. 



Helomyza rufa, Lw. 

pectoralis, Lw. 
- similis, Mg. 

laevifrons, Lw. 

ustulata, Mg. 



Neuroctena anilis, Fin. 
Dryomyza flaveola, F. 
Sciomyza albocostata, Fin. 



HELOMYZID^ 

Helomyza montana, Lw. 

zettcrstedtii, Lw. 

montana, Lw. 

palida, Fin. 

SCIOMYZIDJE 

Sciomyza cinerella, Fin. 
Tetanocera elata, F. 

laevifrons, Lw. 



Helomyza parva, Lw. 
Blepharoptera serrata, L. 
iners, Mg. 
Tephrochlamys rufiventris, Mg. 



Tetanocera punctulata, Scop. 
Limnia rufifrons, F. 
Elgiva dorsal is, F. 



Piila fimcntaria, L. 
rufa, Mg. 



PSILID^E 

Psila palida, Fin. 
nigricornis, Mg. 



Psila villosula, Mg. 
Lozocera arista ta, Pz. 



MICROPEZID^E 

Calobata cibaria, L. Calobata petronella, L. 



Pteropaectria afflicta, Mg. 



ORTALID^ 

Pteropaectria nigrini, Mg. 



Pteropaectria frondcsccntix, L. 



Acidia cognata, W. 

- heraclei, L. 
Spilographa zoe, Mg. 
Trypcta onotrophes, Lw. 



Lonchaca vaginalis, Fin. 

chorea, F. 

albitanis, Ztt. 



TRYPETID^ 

Urophora solstitialis, L. 
Sphenella marginata, Fin. 
Tephrites miliaria, Schrk. 

LONCHJEID^E 

Palloptera ustulata, Fin. 
umbellatarum, F. 

'37 



Tephrites hyoscyami, L. 

vespertina, Lw. 

bardanz, Schrk. 



Palloptera saltuum, L. 
arcuata, Fin. 

18 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

SAPROMYZKLE 



Sapromyza lupulina, F. 
- decempunctata, F. 



Balioptera tripunctata, Fin. 
combinata, L. 



Sapromyza pallidiventris, Fin. 

obsoleta, Fin. 

OPOMYZID^E 

Opomyza germination is, L. 

florum, F. 



Sepsis violacea, Mg. 



Sepsis cynipsea, L. 



Sapromyza rorida, Fin. 
Lauxania aenea, Fin. 



Pelethophila flava, L. 



Nemopoda cylindrica, F. 



PIOPHILID^E 
Piophila casei, L. 

GEOMYZID.E 

Diastata nebulosa, Fin. 

EPHYDRID^E 
Parhydra aquila, Fin. 

DROSOPHILID^ 

Drosophila confusa, Stzg. Drosophila funebris, F. 

CHLOROPID^: 



Chlorops taeniopus, Mg. 

laeta, Mg. 

scalaris, Mg. 



Chlorops gracilis, Mg. 
Oscinis albiseta, Mg. 
Elachyptera cornuta, Fin. 



Meromyza laeta, Mg. 
Center cereris, Fin. 
Chlorops didyma, Ztt. 
scutellaris, Ztt. 

AGROMYZID.E 

Agromyza pusilla, Mg. Ochthiphila polystigma, Mg. 

PHYTOMYZIDJE 

Napomyza lateralis, Fin. Phytomyza notata, Mg. Phytomyza flava, Mg. Phytomyza fuscula, Ztt. 

BORBORID^ 



Borborus longipennis, Hal. 

equinus, Fin. 

nigrifemoratus, Mcq. 



Trineura aterrima, F. 
Ornithomyia avicularia, L. 



Borborus geniculatus, Mcq. 
Limosina fbntinalis, Fin. 
lutosa, Stnh. 

PHORIDiE 

Phora rufipes, Mg. 

HIPPOSCID^E 
Stenopteryx hirundinis, L. 



Limosina pumilio, Mg. 
vitripennis, Ztt. 



Phora incrassata, Mg. 
Melophagus ovinns, L. 



HEMIPTERA 

Practically nothing has been done in the Hemiptera in Durham since Hold's time, and 
the following list is chiefly his. The very names, Bugs, Plant Lice, and Cuckoo Spit, seem 
to be enough to frighten young entomologists, although there is but one seriously objectionable 
bug, while there are hundreds of others of great beauty both in form and colour; and 
the life histories of the Plant Lice or Aphides, with their deeply interesting instances of 
parthenogenesis, and their curious alternations of form and domicile, present most alluring 
objects for investigation. 

138 



INSECTS 



HEMIPTERA HETEROPTERA 



GYMNOCERATA 
PENTATOMID.* 
Cydnina 
Schirus, Am. S. 

bicolor, Linn. Hedge- 

banks (Backhouse) 
Gnathoconus, Fieb. 

albomarginatus, Fab. Gib- 

tiJf, very rare (V. R. 

Perkins) 
Pcntatomina 
Pentatoma, Oliv. 

prasina, Linn. S/ia//( Back- 

house) 
Tropicoris, Hahn. 

rufipes, Linn. Common 

on trees 
Asopina 
Zicrona, Am. S. 

czrulca, Linn. ^//(Back- 

house). Blanchland( Bag- 
nail) 

Co RE I DA 

Coreina 
Enoplops, Am. S. 

scapha, Fab. Rjhope Dene 

(John tiaindcock), Point, 
SunderlonJ (Backhouse) 
LVCX.IDX 
Pachymerina 
Stygnus, Fieb. 

pcdestris, Fall. Common 

in sandy places 

arenarius, Hahn. Abun- 

dant at the roots of 
plants in dry places 
Scolopostethus, Fieb. 

affinis, Schill. Common in 

sandy places and among 
nettles 
Notochilus, Fieb. 

contractus, H.S. Abun- 

dant beneath stones on 
the sea-coast 
Drymus, Fieb. 

sylvaticus, Fab. In moss, 

etc., throughout the 
district 

brunneus, Sahib. Common 

in dead leaves, moss, &c. 
TINGIDID.S 
Tingidina 
Monanthia, Lep. 

cardui, Linn. Glbslde. 

Common on thistles. 
HVDROMKTRID.K 
Hydrometrina 
Hydrometra, Latr. 
- stagnorum, Linn. Not 
uncommon among her- 
bage on the borders of 
ponds 



Bug, 

HYDRO METRIDJE (continued) 
Veliina 
Velia, Latr. 

currens, Fab. Very abun- 

dant, but always without 

wings 
Gerridina 
Gerris, Fab. 

paludum, Fab. (Back- 

house) 

najas, De G. Abundant 

on running water, all 
without wings 

thoracica, Schum. Fre- 

quents on pools of water 
on the moors 

lacustris, Linn. Very 

common on ponds and 
ditches 
Rnonnui 

Nabidina 
Nabis, Latr. 

lativentris, Boh. Very 

abundant, always with 
undeveloped wings 

limbatus, Dahlb. Common 

ferus, Linn. Glbslde 

rugosus, Linn. Not un- 

common on heath and 
generally of the fully 
developed form 
BttBHMI 

Saldina 

Salda, Fab. 

scotica, Curt. Banb of 

the Dertvent 

C.-album, Fieb. Banks of 

the Denoent 

saltatoria, Linn. Abounds 

all over the district near 
Tyneside 

cincta, H.S. Glbslde (V. 

R. Perkins) 

ClMICIDJE 

Cimicina 
Cimex, Linn. 

lectularis, Linn. The bed 

bug. Too common in 
dirty houses, also in coal 
mines in the cracks of 
the timber supporting 
the roof 

Anthocorina 

Lyctocoris, Hahn. 

campestris, Fab. Abun- 

dant in herbage. 
Piezostcthus, Fieb. 

galactinus, Fieb. Common 

in cut grass, &c. 
Anthocoris, Fall. 

nemoralis, Fab. Very 

abundant 

'39 



CIMICJD^E (continued) 

Anthocoris sylvcstris, Linn. 

Abundant 
Tetraphleps, Fieb. 

vittata, Fieb. AxviellPark 
CAPSIDJE 

Capsina 
Pithanus, Fieb. 

maerkeli, H.S. Unde- 

veloped form is abun- 
dant among grass in 
woods 
Miris, Fab. 

- holsatus, Fab. 

calcaratus, Fall. Very 

abundant 
Megalocera, Fieb. 

ruficornis, Fall. Axu-eh 

Park, on bushes, etc. 
Leptopterna, Fieb. 

dolobrata,Linn. Common 

among herbage 
Monalocoris, Dahlb. 

filices, Linn. Common 
Calocoris, Fieb. 

sexguttatus, Fab. Glbslde 

roscomaculatus, De G. 

Marsden 

alpestris, Mey. Gibside 

bipunctatus, Fab. Com- 

mon 
Lygus, Hahn. 

contaminatus, Fall. Abun- 

dant on flowers of 
Umbellifene in woods 

pratensis, Fab. Common 

- kalmii, Linn. Common 

among herbage, 
especially near the coast 

cervinus, H.S. Glbslde. 

Rare 
Liocoris, Fab. 

tripustulatus, Fab. Not 

abundant. Durham 
Rhopalotomus, Fieb. 

ater, Linn. Common on 

grass, etc. 
Dicyphus, Fieb. 

- epilobii, Reut. Bishop 

Auckland 

errans, Wolff. Not very 

common 

- pallidus, Fall. GibsiJe, 

Axtvell. Common 
vEtorhinus, Fieb. 

angulatus, Fall. Common 

on bushes 
Globiceps, Latr. 

flavomaculatus, Fab. Glb- 

ilde. Rare. V.R. Per- 
kins 
Mecomma, Fieb. 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



CAPSIDJE (continued) 

Mecomma ambulans, Fall. A- 
bundant among herbage 

elegantulus, Meyer. Bol- 

don Flats 
Orthotylus, Fieb. 

nassatus, Fab. Common 

on bushes, etc. 

concolor, Kb. Gibside. 

Very rare 

ericetorum, Fall. Abun- 

dant on heath 
Heterocordylus, Fieb. 

tibialis, Hahn. Gibside, 

Axtoell, in flowers of 
broom 



CAPSID./E (continued) 
Psallus, Fieb. 

ambiguus, Fall. Very com- 

mon 

- variabilis, Fall. Common 

varians, H.S. AxwellPark 
Plagiognathus, Fieb. 

arbustorum, Fab. Abun- 

dant on bushes 

CRYPTOCERATA 



Nepa, Linn. 

cinerea, Linn. Abounds 
in ponds and ditches 



NOTONECTID./E 
Notonecta, Linn. 

glauca, Linn. Common 
CORIXID^E 

Corixa, GeofFr. 

geoffroyi, Leach. Abun- 

dant in ponds 

sahlbergi, Fieb. Common 

in ponds and ditches 

striata, Fieb. Abundant 

in running water 

fabricii, Fieb. (nigro- 

lineata, Fieb.) Very 
common in ponds and 
ditches 



HEMIPTERA HOMOPTERA 

Cicadas, Fiend-flies, Lantern-flies, Frog-hoppers, Grass-flies, Aphides, etc. 



CICADINA 

MEMBRACID.S 
Centrotus, Fab. 

cornutus, Linn. Not un- 

common 
CIXIIWE 

Cixius, Latr. 

nervosus, Linn. Very 

common, on trees, 
among herbage, etc. 

pilosus,Ol. Not uncommon 
DELPHACID.S 

Liburnia, Stal. 

guttula, Germ. Gibside 

discolor, Boh. Common 

striatella, Fab. Gibside 

limbata, Fab. 
Dicranotropis, Fieb. 

hamata, Boh. 
CERCOPIDJE 

Aphrophora, Germ. 

alni, Fin. In birch woods, 

rather rare 
Philanus, Stal. 

spumarius, Linn. Very 

abundant 

lineatus, Linn. Near the 

coast 
PAROPIIDJE 

Megophthalmus, Curt. 

scanicus, Fall. South Shields 



BYTHOSCOPID./E 
Macropsis, Lewis. 

lanio, Linn. Common 
Bythoscopus, Germ. 

flavicollis, Linn. Common 
Pediopsis, Burm. 

virescens, Fab. Derwentside 
Idiocerus, Lewis 

adustus, H.S. Derwentside 

populi, Linn. Not rare 
TETTIGONIDJE 

Evacanthus, L. and S. 

interruptus,Linn. Common 
Tettigonia, GeofFr. 

viridis, Liv. Boldon Flats 
ACOCEPHALID.H: 

Strongylocephalus, Flor. 

agrestis, Fall. Common 
Acocephalus, Germ. 

bifasciatus, Linn. Abun- 

dant at Gibside 

albifrons, Linn. Seabanks 

at South Shields 

rusticus, Fab. Abundant. 

(Bold). Probably ner- 
vosus, Schr. 

adustus, Hardy. Dunston 

(Bold). Probably ner- 
vosus, Schr. 

flavostriatus, Don. South 

Shields 



JASSIDJE 

Deltocephalus, Burm. 

abdominalis, Fab. Axwell 

Park, rare 

ocellaris, Fall. Common 

socialis, Flor. AxwellPark, 

abundant 

sabulicola, Curt. Abun- 

dant on the Bents, South 
Shields 

striatus, Linn. South 

Shields, Derwentside 
TYPHLOCYBID.S 
Alebra, Fieb. 

albostriatella, Fall. Gib- 

side 
Kybos, Fieb. 

smaragdula, Fall. Dettvent 
Eupteryx, Curt. 

notata, Curt. Common 

stachydearum, Hard. Ax- 

well Park 

signatipennis, Boh. Axteell 

Park 
Typhlocyba, Germ. 

jucunda, H.S. Derwent 



ulmi, Linn. Gibside 

quercus, Fab. Winlaton 

geometrica, Schr. Gib- 

side 



140 






II 



SPIDERS 



ARACHNIDA ' 

Spiders 

The following list of the spiders of the county of Durham is almost entirely due to the 
researches of the Rev. J. E. Hull, of North Shields, who in 1896 published a 'Catalogue of the 
Spiders (Araneidea) of Northumberland and Durham.' * Out of a total of about 534 species of 
spiders recorded for Great Britain and Ireland only 1 12 species have been taken in the county of 
Durham, while of the Pitudo-scorpiones and Opi/iones there are none at all recorded, so far as I 
can make out. 

There is no doubt, however, that the number of spiders would be much increased if a 
diligent search were instituted, for there are plenty of species which one can be quite sure must 
inhabit a district whose physical characters are of the kind furnished by this county. 

Of those recorded the following are worthy of special mention either on account of their 
rarity or being of particular individual interest : Osnops pulchtr ; Cryphaeca diversa ; Cicurina 
cinerea ; Meta menardi ; Centromerus sylvaticus ; Micryphantes cornigera ; Dicymbium tibiali ; 
and Euryopis blackwallii. 

ARANE^E 

jtRJCHNOMORPHM 
DYSDERID^E 

Spiders with six eyes and two pairs of stigmatic ^. Segeitria senoculata (Linnxus). 

openings, situated close together on the genital Durham ; Teesdale ; Ryhope (J. E. H.). 

nma ; the anterior pair communicating with lung . 

boob, the posterior with tracheal tubes. Tarsal Not common ; under bark of trees, in the cre- 

claws, two in Djsaera, three in HarpatU, and vlce of j oose one walls, and amongst detached 

SfKitria rocks. Recognizable by its linear form and the 

black diamond-shaped blotches on the dorsal sur- 

I. Harpactes hombergii (Scopoli). face of the abdomen. 

Durham ; Kepier Wood and Pelaw Wood ; 

Teesdale; Falcon Glints; Harperley 3- O'onop, pulcher, Templeton. 

(J. E. H.). Durham ; Pelaw Wood and Kepier Wood 

Rare under bark of trees, and recognizable by it 

linear ant-like form, black carapace, and pale day- Not common ; usually beaten from over-hanging 
yellow abdomen and three tarsal claws. grass on dry sunny banks. 

DRASSID^E 

Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two trans- 4. DraiioJts laplJosiu (Walckenaer). 
verse rows. The tracheal openings lie just in front 

of the spinners. The tarsal claws are two in Kynope (J . E. H.). 

number, the anterior pair of spinners being set V ery common under stones. Also known a* 

wide apart at the base, and the maxillae are more [) ralsul lapidicolens. 
or less impressed across the middle. 

CLUBIONID.fi 

Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two trans- 6. Clubiona terreitrii, Westring. 
verse rows. The tracheal openings lie immediately 

in front of the spinners. The ursal claws are two Durham ; Ryhope (J- K. H.). 

in number, but the anterior pair of spinners are set Not uncommon in ^ 8umm er time, when it 
dose together at the base ; the maxill* are convex ^ found wanderi about at night on the 

and not impressed across the middle. ^ of outhou>e$> palings> etc . The female may 

5. Zora splmmana (Sundevall). be found in a silken domicile with her cocoon 

Urpeth (J. E. H.). under or between the leaves of shrubs. Known 

Known also as Htctergf ip'tnimana or maculata. also as C. amaranth*, Blackwall. 

1 By the late F. O. Pickard-Cambridge. Revised and corrected by the Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 
Bloxworth, Dorset. 

Natural Hiitory Traniactions of Northumberland, Durham, and Nttvcaitle-upon-Tjne, zm. part i. 

'4' 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



7. Clubiona reclusa, O. P.-Cambridge. 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

A rarer species than the last ; usually beaten 
from foliage and bushes in the summer time. 

8. Clubiona httescens, Westring. 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

Pretty plentiful in the woods at Durham. 
Sometimes fairly abundant where it occurs amongst 
dry rushes and sedge grass in swampy places. 

9. Clubiona palRduk (Clerck). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

A larger species than any of the above, and 
usually fairly common amongst bramble bushes, 



where the female makes its egg-cocoon within the 
folded leaves. Known also as C. epimelas, Black- 
wall. 

10. Clubiona compta, C. L. Koch. 

Durham ; Teesdale ; Wolsingham (J. E. H.). 

A very small species, whose abdomen is striped 
diagonally on each side. Not uncommon amongst 
the foliage of bushes and shrubs in the summer 
time. 

1 1 . Mtcatia puRcaria (Sundevall). 

Durham, Shindiffe Mill (J. E. H.). 

Known also as Drassus micans and nitens, Black- 
wall. 



THOMISID.E 



Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two trans- 
verse rows, two tarsal claws, and anterior spinners 
close together at their base. Maxilla; not impressed. 
The crab-like shape and side-long movements of 
these spiders are their chief characteristics, enabling 
them to be easily distinguished as a rule from the 
more elongate Drassidee and Clubiomda. 

i 2. Phihdromus aureolus (Clerck). 

Durham ; Wolsingham ; Ryhope (J. E. H.) 

A very abundant species, with usually a dull red- 
brown abdomen, with yellowish central pattern. 
It frequents the foliage of trees of all kinds, and 
especially in the immature condition will out- 



number all other species which fell into the um- 
brella beneath the beating-stick. 

13. Xysticus cristatus (Clerck). 

Upper Teesdale (J. E. H.). 
This is by far the commonest of the ' crab- 
spiders,' and is found abundantly on foliage or 
crouching on bare places in fields and commons. 
Known also under Thomisus. 

14. Oxyptilajlexa, O. P.-Cambridge. 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

An adult male and an immature female were 
beaten from furze near the city in the summer of 
1894. 



SALTICID^E 



The spiders of this family may be recognized in 
a general way by their mode of progression, con- 
sisting of a series of leaps, often many times their 
own length. More particularly they may be 
known by the square shape of the cephalic region 
and the fact that the eyes are arranged in three 
rows of 4, 2, 2, the centrals of the anterior row 
being much the largest and usually iridescent. 
Those of the second row are the smallest, while the 
posterior pair is placed well back and helps to give 
the quadrate character to the carapace. Otherwise 
these spiders are simply specialized Clublonlds with 
two tarsal claws and other minor characters possessed 
in common with members of this latter family. 

15. Salticus scenlcus (Clerck). 

Durham ; Ryhope (J. E. H.). 
A black species with white lateral stripes. Known 
also under Epiblemum. 



1 6. Euopbrys frontalis (Walckenaer). 

Duham, Pelaw Wood (J. E. H.). 
Not common. Known also under Salticus. 

17. Neon reticulatus (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale ; Ryhope (J- E. H.). 
Not common. Known also under Salticui. 

1 8. Salticus clngulatus (Panzer). 

Durham ; Harperley ; Wolsingham (J. E. H.). 
Known also under Epiblemum. 

1 9. Euopbrys erraticus (Walckenaer). 

Durham, Pelaw Wood and Kepier Wood 

0. E. H.). 

Amongst grass, dead leaves, and under stones or 
on rocks. Known also under Attiu and as Salticus 
distinctus, Blackwall. 



PISAURHXE 
Spiders with eight eyes in three rows of 4, 2, 2 ; freely over the herbage, carrying its egg-sack be- 



the small anterior eyes being sometimes in a straight 
line, sometimes recurved and sometimes procurved. 
Those of the other two rows are situated in the 
form of a rectangle of various proportions, and are 
much larger than the eyes of the anterior row. The 
tarsal claws are three in number. Plsaura runs 



neath the sternum ; while Dahmedei is a dweller 
in marshes and swamps. 

20. Plsaura mlrabllis (Clerck). 

Durham (Rev. A. M. Norman). 
Known also as Dohmedes or Ocyale mirablfis. 



142 



SPIDERS 



LYCOSID,E 



The members of this family are to be found 
running freely over the ground, and carrying the 
egg-sac attached to the spinners. Many of the 
larger species make a short burrow in the soil and 
there keep guard over the egg-sac. Eyes and 
tarsal daws as in the PiiauriJ<e, with slight 
differences. 

21. Lycoia terricola (Thorell). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale Q. E. H.). 
Fairly plentiful under stones in spring and 
autumn. The female frequently excavates a re- 
treat for herself and her egg-cocoon in the soft 
earth. Known also under Trochosa and as Ljceia 
agretyca, Blackwall. 

12. Lycosa puherulenta (Clerck). 

Durham, Widdy Bank Fell (]. E. H.). 
Common everywhere, running in the sunshine 
in grassy places. Adult in June. Known also 
under Tarcntula and as Lycosa rapax, Blackwall. 

23. Lycoia accentuate, Latreille. 

Ryhope (J. E. H.). 

A few taken in June at the root* of furze at the 
top of the cliff. Adult in June. Known also 
under Tarentula and as Lycosa andrenivora, Black- 
wall. 

24. Pardosa agricola (Thorell). 

Harperley, Wolsingham 0- E. H.). 
Adult in June and common on sandy and 



pebbly stretches by the river. Known also under 
Lycosa and as Lycosa fiuviatths, Blackwall. 

25. ParJosa lugubris (Walckenaer). 

Durham ; Wolsingham (J. E. H.). 
Adult in May and June and common in woods. 
Known also under Lycosa. 

26. ParJosa pullata (Clerck). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale (J. E. H.). 
Adult in May and June. Abundant on Widdy 
Bank Fell on the banks of the streams. Known 
also under Lycosa and as Lycosa obscura, Blackwall. 

27. ParJosa nigricepi (Thorell). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale ; Wolsingham. 
Common ; adult in the summer ; sometime* 
ascends into shrubs ; especially furze. Known also 
under Lycosa and as Lycosa congener, O. P.-Cam- 
bridge. 

28. Pirata hygrophiliu, Thorell. 

Durham 0- E. H.). 

Adult in early summer, and common in boggy 
and marshy places. Known also as Lycosa pisca- 
toria, Blackwall. 

29. Pirata piraticiu (Clerck). 

Durham, Upper Teesdale (J. E. H.). 
Adult in June and abundant on the southern 
side of Widdy Bank Fell. Known also under 
Lycosa. 



AGELENID^) 



Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two trans- 
verse rows. Legs with three tarsal claws. The 
species of this family spin a large sheet-like web, 
and construct a tubular retreat at the back of it, 
which leads to some crevice amongst the rocks, 
the roots of herbage, or the chinks in the walls of 
outhouses, wherever the various species may happen 
to be found. The posterior pair of spinners i* 
usually much longer than the other two pairs. 

30. Crypbceca sihicola (C. L. Koch). 
Teesdale (J. E. H.). 

Common in the hill districts, in the fell walls 
and beaten from furze. Known also as Tegenaria 
tylvicola, Blackwall. 

3 1 . Cryphceca diversa, O. P.-Cambridge. 
Durham, Pelaw Wood (J. E. H.). 

Very rare. An immature female was taken 
under a stone in the spring of 1893. 

32. Garbles atropos (Walckenaer). 

Durham ; Teesdale ; Wolsingham (J. E. H.). 
Very common under stones on the fells and in 
woods all the year round. Adult males are most 
frequently met with in the spring ; for the rest of the 
year adult females are perhaps ten times as numerous 
as the males. A large spider and swift in its move- 
ments. Known also as Collates saxatiRs, Blackwall. 

3ia. Argjronela aquatua, Latreille. 

Durham. 

In ponds and ditches, in the neighbourhood of 
the city. Not rare. (O. P.-Cambridge, 1856.) 



33. Tegenaria atrica (C. L. Koch). 
Winlaton (J- E. H). 

A very large spider with long hairy legs, found 
in cellars and outhouses as well as in holes in 
banks or on sand-dunes. Two examples only are 
recorded from this county. 

34. Textrix denticulata (Olivier). 

Durham 0- E. H.). 

Common in inhabited houses and greenhouses, 
also under stones. It constructs a fine web of the 
form typical of the family, a strongly woven 
horizontal snare narrowed at one corner into a 
tubular retreat. A spider of graceful form and 
exceedingly rapid movements. Adult in summer. 
Known also as Textrix lycosina, Blackwall. 

35. Cicurina cinerea (Panzer). 

Durham, Kepier Wood (J. E. H.). 
An immature female was taken under a stone in 
May, 1895 ; and a small colony was found in a 
disused quarry in Holywell Dene, of which some 
of the females were adult, but no adult males. 
Known also under Tegenaria. 

36. AnAitea elegant (Blackwall). 

Durham, Pelaw Wood (J- E. H.). 
Immature examples of both sexes were taken in 
a boggy place, but apparently not a common 
species. Known also as Agtlena elegant, Blackwall, 
and under Haknia. 



43 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



ARGYOPID^E 



The spiders included in this family have eight 
eyes, situated in two rows, the lateral eyes of both 
rows being usually adjacent if not in actual contact, 
while the central eyes form a quadrangle. The 
tarsal claws are three, often with other super- 
numerary claws. The web is either an orbicular 
snare, or consists of a sheet of webbing beneath 
which the spiders hang and capture the prey as it 
falls upon the sheet. This immense family in- 
cludes those usually separated under the names 
Epemdie and Linyphiid<f. 

37. Meta Menardl (Latreille). 

Durham, Kepier Wood (J. E. H.), Finchal 

Abbey (O.P.-C.). 

Taken from overhanging rocks, old ruins, and in 
caverns. 

38. Meta segmentata (Clerck). 

Common everywhere (J. E. H.). 
A very abundant spider in the summer and 
autumn amongst nettles and other herbage along 
hedgerows. The spiders vary very much in size, 
and spin an orbicular web having a clear space in 
the centre as do others of the genus and also 
Tetragnatha, thus differing from the genus Araneus 
(Epeira). Known also as Epeira incKnata, Black- 
wall. 

39. Meta meriante (Scopoli). 

Common everywhere (J. E. H.). 
A larger species found in cellars and under 
damp overhanging banks. Known also as Epeira 
antrlada, Blackwall, and a variety with a white 
band down the centre of the abdomen as E. celata, 
Blackwall. 

40. Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus). 
Durham ; Wolsingham. 

A very common species of elongate form which 
sits in the centre of its web with legs stretched out 
in front and behind. Not so entirely confined to 
marshy localities as the next species, and easily 
recognized by the silvery white band under the 
abdomen. The jaws of the males of this genus 
are very large and conspicuous. 

41. Tetragnatha solandri (Scopoli). 
Durham (J. E. H.). 

Very similar to the last species in general 
appearance, but almost entirely confined to river 
banks and marshy swamps. Can be recognized by 
the dull white bands beneath the abdomen and the 
absence of any pale line on the sternum. 

42. Pachygnatha clerckii, Sundevall. 

Common everywhere (J. E. H.). 
Resembles a Tetragnatha in the possession of very 
large mandibles, but is not elongate and spins no 
web to speak of. Found under leaves and at the 
roots of herbage, especially in marshy places. 

43. Pachygnatha Jegeerii, Sundevall. 

Common everywhere (J. E. H.). 
Smaller and commoner than the last species. 
Found at the roots of herbage. 



44. Nesticus cellulanus (Clerck). 

Durham ; Teesdale (J. E. H.). 
Known also as Linyphia crypticolens, Blackwall. 

45. Linyphia triangularis (Clerck). 

Common everywhere (J. E. H.). 

A very abundant species in autumn, whose sheet- 
like snares glistening with dewdrops form a con- 
spicuous feature on the hedges and bushes in the 
early mornings. The mandibles in the male are 
very long, resembling those in Tetragnatha. 

46. Linyphia pusilla, Sundevall. 

Wolsingham (J. E. H.). 

A smaller species than the last, with deep black 
ventral region. The palpus in the male sex has a 
long spiral spine. It spins its web near the ground 
amongst herbage. Rare in this county. Known 
also as L. fuRginea, Blackwall. 

47. Linyphia Montana (Clerck). 

Common everywhere (J. E. H.). 

A large species whose habits are similar to those 
of Triangularii. It is, however, often found also 
in conservatories and outhouses. Known also as 
L. marginata, Blackwall. 

48. Linyphia hortensis, Sundevall. 

Wolsingham ; Teesdale (J. E. H.). 

Not a common species, somewhat similar to 
pusilla in general appearance and habits. Known 
also as L. pratens'u, Blackwall. 

49. Linyphia clathrata, Sundevall. 

Common everywhere (J. E. H.). 

Resembles montana, but is smaller. Very common 
amongst herbage. Known also as Neriene marginata, 
Blackwall. 

50. Linyphia peliata (Wider). 

Durham ; Wolsingham (J. E. H.). 

A very small and common species found amongst 
the foliage of trees and bushes in the summer time. 
A variety is known also as L. rubea, Blackwall. 

51. Labulla thoracica (Wider). 

Wolsingham ; Durham ; Teesdale (J. E. H.). 

Not uncommon in outhouses or under over- 
hanging banks and rocks. The male is remarkable 
for the enormously long spiral spine on the palpal 
bulb. 

52. Drapetisca sociafis (Sundervall). 

Durham ; Wooler (J. E. H.). 

Not uncommon, often abundant, where it occurs, 
sitting close to the bark of fir and other trees as 
well as on rocks. Known also under Linyphia. 

53. Bolyphantes luteolus (Blackwall). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 
Known also as Linyphia alticepi, Blackwall. 



144 



SPIDERS 



J4- Lepthyphantei ftavipes (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale (J- E. H.). 
A rare species. Known also under Linyphia. 

55. Lepthyphantei crittattu (Menge). 

Durham ; Teesdale (J. E. H.). 
Not common ; amongst grass and dead leaves. 

56. Lepthyphantei blackwaUil, Kulczynski. 

Durham ; Wolsingham ; Upper Teesdale 
(J.E.H.). 

Often very common at the roots of herbage in 
September. Known also as Linyphia tenebricola 
(Wider), O. P.-C., and L. terricola, O. P.-C. and 
Blackwall. 

57. Lepthyphantei tenuii (Blackwall). 

Common everywhere (J. E. H.). 
Very similar to the last species and found under 
the same conditions. Known also as Linyphia 
tenebricola, O.P.-C. 

58. Lepthyphantei minutus (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Low Fell (J. E. H.). 
Known also under Linyphia. Common amongst 
loose stones and in angles of buildings. 

59. Bathyphantei pullatui (O. P.-Cambridge). 
Durham (J. E. H.). 

Known also under Linyphia. Common in marshy 
swamps. Adult in the spring. 

60. Bathyphantei nigrintu (Westring). 

Common everywhere (J. E. H.). 
Known also as Linyphia pulla, Blackwall, and also 
under Linyphia. Found in marshes and swamps. 

61. Bathyphantes concolor (Wider). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

A very common spider amongst loose stones, 
heaps of rubbish, etc. Known also as Meridian 
fiKpes, Blackwall, and under Linyphia. 

62. Bathyphantet graciSi (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale ; Urpeth (J. E. H.). 
Fairly common. Known also under Linyphia. 

63. Bathyphantet Jonah (Wider). 

Durham; Upper Teesdale; Urpeth (J.E.H.). 
Common on the foliage of trees and bushes in 
the summer time. Known also under Linyphia 
and as L. claytoni<e, Blackwall. 

64. Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale ; Wolsingham 

(J.E.H.). 

Common amongst grass in damp places. Known 
also under Linyphia and Nfriene. 

65. Centnmerut bicolor (Blackwall). 

Urpeth (J. E. H.). 

Common in September and October, running 
on palings in the bright sunshine. Known also 
under Linyphia, Neriene, and Tmtticui. 



66. Ctntromerus silvafuui (Blackwall). 

Urpeth 0- E. H.). 

Rare. Adult from the middle of August. 
Known also under Neriene and as TmeAcut lihatictu. 

67. Micnmeta vlaria (Blackwall). 

Harperley (J. E. H.). 
Known also under Neriene. 

68. Tapinopa bngiJeni (Blackwall). 

Urpeth (J. E. H.). 

Adult females only have been taken, from August 
to October. This spider weaves a web of very 
fine texture under stones. Known also under 
Linyphia. 

69. Macrargui abnormis (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale (J. E. H.). 

Rare ; in tufts of grass by streams. An imma- 
ture male and an adult female only taken, the 
latter in May. Known also under Neriene and 
Tmeticus. 

70. Porrhomma fygaiteum (Blackwall). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

Adult males only taken. Known also under 
Neriene. 

71. Porrhomma microphthalmum (O.P.-Cambridge). 

Pelton coalpits near Chester le Street (R. H. 
Meade). 

Males and females were sent to Dr. Meade of 
Bradford in 1860 from the coalpits. They had 
probably been carried down the shaft amongst the 
horse fodder, and lived gregariously in a common 
web. 

72. Mengea icopigera (Grube). 

Urpeth (J. E. H.). 

Plentiful among damp, long grass. Known also 
as PeJina icopigera, Pedlna cristata, and Tmeticus 
icopiger. 

73. Micryphantes comigera (Blackwall). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

Very rare ; two adult males only, bjr the river 
Known also under Neriene. 

74. Erigone Jentipalpii (Wider). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

Often abundant on railings. Known also under 
Neriene. 

75. Tuo vagant (Blackwall). 
Ryhope (J. E. H.). 

Rare amongst dead leaves in woods and shrub- 
beries. Known also under Neriene and as N. longi- 
mana. 

76. Gongytidlum rufipei (Linnzus). 
Ryhope ; Barnard Castle (J. E. H.). 

Not common. Known also under Neriene and 
as N. munJa, Blackwall. 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



77. Gonatium IsabeHlnum (C. L. Koch). 

Harperley ; Wolsingham ; Durham (J. E. H.) 
Known also as Neriene rubella, Blackwall. 

78. Dicyphus cornutus (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale (J. E. H.). 
Known also under Neriene. 

79. Hypomma bituberculatum (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale ; Wolsingham 

(J.E.H.). 
Known also under Neriene. 

80. Dismodicus bifrons (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale ; Wolsingham 

(J. E. H.) 
Known also under Wakkenttra. 

8 1. Kulczynskiellum retusum (Westring). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

Known also under Neriene, and Erigpne, also as 
Nerieue elevata, O.P.-Cambridge. 

82. Kulcyzynikiellum fuicum (Blackwall). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 
Not common. September. 

83. CEJothorax tuberosus (Blackwall). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 
Known also under Neriene. 

84. BlackvialRa acuminate, Blackwall. 

Durham ; Urpeth (J. E. H.). 
Known also under the name Wakkenara. 

85. Dicymbium tibiale (Blackwall). 

Urpeth (J. E. H.). 

A rare spider. Adult males, August and Sep- 
tember. 

86. Plas'iocr<grus alplnus (O.P.-Cambridge). 1 

Upper Teesdale (J. E. H.). 

87. Wlderia antica (Wider). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale (J. E. H.). 
Not uncommon ; adult in spring. Known also 
under Wakkenitra. 



88. Diphcephalus humilis (Blackwall). 

Durham 0- E. H.). 

Under stones and at the roots of grass in spring 
and autumn. 

89. Diphcephalus picinus (Blackwall). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 
Rare ; adult males in spring amongst grass. 

90. Pocadicnemis pum'tla (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Ryhope (J. E. H.). 
Rare ; among grass in spring and summer. 
Known also under Walckenara. 

91. Cornicularia cuspidata (Blackwall). 

Durham ; Upper Teesdale (J. E. H.). 
Not rare ; on grassy banks. Known also under 
Wakkenara. 

92. Cornicularia unicornis (O.P.-Cambridge). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

Rare ; amongst grass in the spring. Known 
also under Wakken<era. 

93. Troxochrus icabriculus (Westring). 
Durham (J. E. H.). 

Rare. Known also under Erigone and as Walck- 
en<era aggerii, O. P.-Cambridge. 

94. Lophomma punctatum (Blackwall). 
Durham (J. E. H.). 

Not common ; under stones, spring and autumn. 
Known also under Wakkenitra. 

95. Peponocranium ludicrum (O.P.-Cambridge). 

Upper Teesdale (J. E. H.). 
A single adult male in May at an altitude of 
1,200 feet. Known also under Wakkeniera. 

96. Microctenonyx subitaneus (O.P.-Cambridge). 

Durham (J. E. H.). 

A single adult male in June, among loose stones. 
Known also under Wakkentera and Tapinocyba. 



THERIDIID.E 



The members of this family have eight eyes 
situated very much like those of the Argyopidtt, but 
the mandibles are usually weak, the maxilla: are 
inclined over the labium, and the posterior legs 
have a comb of stiff curved serrated spines beneath 
the tarsi. The web consists of a tangle of crossing 
lines, and the spider often constructs a tent-like 
retreat wherein the egg-sac is hung up. 

97. Iheridion variant, Hahn. 

Durham ; Wolsingham ; Ryhope (J. E. H.). 
A very much smaller species, varying consider- 
ably in colour, found abundantly in greenhouses 
and also amongst shrubs in the open garden. This 
species makes no tent-like retreat, but sits close to 



the one or more pale rounded egg-sacs usually spun 
up against a beam or window-sill. 

98. Tberidion denticulatum (Walckenaer). 
Durham ; Wolsingham (J. E. H.). 

Also a very small and abundant species, occurring 
on the outside of windows and outhouses and also 
on walls and palings. It makes no tent-like retreat 
and the habits are very similar to those of the last 
species. Also taken on shrubs and tree trunks. 

99. Theridion sisyphmm (Clerck). 

Durham ; Wolsingham ; Ryhope (J. E. H.). 

Very common on gorse and holly bushes, where 

they construct a tent-like domicile and spin up 



1 This species has been expunged from the Brit. List (Proc. Dart. Nat. Hist., and A. F. Club, xxiii. p. 23, 1902). All 
the examples hitherto recorded as P. Alpinui have been ascertained to be Diphcephalus (Pleetiocrterut) larifrons, O. P.-Camb. ; 
and I feel no doubt but that the spider recorded here is also of this last species, though I have not had an opportunity of 
examining the specimen. O. Pickard-Cambridge, April 1410, 1905. 

I 4 6 



SPIDERS 



within its shelter the small greenish egg-sacs. The 
young when hatched pass also their earlier days 
within the tent, but on the death of the mother 
spider they scatter, taking up positions for themselves 
amongst the neighbouring foliage. Known also as 
T. nervosum, Blackwall. 

100. Iheridion pictum (Walckenaer). 

Durham ; Teesdale ; Wolsingham (J. E. H.). 

A very beautiful species, resembling a large ex- 
ample of T. variant with a bright red and white 
dentated band on the dorsal side of the abdomen, 
found, often abundantly, on holly and other bushes, 
where they construct, a large and very perfectly 
formed thimble-shaped domicile covered with dry 
chips of leaves and twigs, often decorated with the 
wings, legs, wing-cases and other debris of the 
victims which have served them for food. 

10 1. Ihtridion ovatum (Clerck). 
Durham 0- E. H.). 

A very common species. The female lives in 
the folded leaf of a bramble, or that of some other 
shrub, spinning the edges together. Within this 
domicile she constructs a round sea-green egg-sac 
about as large as the seed of the sweet-pea. The 
spider has a pale yellow abdomen with a broad 
pink central dorsal band or two pink bands, one 
on each side. The male and female can often be 
found together within their leafy domicile. This 
spider is also known under the name Pkyllontthii 
fineata. 

102. TheriJim pallets, Blackwall. 

Durham ; Wolsingham ; Urpeth (J. E. H.). 
This minute Theridioid, pale yellow in colour, 



with often a dark, or paler, dorsal spot on the 
abdomen, lives beneath the leaves of shrubs and 
trees, laurel, elm, lime, etc., where it spins its 
minute pear-shaped pure white egg-sac, which rests 
on its larger end and has several small cusps towards 
the sharp-pointed stalk. 

103. SteatoJa bipunctata (Linnseus). 
Durham ; Teesdale (J- E. H.). 

A dark brown shiny rather flattened spider, 
living in chinks of walls, angles of windows and 
crevices in the partitions of old stables, etc., 
emerging usually at nightfall. The males are re- 
markable for their very large palpi and also for the 
possession of a stridulating organ, formed by a series 
of chitinous ridges in a hollow at the anterior part 
of the abdomen, which move over some cusps on 
the conical posterior of the carapace. 

104. Euryop'u blacktoalRi (O.P.-Cambridge). 
Durham ; Shincliffe wood (J. E. H.). 

A single adult female only. Known also under 
TheriJion. 

105. PfJanostfthut KviJut (Blackwall). 
Durham ; Teesdale (J. E. H.). 

Adult in summer and common under stones in 
damp places. Known also under Ncriene. 

106. Erojvrcata (Villiers). 

Durham ; Wolsingham ; Teesdale ; Ryhope 
(J.E.H.). 

A widespread species, but nowhere abundant ; 
chiefly found amongst thick grass. Known also as En 
thoraclca, Wider, and Iberidm caritgatum, Blackwall. 



DICTYNID.E 



The spiders belonging to this family possess three 
ursal claws, and the eyes, eight in number, are 
situated in two transverse rows, the laterals being 
in contact. The cribcllum (or extra pair of 
spinning organs) and the calamistrum (a row of 
curving bristles on the protarsi of the fourth pair 
of legs) are present in all members of the family. 
They construct a tubular retreat with an outer 
sheet of webbing, which is covered with a floccu- 
lent silk made with the calamistrum from threads 
furnished by the cribellum. 

107. Amaunbius limilit (Blackwall). 
Durham ; Teesdale (J. E. H.). 

A very common species in greenhouses, stables 
and other outhouses. The males may often be 
found wandering about the walls of dwelling- 
houses after nightfall. Known also under the 
name Ciniflo. 

108. jfmaunbiui fenestraRi (Stroem). 

Durham ; Teesdale ; Wolsingham (J. E. H.). 
Common under stone* throughout the year, 



especially in woods and on the moors. Known 
also as Ciniflo atrox, Blackwall. 

109. Amaunbius ferox (Walckenaer). 
Birtley (J. E. H.). 

A much larger species, shiny purple-black with 
pale markings, found in cellars and also beneath 
rocks and stones on the coast or in crevices of 
banks in the open country. Known also under 
the name Ciniflo. 

1 1O. Dictyna uneinata, Thorell. 
Durham ; Wolsingham (J. E. H.). 

Plentiful on low shrubs, such as box. The 
female may be found guarding her cocoon in May 
and June. 

111. Ditty na arunJinacea (Linnxus). 

Durham ; Wolsingham ; Ryhope (J. E. H.). 
Not very common on gorse- bushes. 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



ADDENDA 



COLEOPTERA 
Beetles 

The following species and varieties have been found in the county of Durham since the 
main list was printed, through the untiring energy and perseverance of Mr. R. S. Bagnall. 



CARABID-ffi 

Notiophilus, Dum. 

quadripunctatus, Dj. Rare 

(Bagnall) 
Ncbria, Lat. 

gyllenhali, Sch. v. rufescens, 

Strcem. Rare. Dement 
Valley (Bagnall) 
Harpalus, Lat. 

rufimanus, Marsh. Wmlaton 

(Bagnall). This is in- 
stead of froelichi, Stm. 
in the main list ; froelichi 
has not yet been found in 
Durham 
Amara, Bon. 

anthobia, Vill. One speci- 

men at Hartlepool (Wil- 
loughby Ellis) 

continua, Th. Rare (Bag- 

nail) 

DYTISCIDJS 

Platambus, Th. 

maculatus, L. v. immaculatus, 

Donis. Very local and 
rare and unaccompanied 
by the type. Gibside 
(Bagnall) 

HYDROPHILID^E 

Laccobius, Er. 

sinuatus, Mots. Common 

(Bagnall) 
Limnebius, Leach 

nitidus, Marsh. Wbitburn 

(Bold) 
Helophorus, F. 

brevipalpis, Bed. (?) (Bagnall) 
Sphaeridium, F. 

bipustulatum, F., v. mar- 

ginatum, F. With the 
type at Wmlaton (Bagnall) 
Cercyon, Leach 

littoralis, Gyll., v. binota- 

tum, Steph. With the 
type, but rare. Roker 
(Bagnall) 

marinus, Th. Not uncom- 

mon (Bagnall) 



STAPHYLINIDJE 
Leptusa, Kr. 

analis, Gyll. Teesdale, two 

males (Gardner) 
Quedionuchus, Shp. 

laevigatus, Gyll. From 

beneath beech-bark at 
Gibside (Beare, Bagnall). 
This is the only English re- 
cord of this Scottish species 

SILPHID^E 

Agathidium, 111. 

seminulum, L. Gibslde, under 

beech bark and in fungi 
(Bagnall) 
Anisotoma, 111. 

dubia, Kug. v. bicolor, 

Schm. With the type 
(Gardner, Bagnall) 

lunicollis, Rye. One speci- 

men at Hartlepool (Gard- 
ner) 

EROTYLID^E 
Dacne, Lat. 

rufifrons, F. Found in 

numbers in Teesdale by 
Sang (Gardner) 

LATHRIDIID^E 
Lathridius, Hbst. 

angulatus, Man. Derwent 

Valley and Weardale. 
Rare (Bagnall) 

CRYPTOPHAGID^E 

Atomaria, Steph. 

fimentarii, Hbst. Rare. 

Gibslde (Bagnall) 

mesomelas, Hbst. Local. 

Hartlepool (Gardner) 

ruficornis, Marsh. South Hylton 

(Bagnall) 

PARNID^E 

Elmis, Lat. 

parallelopipedus, Mull. Tyne 

(Bold) 

subviolaceus, Mull. Rare. 

Derwent (Bagnall) 

SCARAB^EID^E 

Geotrupes, Lat. 

spiniger, Marsh. Common 

(Bagnall) 

148 



ELATERID^E 

Cryptohypnus, Esch. 

dermestoides, Hbst. v. quad- 

riguttatus, Lap. With 
the type (Bagnall) 
Corymbites, Lat. 

quercus, Gyll. v. ochropterus, 

Steph. With the type. 
South Hylton (Bagnall) 

TELEPHORHXE 

Telephorus, Schxf. 

nigricans, Mull. v. discoideus 

Steph. Derwent Valley 
(Bagnall) 

paludosus, Fall. Near Row- 

land's Gill. Very local. 
(Beare, Bagnall) 

CISSID^E 

Cis, Lat. 

micans, Hbst. Teesdale 

(Bagnall) 

alni, Gyll. (?) Gibside (Bag- 

nail) 

vestitus, Mel. Teesdale 

(Gardner, Bagnall) 

CERAMBYCIDjE 

Aromia, Serv. 

moschata, L. One specimen. 

Derwent Valley (Bagnall) 
Leptura, L. 

pubescens. Hartlepool, intro- 

duced (Gardner) 

testacea. Hartlepool, intro- 

duced (Gardner) 

revestita. Hartlepool, intro- 

duced (Gardner) 
Semanotus. 

undatus. Hartlepool, intro- 

duced (Gardner) 
Strangalia, Ser. 

aurulenta, F. Hartlepool, in- 

troduced (J. E. Robson) 

CHRYSOMELID^E 

Phytodecta, Kirb. 

olivacea, Forst. v. litura, F. 

With the type (Bagnall) 



NOTE. OH page no of tbt 
main fat, after Gastroidea poly- 
goni, L., a whole page of copy hat 
by some meant been omitted. The 
line 'tcnella, L. (Bold, Gardner)' 
should be deleted and the following 
twenty names Inserted In its place. 

Phaedon, Lat. 

tumidulus, Germ. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 

armoraciz, L. Very rare 

(Bold, Bagnall) 

cochleariz, F. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
PhyUodecta, Kirb. 

vulgatissima, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 

yitellinz, L. (Bold, Robson, 

Bagnall, Gardner). Also 
the rare blue variety (Bag- 
nall) 
Hydrothassa, Th. 

ancta, F. (Bold, BagnaU) 

marginella, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nail, Gardner) 
Prasocuris, Lat. 

junci.Brahm. (Bold,Gardner) 

phellandrii, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall, Gardner) 
Luperus, Geof. 

nigrofasciatvu, Gcez. Very 

local and rare. Wlnlaton 
Mill (Bagnall) 

rufipes, Scop. (Bold, Bagnall) 

flavipes, L. (Bold, Bagnall) 
Lochmxa, Weise 

caprex, L. (Bold, Gardner) 

suturalis,Th. (Bagnall, Gard- 

ner) 

T. nigrita, Weise. On the 
moors with the type 
(Bagnall) 
Galerucella, Crotch 

viburni, Pk. (Bold) Winlatm 

Mill (Bagnall) 



ADDENDA 

Galerucella, Crotch 

nymphxx, L. (Bold, Bag- 

nall) 

sagittarix, Gyll. Rare (Bold) 

lineola, F. (Bold). 

tenella, L. (Bold, Gard- 

ner) 

FURTHER ADDENDA 

Longitarsus, Lat. 

anchusz, Pk. Hartlepool 

(Gardner) 
Haltica, Geof. 

oleracea, L. (?) (Bagnall) 
Aphthona, Cher. 

nonstriata, Gcez. Dertvent 

Valley and Ryton (Bagnall) 
Batophila, Foud. 

strata, Marsh. One speci- 

men. Winlatm Mill 
(Bagnall) 
Mantura, Steph. 

rustica, L. v. suturalis, 

Weise. Weardak and 
Dement Valley (Bagnall) 

matthewsi, Curt. Very 

rare. Hartkpto/(Giidner) 
Psylliodes, Lat. 

chalcomera, 111. One speci- 

men. Hartlepool (Gard- 
ner) 

hyoscyami, L. (?) One speci- 

men. Hartlepool (Gard- 
ner) 

MORDELLID.fi 
Anaspis, Geof. 

gcoffroyi, Moll. v. subfasciata, 

Steph. One specimen. 
TeesJale (BagnaU) 

ANTHICID.fi 
Anthicus, Pk. 

floralis, L. v. quisquilius, Th. 

With the type (Bagnall) 



CURCULIONID.fi 

Apioo, Hbst. 

genistae, Kirb. Winlaton 

Mill (BagnaU) 

minatum, Germ. Very rare. 

Near Winlatm Mill (Bag- 
nail) 

hydrolapathi, Kirb. Wear- 

dale and Dertcent Valley 
(BagnaU) 
Erirhinus, Sch. 

scirpi, F. Very local and 

rare. South Hyltm (Bag- 
naU) 
Dorytomus, Steph. 

maculatus, Marsh, v. costi- 

rostris, Gyll. (?) One 
specimen (Bagnall) 

melanophthalmus, Pk. r. 

agnathus, Boh. Axwell 
Park and Winlaton Mill 
(Beare and Bagnall) (con- 
firmation) 

SCOLYTID.fi 

Cryphalus, Er. 

tiliz, Pz. (?) One specimen 

(Gardner) 
Dryocxtes, Eich. 

autograph us, Ratz. (?) Gib- 

siJe, one specimen (Bag- 
nail) 

alni, Georg. Denoent Valley, 

under beech bark (Bag- 
nall) 
Tomicus, Lat. 

sexdentatus, BOrn. One 

specimen (Gardner) 

typographus, L. (Gardner) 

acuminatus, Gyll. One 

specimen. South Hylton 
(BagnaU) 
Pityogenes, Bed. 

chalcographus, L. (Gardner) 



LIMNOBID.fi 
Limnophila fuscipennis, Mg. 

STRATIOMYID.fi 
Oxycera pygmxa, Fin. 

EMPID.fi 
Hemerodromia precatoria, Fin. 

DOLICHOPODIDjE 
Achalcus flavicollis, Mg. 
Hydrophorus ncbulosus, Fin. 
bisetus, Lw. 



DIPTERA 

F/ies 

SYRPHID^E 

Platychirus scambus, Stxg. 
Syrphus annulatus, Ztt. 
annulipes, Ztt. 
Criorrhina ranunculi, Pz. 

TACHINID.fi 

Erigone strcnua, Mg. 

SAPROMYZID^E 
Sapromyza fasciau, Fin. 



CHLOROPID.E 

Meromyza pratorum, Mg. 
Chlorops Ixta, Mg. 
gracilis, Mg. 

AGROMYZID^; 

Agromyza lutea, Mg. 

PHORID.fi 
Phora lutea, Mg. 



CRUSTACEANS 

When Robert Surtees, of Mainsforth, F.S.A., published The History 
and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham between eighty and ninety 
years ago, he gave not the smallest consideration to carcinology. The 
most direct reference that he makes to the existence of crustaceans is to be 
found in his third volume, where he describes ' the providential escape of 
a shrimper,' who ' was pursuing his occupation on the sand island in the 
Tees.' ' His situation in the river was two miles from the Durham 
coast, and three from Yorkshire in the midst of the Tees ./Estuary, with 
the wide ocean full in front at the river mouth.' 1 The inference is in- 
evitable that a shrimper would never have been pursuing his avocation 
in Durham waters without the expectation of catching Durham shrimps. 
From other remarks made by Surtees in the course of his history it is 
easy to deduce that sundry remarkable crustaceans, quite distinct from 
the commercial kinds, have at times visited the county. Notice will be 
taken of these under the appropriate heads of classification. 

Surtees informs us that 'the County of Durham arose gradually out 
of Northumberland (a term which originally included everything North 
of the Humber), together with the increasing patrimony of the Church; 
and, besides the main body of the County, lying betwixt Tyne, Tees, 
and Darwent, includes several scattered members of that Patrimony : 
i. Norhamshire and Islandshire, including Holy Island, and the Fame 
Isles, and a portion of the mainland extending from the Tweed North 
and North-west, to the sea on the East, and separated from Northumber- 
land on the South partly by the course of the Till, and partly by an 
imaginary line. 2. Bedlingtonshire, lying in the heart of Northumber- 
land, betwixt the rivers Blyth and Wansbeck. These are usually termed 
the North Bishopric, and are included in Chester Ward. 3. The 
insulated territory of Crake in the wapentake of Bulmer in Yorkshire, 
which is considered as parcel of Stockton Ward.' * However little it 
could have been foreseen by monks and prelates, the ecclesiastical history 
of the county is not without its bearing upon the present chapter, and 
for all the ecclesiastics knew of the matter the bearing might have been 
more important than it actually is. At a time when religion and law 
combined to enjoin upon the whole community the use of fish as a 
necessary element of diet, the unlettered laity and learned churchmen 
were alike unconcerned about the food on which fishes themselves are 
nourished. But there is now reason to believe that fishes eat with 

1 Surtees, Hist, of Dtir., iii. 141 (1823). s Op. cit., i. pt. ii. p. iii. (1816). 

150 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

avidity every sort of crustacean that they can catch and swallow. Never- 
theless, the land and freshwater crustaceans of Yorkshire and Northumber- 
land are so little likely to differ from those of the intervening district 
that they would have been no proper objects for cupidity. On the other 
hand, in regard to marine species, the wresting of Norhamshire and 
Islandshire from its northern neighbour is calculated to give Durham 
much assistance in producing a competitive catalogue. 

In the present chapter the records referring to Lindisfarne and the 
Fame Islands will be claimed for Durham. The disentangling of those 
relating to the other dislocated areas will be neglected as in a great 
measure impracticable, and if accomplished of doubtful value. The 
distinctive glory of a county, with respect to its natural history, depends 
indeed far less on the number of species it may be asserted to possess 
than on the men who, within its borders, have increased the sum of 
natural knowledge by their industrious accuracy and have left to those 
who follow in their footsteps means of testing the fidelity of their 
observations and records. From this point of view it will be found that 
Durham has been singularly fortunate in having had long resident within 
it carcinologists of such eminence as Dr. Norman, F.R.S., and Professor 
G. S. Brady, F.R.S. The names of some others who have in their 
measure rendered useful service will be mentioned in due course. 

The extent of our subject will be best understood from a brief 
sketch of the classification here adopted. 

Crustaceans can be divided into three principal groups, Malacostraca, Entomostraca, and 
Thyrostraca. The first of these combines in really close relationship a set of animals which, 
to judge only by their outward appearance, habits, and names, might be deemed most 
disunitedly multifarious. They comprise true crabs and false crabs, hermits and lobsters, 
prawns and shrimps, wood-lice and sand-hoppers. There are also praying shrimps and 
skeleton shrimps, as different as possible each from other and both from the common shrimps, 
and 'little lobsters' almost microscopic, and huge fish-lice, and other swarms for which 
' Dan Chaucer's well of English undcfiled ' found not nor is likely to find any vulgar names. 

Beginning with the true crabs, stalk-eyed, ten-legged, with short inflexed tails, the 
Brachyura Decapoda, it is well to observe what is in their case the standard of truth. Their 
thinly flattened tail or ' pleon,' which is more or less distinctly composed of seven segments, 
is bound to have the last but one of these segments destitute of appendages. The true 
crabs are divided into four tribes, Cyclometopa, Catometopa, Oxyrrhyncha, and Oxystomata, 
very unequally represented in the records here dealt with. To the first of them, the arch- 
fronted tribe, belongs Cancer pagurus, Linn., the great eatable crab, in aspect so familiar to 
everyone, but for all that having a character which at the first glance distinguishes it not only 
from all other English crabs, but from the great majority of crabs all over the world. This 
much valued article of food is taken in more or less abundance all round our coasts, and is 
specially recorded from the Fame Islands by Mr. George Tate, who also mentions the 
occurrence there of Portunus puber (Linn.) and P. depurator. 1 Dr. George Johnston likewise 
includes it, along with Carcinus nuenas, in his Catalogus Animalium tt Plantarum 
quae in Insula Linditfarnense visa sunt mense Mala A.D. 1854.'* Two other species 
of Portunus were added to the Durham Cyclometopa by Dr. Norman in his Reports of 
Deep-Sea Dredging on the Nortb-Eait Coast of England, namely P. holsatus, Fabricius, 
and P. pusillus, Leach. 8 While all the species mentioned agree in having an arched front to 
the carapace, the shell of Cancer pagurus differs from the rest, not only in being much 

1 Hiit. of the Bena'ukihirt NaturaRttf Clul, 1850-1856, iii. 238 (1857). 

Op. cit., vol. for 1876, p. 48. 

8 Nat. Hist. Trans, of titrtimmb. and Dur., i. I z (1867). 



CRUSTACEANS 

broader in proportion to the length, but in having its antero-lateral margins nine-lobed instead 
of five-toothed. Carcinus m&nas (Linn.), the common shore-crab, though in general shape 
and appearance very near to the species of Portunus, is readily distinguished by the last pair 
of legs, in which the terminal joint is narrowly lanceolate, not as in the other genus widened 
into an oval swimming paddle. Portunus puber, the velvet crab, is well marked by the 
pubescent or velvety coat to which it owes its specific and vernacular names. Mr. Alexander 
Meek says, ' The velvet crab is not uncommon near the Longstone, and is sometimes 
procured also at other of the outlying Fames.' 1 In P. depurator (Linn.) it should be noticed 
that the part between the orbits, known as the ' front,' has the centre tooth prominent, 
whereas in P. holsatus this tooth is about on a level with its companions on either side. 
P. puslllus, Leach, is notably smaller than the other species. 

The Catometopa owe their title to a depression of the ' front,' which is prevalent among 
them, but which in no way indicates depression of spirits, for this group includes many of the 
most active, vivacious, and enterprising crabs that anywhere exist. In this county it is 
represented only by one of its hundred members, the little pea-crab, Pinnotheres pisum (Linn.), 
of which Mr. Meek reports that ' A male was got four miles off Seaham, 291)1 September, 
1897.'* Small as the female is, the male is much smaller. Also his coat is much more 
firmly calcified than hers. In Bell's opinion the remarkable softness of the female is ' doubt- 
less the cause of its requiring the efficient protection of the shells of Mollusca.' * The 
speculative philosopher in these days would rather argue that it is the consequence, not the 
cause ; just as one may feel certain that hermit crabs have acquired soft twisted tails through 
residing in firm spiral shells, not that they took to those shells because their tails were soft 
and twisted. 

The Oxyrrhyncha, or 'sharp beaks,' commonly have the front produced to form a 
rostrum. Of these Hyas araneus (Linn.) is recorded by Mr. George Tate from the Fame 
Islands, and by Dr. Johnston in the Lindisfarne Catalogue along with Stenoryncbus phalangium ; 
Bell quotes Stenoryncbus tenuirostris and Inachus dorsettensis from Embleton's list of the Crustacea 
of Berwickshire and North Durham; Dr. Norman in the dredging list for 1864 adds 
Inacbus dorsettensis and Hyas coarctatus as found on the Durham coast.* All these spider crabs, 
as they are called from the spindly legs of many among them, have the custom of costuming. 
They do not for this purpose use the spoils of vegetables or of other animals as we do, but 
the living organisms themselves, which they either allow to settle on their backs or forcibly 
instal, many parts of the carapace and limbs being provided with hairs and spines of various 
forms to secure the adhesion of their selected garments. Of the three genera above mentioned 
Stenoryncbus or ' narrow beak ' is more properly called Macropodia or ' long foot,' name and 
synonym together intimating two of the characters. The two species should be named 
respectively M, rostrata (Linn.), with the longirostris of Fabricius for a synonym, 6 in which 
the rostrum is shorter, and M. tenuirostris, Leach, in which it is longer, than the peduncle 
of the second antennae. Here the eyes are not retractile as they are in the other two genera. 
In Hyas the pleon or tail has all its seven segments distinct in both sexes, whereas in the 
other two genera this part has the last two segments coalesced. Between H. araneus (Linn.) 
and H. coarctatus, Leach, the most obvious difference consists in the circumstance that the 
carapace of the latter behind the post-orbital process has a strong constriction, to which the 
specific name coarctatus alludes. The French authors MM. Alphonse Milne-Edwards and 
E. L. Bouvier further observe that the first free joint of the second antennae is broader in 
front in this species than in the other, and that the hairy crest on the sternum or ventral 
surface, which is continuous in H. araneus, is here interrupted at the centre. That H. coarctatus 
is the smaller of the two, or that its ambulatory legs are relatively shorter, can scarcely be 
maintained in face of the measurements which they give. 6 For distinguishing Inachus 
dorsettensis (Pennant) from /. dorynchus, Leach, the same authors have drawn attention to 
differences in the third maxillipeds, the fourth joint of these organs in the former species 

1 Northumb. Sea Fisheries Committee Rep. for the year 1902, p. 65. 

8 Op. cit., p. 66. 

8 Brit. Stalk-eyed Crustacea, p. 1 20 (1853). 

* To save repetition it may suffice to say that Mr. George Tate's records are all quoted from the 
Hut. of the Berwickshire Naturallitf Club, iii. 328 ; those of the Lindisfarne Catalogue from pp. 48, 
49, in the volume of the same history published in 1876 ; and Norman's dredging lists for 1863, 1864, 
from the Nat. Hut. Trans. Northumb. and Dur.,\. 23-26 (1867). 

6 M. J. Rathbun, in Proc. Bio/. Soc. Washington, xi. 155 (1897). 

6 Resultats des campagnes de FHirondelle, vii. 19 (Monaco, 1896). 

152 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

being subtriangular, but in the latter suboval and longer in relation to the non-salient portion 
of the third joint. 1 Earlier authors have noticed that in the former species the tips of the 
bifid rostrum are slightly divergent, but not so in the latter. 

The Oxystomata are so named not from their sharpened or narrow fronts, but from the 
narrowing of the oral cavity. This buccal frame or cndostome in the other three tribes is 
more or less quadrate, but here it becomes triangular. In all it is more or less closed on the 
ventral surface by the third maxillipeds, which when their inner edges meet block out of view 
the other mouth-organs, namely, the mandibles, first and second maxillae, and first and second 
maxillipeds. All these parts though lost to sight should be to memory dear with every student 
who is desirous of understanding or of improving the classification of the Malacostraca. 
Norman's dredging list for 1864 provides the Durham coast with two species of one genus 
from the Oxystome family of the Leucosiidae, these being Ebalia tuberosa (Pennant) and 
E. crancbii, Leach. MM. A. Milne-Edwards and E. L. Bouvier distinguish the latter from 
the former as having the carapace less inflated, more regularly hexagonal, the front more 
advanced, and the antcro-lateral margins entire, not as in the other species having a very 
characteristic fissure between the hepatic and the branchial regions. 9 

The Macrura, or long-tailed Decapods, are in much closer relation to the Brachyura 
than a man might suppose who was offered for his meal a choice between the tail of a crab 
and the tail of a lobster. Lithodes mala (Linn.), the northern stone crab, recorded from the 
Fame Islands by Mr. Tate and from Lindisfarne by Dr. Johnston, is not a true crab, though 
it is deceptively like one. It has a short uneatable tail, and yet anomalously belongs to the 
Macrura. But it is the special mark of a Macruran to have appendages on the penultimate 
segment of the pleon, and of these Lithodes is destitute. On the other hand this tail-piece 
is conspicuously unsymmetrical in the female. This and other characters make it probable 
that the form has been evolved from among the hermit crabs, from hermits that have been 
unable to find a hermitage. In the struggle for existence it is likely enough that such 
unsheltered vagrants would have recourse to folding their tails for protection under their own 
bodies. Of ordinary hermits Pagurus bernhardus (Linn.) is recorded by Mr. Tate from the 
Fame Islands, by Dr. Johnston from Lindisfarne, by Dr. Norman from the Durham coast. 
The last author mentions with it in his Durham dredging lists for 1863 and 1864 P. pubescent, 
KrOyer, and P. /avis, Thompson. The first two species are now placed in the genus 
Eufagurui, the third in Anapagurus, the latter genus being distinguished from the former by 
the presence of a short curved appendage at the base of the fifth leg on the left side in the 
male. Eu. pubescens is discriminated from Eu. bernhardus by the greater slenderness of the hand 
in the larger cheliped, which is usually on the right, and by the strong pubescence of the 
ambulatory limbs. 

Porctllana longicornis (Linn.) is recorded by Mr. Tate from the Fame Islands, and 
Mr. Meek mentions the capture of 'a specimen from 4 miles off Seaham, 9 September, 
iSgy.' 1 This little smooth species, with a flat, nearly circular carapace, scarcely a quarter 
of an inch in diameter, and its tail doubled up beneath it, looks remarkably like a crab. 
But an inspection of the tail shows the macruran mark, appendages to the penultimate 
segments, well developed. Between this and the common shore species, P. platycheles 
(Pennant), Professor Bouvier has pointed out a singular difference, namely, that in the latter 
the nerve-chain is confined to the thorax or trunk as in the true crabs, while in P. longi- 
cornis it runs all along the pleon, as in the lobster-like Galatheidae.* Of this family 
Mr. Tate reports Galathea strigosa (Linn.) from the Fame Islands, and Mr. Meek records 
Munlda rugosa (Fabricius), 'a splendid male specimen from near St. Mary's Island caught 
in crab pot, 28 April, 1900.'* The latter species is remarkable for its very elongate chelipeds. 
The specific name given it by Fabricius in 1775 takes precedence of the synonymous 
Astacus Bamffius, Pennant, 1777, and Munida Rondeletii, Bell, 1853. 

Turning now from the anomalous to the genuine Macrura, in which the pleon, 
abdomen, or tail has a powerful muscular development, we find no record at present in 
this county of the common river crayfish, though it is likely enough or almost certain to 
occur in some of the streams. The common lobster, Astacus gammarus (Linn.), under the 
less proper name of Homarus vu/garis, is included in the Lindisfarne catalogue by Dr. Johnston, 

1 Op. cit., xiii. 45 (Monaco, 1899). * Op. cit., vii. 54. 

1 Northumb. Sea Fisheries Committee Rep. fir 1902, p. 66 (1902). 

* Ann. Sri. Nat., sir. 7, Zoologie, vii. 93 (1889). 

1 Northttmb. Sea Fisheries Committee Rep. fir 1902, p. 67. 

1 153 20 







CRUSTACEANS 

and of the pretty Nephrops norwegicus (Linn.) Mr. Meek says that ' large quantities are brought 
to Shields market by trawlers.' 1 Of shrimps the Lindisfarne catalogue names the common 
Crangon vulgaris, which Mr. Meek also states to be fairly common in the harbour at Holy 
Island. 8 The same writer says of the closely allied Crangon al/mani, Kinahan, that ' specimens 
have been obtained by Dr. Brady in 20 to 40 fathoms off the Durham coast.' 3 C. nanus, 
Kroyer, appears in Dr. Norman's Durham dredging list of 1864. The correct name of this 
species would appear to be Philocheras bispinosm (Westwood), since Kroyer's species has been 
successively referred to Cheraphilus and Philocheras generically, and is recognised as specifically 
identical with the earlier Crangon bispinosus of Westwood. Dr. Norman says of Crangon 
fasciatus, Risso, ' a single specimen of this shrimp, which had not previously been met with 
on any part of the eastern coast, was dredged in shallow water within the Fern Islands.' 4 
Between jEgeon fasciatus (Risso), as this species is sometimes called, and Philocheras neglectus 
(Sars), it is now known that there is a confusing similarity of colouring, both having transverse 
brown stripes across the fourth segment of the pleon and the tail-fan. Possibly, therefore, 
it is the second species rather than the first that should be attributed to the Fame Islands' 
fauna. In the Durham Dredging list for 1864 Dr. Norman includes Pandalus annulicornis, 
Leach, and P. brevirostris, Rathke, Hippolyte varians, Leach, and H. securifrons, Norman. 
The first of these should rather be called Panda/us montagui, Leach. It has a long rostrum, 
attains a considerable size, and might claim to be called a prawn, if that name had any really 
distinctive value. The second species, which Bell in ignorance of Rathke's earlier description 
named Hippolyte thompsoni,* has been transferred by Dr. Caiman to a new genus, Panda/ina.* 
Its rostrum is only about half the length of the carapace, and the ' wrist ' or antepenultimate 
joint of the second leg on the right side of the animal is subdivided into only four segments, 
not into about twenty as in P, montagui. H. securifrons, marked by a powerful and strongly 
dentate rostrum, is now placed in the genus Spirontocaris, Bate, in which also stands the earlier 
and perhaps identical Hippolyte spinus, Sowerby. 

The 'cloven-footed Schizopoda owe their name to a character of which they by no 
means have a monopoly, and which needs a little explaining. Between the eyes and the 
terminal segment of a Malacostracan there are nineteen segments, each of which potentially 
carries a pair of appendages. Under all reserve for controversial topics, the theoretical 
appendage may be described as seven-jointed. 7 From the first joint there is often developed 
a branch called the epipod, and from the second a branch called the exopod. When this 
latter is present, the remaining five joints are distinguished from it as the endopod or inner 
branch, the first two joints being then regarded as the stem or peduncle from which the two 
branches spring. The five pairs of legs in the Brachyura never, and in the Macrura very 
seldom, carry exopods. In the Schizopoda, however, they are found as swimming branches 
not only on the five pairs of legs but also on the two or sometimes all the three pairs of 
maxillipeds that precede them. The comparative study of crustaceans shows indeed a 
remarkable plasticity throughout the series of appendages. They readily interchange form 
and function. The mouth-organ of one species is homologous with the claw or the walking- 
leg of another. Antennae which in one group are fine-drawn elongated threads, in another 
are developed into powerful spades for digging. The family of Schizopoda with which we 
are here particularly concerned is known as the Mysidae, and is distinguished from the other 
families, and in fact from most Malacostraca, by having no true branchiae. That they can 
dispense with these breathing organs is probably due to the delicacy of their general structure 
and the vivacity of their movements, so that respiration is effected through the skin. The 
genera are very numerous. Concerning Leptomysis lingvura, Sars, Norman writes in 1892, 
' This species has been known to me as a member of the British fauna for the last twenty-six 
years, at which time I took it abundantly between tide-marks at Cullercoats, Northumberland, 
and within a year or two afterwards at Howden and Seaham Harbour on the Durham coast.' 8 
From Seaham he also records Hemimysis lamornae (Couch) * ; Schistomysis spiritus, Norman, 
from ' Blackball Rocks, Co. Durham, tide-marks,' 10 and S. ornata (Sars) from ' off Seaham, on 
the Durham coast.' 11 All the four species, it should be added, are fully described as well as 
recorded in Dr. Norman's valuable paper on the British Mysidae. Mr. Meek in 1900 

1 Loc. cit. p. 67. * Ibid., p. 67. 8 Ibid., p. 67. 

* Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. and Dur. i. 12. 6 Brit. Stalk-eyed Crustacea, p. 298. 

6 Ann. Nat. Hist., sen 7, iii. 37 (1899). 1 Brit. Stalk-eyed Crustacea, p. 298. 

8 Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, x. 245. 8 Loc. cit., p. 249. 

10 Loc. cit., p. 255. u Loc. cit., p. 256. 

154 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

reports, under the name of Macromysis foxuosa (Mailer), the schizopod which should rather be 
called Praunus Jiexuosus, from ' Holy Island (where it is very abundant in the harbour and 
on Fenham flats),' and from the same island Siriel/a ja/tensis, Czerniavski, and S. armata 
(Milne-Edwards). 1 

The crustaceans considered down to this point have all agreed in one particular. They 
have had eyes placed on movable pedicels. There remain to be discussed three groups of 
Malacostraca which are not stalk-eyed, but which all agree in having eyes not capable 
of independent movement. These sessile-eyed groups are the Sympoda, Isopoda, and 
Amphipoda. 

The Sympoda can scarcely be said to be more commonly called Cumacea, because they 
are not commonly called by any name whatever, society at large having been supremely 
indifferent to the existence of these little, unobtrusive, but intrinsically interesting animals. 
The list of them connected with Durham would have been reduced to a vanishing point but 
for a very recent report by Dr. G. S. Brady, 'On Dredging and other Marine Research off 
the North-East Coast of England in 1901.'* Therein he records Cuma xorpioides (Montagu) 
from ' 30 miles off Sunderland, 45 fathoms ' ; Hcmilamprops rtsea (Norman) and 'Leucon nasicus, 
KrOyer,' from the same situation ; Eudarella truncatu/a, Bate, from ' 56 miles off Souter 
Point, 30 fathoms ' ; Eudorellopsis deformit (KrOyer), as taken ' in the surface net near 
Sunderland'; Diastylis rathkei, KrCyer, from '2^ miles off Souter Point, 21 fathoms'; 
Diastylopiis resima (KrOyer), from the dredging station 56 miles off the same Point ; * 
Diattyloides biplicata, Sars, 'in 45 fathoms 25 miles off Sunderland, muddy sand'; Leptostylis 
ampullacea (Lilljeborg), ' in a depth of 40 fathoms 30 miles off Sunderland ' ; Pseudocuma 
cercaria (van Beneden) ' in a depth of 4 fathoms off Seaton Carew abundantly,' ' plentifully 
in the surface net at Sunderland ' ; and at the two stations above mentioned off Souter Point ; 
Pieudocuma similis, Sars, ' in a depth of 28 fathoms off Marsden ' ; Campylaspis rubicunda 
(Lilljeborg), 'off Hawthorn, 25 fathoms'; C. glabra, Sars, 'off Marsden, 28 fathoms'; and 
Cumella pygnuea, Sars, ' in the surface net at Sunderland.' 4 

As the name Cuma proves to have been preoccupied, 1 Bodatria, Goodsir, takes its place, 
and, while the general title Cumacea gives place to Sympoda, the family Cumidae becomes 
Bodotriidae, this being one of nine families among which this increasing group is now 
distributed. It would take long to explain all the peculiarities of form by which the species 
above named are distinguished. Some features may be mentioned which are common to all 
or almost all. The carapace leaves uncovered the last five segments of the trunk, the five 
leg-bearing segments, to which in crabs, lobsters, and decapods in general, it forms a 
consolidated dorsal shield. Instead of having many pairs of gills, attached to the legs and 
some of the mouth-organs, as in most of the previously-mentioned Malacostraca, the Sympoda 
are content to have branchial sacs only (and not invariably) attached to the singular respiratory 
apparatus of the first maxillipeds. Commonly the anterolateral lobes of the carapace are drawn 
towards one another in advance of the true front. At least one pair of the legs are furnished 
with exopods. The tail is usually quite slender compared with the head and trunk, giving 
the scorpion-like appearance alluded to in the name of Bodotria scorpioidei (Montagu). The 
fifth segment of the tail is almost always the longest. The seventh segment or telson varies 
from conspicuous length and distinctness to evanescence. 

Of the fourteen species above recorded four are included in the extensive family of the 
Diastylidae, one in the Lampropidz, two in the Pseudocumidae. These families are three 
out of the four which have the telson distinct, this segment being very small in the 
Pseudocumidx, but in the other two generally large and conspicuous. Diastylis ratbkei 
(KrOyer) is spoken of by Professor Sars in his fine work on the Crustacea of Norway as 
' one of our largest and finest species.' 4 The student will therefore be prepared for the task 
of examining these miniature lobsters by being told that one of the leading forms in Norway 
is just under two-thirds of an inch long, although specimens from the Siberian polar sea may 
attain the more encouraging length of just over an inch. In Diastylopiis resima (KrOyer) 
the third and fourth uncovered segments of the trunk are in the female dorsally coalesced. 
The tip-tilted nose implied in the specific name alludes to the upturning of the pre-frontal 

l Nortbumb. Sea Fuberiet Committee, Rep. fir 1900, pp. 70, 71. 

Nat. Hiit. Trout. Nortbumb., Dur. and NewcasiIe-upn-Tjne, xiv. (i), 87 (1902). 
8 Loc. cit., p. 94. * Loc. cit., p. 95. 

Stebbing, in Willey'i Zoological Reiultt, pt. v., p. 610 (1900). 

Op. cit., iii. 45 (1899). 

155 



CRUSTACEANS 

lobes which form a pseudo-rostral projection. Diastyloides biplicata, Sars, has the telson 
strongly bent in the male, and in both sexes two oblique pleats or ridges sculpturing the broad 
carapace. Leptostylis ampullacea (Lilljeborg) has the uropods, that is, the appendages of the 
penultimate segment, very slender, but the front part of the body at least in the female 
swollen out. This genus is a sort of connecting link between the Diastylidae and Lam- 
propidas, since here as in the latter family the third and fourth legs of the female have 
rudimentary exopods. While, however, the males of Diastylidae have two pairs of pleopods, 
those of the Lampropidae have either three pairs or none. Hemilamprops rosea (Norman) 
has the ' eye very large and conspicuous, with beautiful red pigment and 8 corneal lenses.' 1 
The family name refers to the brightness of the eye, but, as in the preceding family, the 
presence of an effective eye is not one of the essential characters. For Pseudocuma cercaria 
(van Beneden) the name P. longicorne (Bate) should be adopted as the earlier, though this 
specific name is not particularly appropriate, since it refers to the long second antennas which 
are found only in the male, and which are found in that sex of other species. No females 
among the Sympoda have these antennas elongate. P. simiIis,~Sa.rs, preferably called P. simile, 
is a larger and less slender species than the preceding, reaching a fifth of an inch in length or 
rather more, instead of barely a sixth. 

The remaining species of this list agree in having no distinct telson. The Bodotriidas 
have five pairs of pleopods in the male, and exopods only on the first pair of legs in both 
sexes. To this family belongs Bodotria scorpioides. The Leuconidas have the negative 
distinction of being, so far as is known, always devoid of eyes. They have exopods on the 
first four pairs of legs in the male, and on the first three pairs in the female, and pleopods on 
the first two pleon-segments in the male. Leucon nasica (not nasicui) has an upturned pseudo- 
rostral projection. In choosing the specific name, no doubt the classically-minded KrSyer 
inferred that some ancestor of the virtuous Roman, Publius Scipio Nasica, must have had the 
end of his nose directed heavenward at a similar angle. In Eudorella truncatula, Bate, 
belonging to the same family, there is also upturning of the pseudo-rostral lobes, but it is 
carried out in such a way that the medio-dorsal line of the carapace is continuous with the 
margin of the lobes, showing no nasal prominence. Such is the case also in Eudorellopsis 
deformis (KrSyer), with the distinction that here each lobe uplifts a little horn-like process 
breaking the evenness of the dorsal line. The Campylaspid* agree with the preceding 
family in having exopods on the first four pairs of legs in the male, but differ by having 
them on only the first two pairs in the female, and by having no pleopods in the male, a 
deficiency which is shared by the females in all the Sympoda. In Campylasph the great 
swollen carapace is, especially in the gentler sex, in marked contrast with the slender pleon. 
C. rubicunda (Lilljeborg) was named from its bright red colouring, whereas the little C. glabra, 
Sars, is whitish. Finally, the Nannastacida: are a family in which all the known species have 
eyes, in contradistinction to the Leuconidas in which none have them, and to the other 
families in all of which some species are seeing, and some sightless. In Nannastacus the 
eyes are paired. But in Cumella they are confluent, as is customary in this group of animals. 
C. pygmtea, Sars, justifies its name by being only about a tenth of an inch long, even so 
however not being absolutely the smallest of the Sympoda that has been described. 

The Isopoda, so named on the supposition that all their legs were very much alike and 
pretty nearly equal, come under popular notice chiefly as ' rock-slaters ' and ' wood-lice.' 
They are strongly distinguished from all crustaceans hitherto noticed in this chapter, by the 
respiratory apparatus. Instead of being sheltered under the carapace and attached to 
appendages of the head and trunk, in the genuine isopods it is developed in the appendages 
of the pleon. There is, however, a detachment of anomalous isopods, which some authorities 
would place in a quite separate division, because their breathing arrangements are in fact in 
the cephalothorax, and their eyes when present, though not stalked, are on well-defined 
lobes of the head. Of this set Dr. Brady records Leptognathia longiremis (Lilljeborg) from 
' 5-6 miles off Souter Point, 30 fathoms,' and from ' a depth of 4 fathoms off Seaton 
Carew.' 8 The uropods are relatively long, but the whole animal is less than a sixth of an 
inch in the female, and less than an eighth in the male, although ' this is the largest and 
finest of the Norwegian species ' of Leptognathia.* 

Several of the normal Isopoda are mentioned by Bate and Westwood as occurring on 
the Durham coast. Thus, they say of Mga bicarinata, Leach, in the family ./Egidas, that 

1 Loc. cit., p. 22. 3 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb., etc., xiv. (i), 95. 

8 Sars, Crustacea of Norway, ii. 27. 

156 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

they ' have received it from Dr. Norman, who has taken it on the coast of Durham.' * But 
it is now known that the specimen in question belonged really to ALga strSmii, Lotken, a 
stoutly built species, nearly two inches long, with very large contiguous eyes. Schiodte and 
Meinert, who had Norman's own authority for the correction, make Bate and Westwood 
guilty of the further mistake, with which they had nothing to do, of stating that the specimen 
was captured ' at the shore of the town which is called Durham.' Of the family Eurydicidae 
(formerly, but less correctly called Cirolanidae) ' Eurydice pu/chra, Leach,' was sent to Bate and 
Westwood from the Durham coast also by Norman.* This vicious little animal is now again 
called by its earlier specific name Eurydice achata (Slabber). In his dredging list for 1 864, Arcturus 
longicornis, Leach, is recorded from the same coast by Dr. Norman, and as Leacia longicornis the 
same species is noted in the Lindisfarne catalogue. In 1892, under the now accepted name 
Astacilla longicornis (Sowerby), Dr. Brady reports it from 2$ miles offSouter Point, 21 fathoms. 
In the family Astacillidae, to which this genus belongs, there is a strong contrast between the 
front pairs of legs, slender and fringed with long setae, and the three hinder pairs, compact and 
uncinate. On the other hand, in the Idoteidae, a companion family, though the seven pairs of 
legs are not strictly speaking all alike or all equal, they are quite sufficiently isopodous to justify 
the ordinary designation, so far as they are concerned. Idotea emarginata, Fabricius, and /. lineata 
(Linn.) are both recorded by Bate and Westwood on Norman's authority from the coast ol 
Durham. 4 Both species have the pleon apically emarginate, but whereas /. lineata is parallel-sided, 
the other form has the peraeon or trunk pretty strongly dilated. The Asellidae are an important 
family containing our one freshwater isopod, Asellus aquaticus (Linn.), a species as curious as it 
is common, found in ponds and ditches all over England. For its occurrence in this county 
I have Dr. Norman's manuscript authority. *Janlra maculosa, Leach, taken by the same 
investigator, represents the family Janiridae. 1 It carries a scale-like appendage on the third 
joint of the second antennas, in this possessing a rare feature. The Munnidz are represented 
by Munna krSyeri, Goodsir, found by Norman at Seaham * ; M. limico/a, Sars, from 2 1 fathoms 
off Souter Point ; Paramunna bilobata, Sars, a bright red species, scarcely more than a 
twenty-fifth of an inch long, from 30 fathoms off the same Point ; Pleurogoniam rubicundum, 
Sars, also bright red, a fifteenth of an inch in length, from 21 fathoms off Souter Point and 
30 fathoms off Marsden ; P. inerme, Sars, in size rather larger, in colour more pale, from 
30 fathoms off Marsden and Souter Point, and from 40 fathoms 3 miles off Sunderland, all 
four of these minute slender-limbed forms having been obtained by Dr. G. S. Brady. 7 The 
mud-dwelling Munna limico/a is distinguished by the elongation of its legs. Sars found it 
only at depths between 60 and 300 fathoms. Its addition to the English fauna shows it 
capable of living a good deal nearer to the surface. Dr. Brady further obtained Eurycof>e 
cornutay Sars, from 30 fathoms off Souter Point. This is a small representative of a remarkable 
family, the Munnopsidae, in which the inequality and unlikeness between the front and rear 
sets of trunk-limbs make the term Isopoda in its literal meaning singularly inapplicable. The 
anterior legs are notable for their tenuity, whereas the three hinder pairs are in accord with 
the generic name Eurycope, meaning ' broad oars.' They have the ultimate and penultimate 
joints broadly expanded and fringed with long plumose setae, being thus adapted excellently 
for swimming paddles after the fashion of the hindmost legs in the fiddler crabs. 

The Terrestrial Isopoda, or woodlice, have probably not yet been diligently sought after 
in this county. Dr. Norman is my authority for the occurrence here of Philoscia muscoram 
(Scopoli) ; Trichoniscus pusillus, Brandt 8 ; Oniscus asellus, Linn. ; Porcellio scaber, Latreille ; 
Metoponorthus pruinosus (Brandt),* of which many years ago he gave me two specimens from 
his collection at Burnmoor ; and Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille). Bate and Westwood say 
of Oniscus fossor, Koch, 'The Rev. A. M. Norman records it from Sedgefield, Co. Durham.' 10 
But the distinctness of the species from 0. asellus is somewhat doubtful. Porcellio scoter is 
mentioned in the Lindisfarne catalogue. 

The last of the Malacostracan divisions enjoys the name Amphipoda, intended to imply 
that the feet arc extended round about, forward, sideways, and backward. Latrcille probably 

1 Brit. SesstU-ejed Crustacea, ii. (17), z8o (1867). 

* Naturh'ut. TiJukrifi, er. 3, xii. 283 (1879). 

8 Brit. Sen. Crust., ii. 312. * Loc. cit. pp. 387, 389. 

1 Loc. cit., p. 340. e Loc. cit., p. 328. 

7 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. ttc., rir. (i), 96. 

8 See also Norman, Ann. Nat. Hist., er. 7, iii. 73 (1899). 

9 Loc. cit., p. 74. 10 Brit. Sess. Crust., ii. 471. 

157 



CRUSTACEANS 

took his idea of the name from the sandhoppers, which contrive to walk on land by spreading 
out their legs in all directions. Their slow, awkward gait suggests an easy capture, but when 
the hunter is about to seize his quarry, a stroke of the creature's indexed tail sends it skipping 
ever so far out of reach. In allusion to this action Latreille named the primary genus of 
sandhoppers Talitrus, ' a fillip.' Talitrus locusta (Linn.) is noted in the Lindisfarne catalogue. 
Talorchestia deshayesii (Audouin), under the name of ' Orchestoidea Desbayesii,' is recorded by 
Dr. Norman from Ryhope. 1 This border family of the Talitridae with its affections divided 
between land and sea is commonly placed in the forefront, because it is best known to mankind 
in general. But the Amphipoda are essentially an aquatic tribe, and their most primitive 
forms are likely to be found among marine species. Many hundreds of these are now known 
from different parts of the globe, and a goodly number even from the Durham coast, which 
till lately had but few to boast of. 

The extensive family of the Lysianassidae have the first joint of the upper antennae 
remarkably stout, and an accessory flagellum accompanies the principal flagellum or lash of 
these appendages. Included in the family are the following species : Acidostoma obesum (Bate), 
reported by Meek from depths of 39 to 59 fathoms off Durham 8 ; Orchomene bumilis (Costa), 
' Durham coast,' by Dr. Norman, who deems it identical with 0, batei, Sars ; s Hippomedon 
dentlculatus (Bate) near Fame Islands, Norman, 4 and this together with H. propinguus, Sars, in 
39 fathoms off Durham, Meek ; 6 Callisoma bopei, Costa, reported from ' Seaham, Co. Durham,' 
by Norman, who holds that Costa's species is identical with Bate's later C. crenatum, Bate's 
generic name Scopelocheirus meantime lying in wait for revival in lieu of Costa's Cal/isoma, 
which seems to have been circuitously preoccupied ; Tmetonyx cicada (O. Fabricius), reported 
from Durham coast by Norman, who calls the genus Hap/onyx by an obvious slip of the pen 
for Hoplonyx ; Trypbosites longipes (Bate and Westwood), Durham coast, Norman,* and ' from 
39 fathoms off Souter,' Meek ; 1 and lastly, Orchomenella nana (Kroyer), Durham coast, 
Norman, who records it as Tryphosa nana, 9 in opposition to the view of Professor Sars, a 
controversy which cannot be fought out here. The name Hoplonyx above mentioned was 
chosen by Sars with reference to the armature of the finger in the first gnathopods. Being 
preoccupied it must be discarded, and Hap/onyx cannot be used in its place, since it would 
imply that the finger (or nail) is unarmed, in contradiction to the very character on which 
the genus was founded. 

The Ampeliscidae are easily recognised by the tapering, apically truncate head, and, 
when eyes are present, by the shining single lens with which each visual organ is provided 
externally, although the internal apparatus is sufficiently complex. In Ampelisca the eyes, 
when present, are four in number. Of this genus Norman reports A. typica (Bate) from 
Durham coast ; A. tenutcornis, Lilljeborg, off Seaham (to which Meek in 1902 adds ' 2 J miles 
off Souter Point, 21 fathoms') ; A. spinipes, Boeck, off Seaham' ; A. assimilis, Boeck (a species 
scarcely distinct from Costa's^. diadema), ' off Marsden, Co. Durham, 10 fathoms' ; A. brevi- 
cornis, Costa, Durham coast 10 ; and Meek notes A. macrocephala, Lilljeborg, from ' 56 miles 
off Souter Point, 30 fathoms.' 11 In 1864 Norman's dredging list contains A. Gaimardii, 
Krfiyer, and A. Bel/tana, Bate, subsequently recognised as A. typica and A. breuicornis. The 
true A. gaimardii, KrSyer, now placed in the neighbouring genus Byblis, is recorded by 
Dr. Norman as occurring off Seaham. The same authority reports Hap/oops tubico/a, Lilljeborg, 
both from Durham coast and from near Holy Island. 13 The genus Haploops is distinguished 
from the two preceding genera in that the eyes, when present, are only one pair. The name 
of the species refers to the habit these animals have of constructing dwelling-tubes out of the 
mud in which they live, their habitat being in strange contrast with the refinement of structure, 
colour, and polished surface exhibited in this family. 

In the family Haustoriidas (formerly called Pontoporeiidas), which, unlike the 
Ampeliscidae, have an accessory flagellum to the upper antennae, and their hind limbs adapted 

1 Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, v. 140 (1900). 

2 Nortbumb. Sea Fisheries Committee Rep. for 1901, p. 55. 

3 Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, v. 202 (1900). * Loc. cit., p. 201. 
6 Nortbumb. Sea Fisheries Committee Rep., p. 55. 

6 Ann Nat. Hist., ser. 7, v. 207. 

7 Nortbumb. Sea Fisheries Committee Rep., p. 55. 

8 Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, v. 203. * Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, v. 341. 

10 Loc. cit., p. 342. u Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. etc., xiv. (i), 97 (1902). 

J Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, v. 345. 

158 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

for burrowing, the beautifully setose sand-furrowing Haustorius arenarius (Slabber) is recorded 
by Dr. Norman from near Sunderland, the allied Urothoe marina (Bate) from near Holy 
Island, and Bathyporeia guilliamioniana (Bate), doubtfully under the name B. norvegica, Sars, 
as having been taken by Dr. Brady at Whitburn, co. Durham. 1 In this family the fourth 
pair of peraeopods are not greatly longer than the fifth, as they are in the next family, the 
Phoxocephalidae. This latter supplies Harpinia neglecta, Sars (more properly called H. anten- 
naria, Meinert) from Durham coast, Norman. 8 It may be remarked that the Amphipoda, 
like the Isopoda, have seven pairs of trunk-legs, the first two pairs known as gnathopods being 
homologous with the second and third maxillipeds in the crabs and other higher crustaceans. 8 
Of the Amphilochidse Meek reports Amphilochoides pusillus from 21 fathoms off Souter Point. 
A species was indeed so named by Sars in 1892, but that distinguished author in 1895 recognised 
that the form in question was A. odontonyx (Boeck), which is probably therefore the species 
intended also by Mr. Meek.* In the Metopidte Meek records Metopa palmata, Sars, from 
56 miles off Souter Point, 21 fathoms. 1 Of the Stenothoidae, which are distinguished from 
the Metopidae by having no palp to the mandibles, Norman mentions Stenothoe marina (Bate) 
from Durham coast, and 5. monoculoides (Montagu) from Fame Islands. 8 Of the Iphimediidae 
Iphimidia obesa, Rathke, appears in Mr. Meek's list from the often quoted station 2\ miles 
off Souter Point. 

The very extensive family of the CEdicerotidae, which have no accessory flagellum to the 
first antenna;, and the fifth peraeopods much longer than the fourth, are represented in 
Mr. Meek's lists by ' Halimedon mulleri (Boeck),' which, in my opinion, should be called by the 
earlier name Westwoodilla c&cula, Bate, from 2^ miles off Souter Point ; 7 Monoculodes carinatus 
(Bate), ' a young specimen from near the inner Fame Island, 22nd June, 1898 ' ; * Synchelidium 
brevicarpum (Bate), ' specimens from near Inner Fame ' ; and Perioculodef longimanus (Bate), 
from ' 56 miles off Souter Point in 30 fathoms.' 10 The last species was taken also by 
Dr. Norman, ' off Marsden,co. Durham, 10 fathoms.' u It has bright scarlet eyes, and the genus 
owes its name to the arrangement of the lenses all round the front of the head, producing the 
effect of a single eye rather than a confluent pair, such as are found in the genus Monoculodes. 
In the Tironidae (formerly called Syrrhoidae), which also have more or less coalescent eyes, Tiron 
acanthurw (Lilljeborg) is remarkable as having a pair of minute accessory eyes below the prin- 
cipal pair. It is recorded by Meek in 1892 from 5-6 miles off Souter Point. 

The Gammaridae may be considered the central family of the Amphipoda, as representing 
the forms from which the rest have in various ways diverged. Whatever in other families may 
be regarded as commonplace and not peculiar is to be expected in the genus Gammarus. That 
genus also in itself shows considerable adaptability, a character of no mean advantage for the 
dispersion of a numerous progeny. We find the species Gammarus locwta (Linn.) quite at home 
in deep water, G. marinus (Leach), mixing with it on the shore, and G. pulex (de Geer) 
inhabiting fresh water in great aburuiance, yet all the three are closely alike in appearance 
and structure. The last of these, under the name of Gammarus aguaticus, is evidently intended 
in Dr. Johnston's Lindisfarne catalogue. It is no doubt only the commonness of all three that 
has hindered authors from specifying localities where they occur. ' Niphargus subterraneus 
(Leach),' another freshwater Gammarid, one of the well-shrimps, occurs in this county, as 
Dr. Norman kindly informs me by letter, but as to the name he agrees with me in thinking that 
1 N. aquilex, Schiodte,' should be preferred, Leach's description of subterraneus being too vague to 
be relied on. To the same family belong Amathilla homari (J. C. Fabricius), Durham coast, 
Norman 19 ; Mara othonis (Milne-Edwards), from the same coast ls ; Chelrocratus assimilii 
(Lilljeborg), off Holy Island, 1 * described as ' Ch. mantis, n. sp.,' by Norman in 1 865 from the 
locality mentioned " ; Ch. tundevalli (Rathke), off Holy Island (Norman), 14 and 2^ miles off 

1 Loc. cit., pp. 330-333. Loc. cit., p. 337. 

1 Nat. Hut. Tram. Northumb. etc., xiv. (i), 97. 

* Cruitatea of Norway, i. 221, 690. 

1 Nat. Hiit. Trans. Northumb. etc., xiv. (i), 97. 

' Ann. Nat. Mitt., set. 7, vi. 39. 

1 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb., etc., xiv. (i), 97. 

8 Northumb. Sea Fisheries Committee Rep. for 1901, p. 56 (1901). 

Loc. cit., p. 56. o Ibid., p. 56. u Ann. Nat. Hist., ter. 7, vi. 51. 
14 Ann. Nat. Hist., ter. 6, iv. 120. 13 Loc. cit., p. 126. 

14 Loc. cit., p. 130. u Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. and Dur., i. 13. 

18 Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, iv. 13*. 

159 



CRUSTACEANS 

Souter Point (Meek). 1 In the neighbouring family Callioptidie, Meek records Apherusa borealls 
(Boeck), which is probably identical with the earlier A, cirrus (Bate), from off Souter Point at 
56 miles and 2^ miles ; and from the latter station A.jurinei (Milne-Edwards). From the 
same two stations the same author notifies Melpbidippella macro (Norman), belonging to the 
family Melpbidippldee. Of the Aorides he records in his earlier list Aora graci/is, Bate, found 
in Holy Island harbour, and in his later list the same species together with Lembos websteri, 
Bate, at 2^ miles off Souter Point ; also from the latter locality several members of the Photidae, 
Photis reinhardi (Kroyer), Gammaropsis maculata (Johnston) under the later name G. erythroph- 
thalmuif Lilljeborg, the same species also appearing as Eurystheus erythrophthalmus, Lilljeborg, in 
Norman's dredging list for 1864 ; G. palmata (Stebbing and Robertson) under the later name 
G. nana (Sars) ; Podoceropsis excavata (Bate), for which P. rimapalma (Bate) is to be preferred ; 
and, lastly, Megamphopus cornutus, Norman. He also gives from this locality Ericthonius 
bunterl (Bate) in the family Podoceridae, from which it should be transferred to the Corophiidae, 
to which also belongs Unciola planipes, Norman, 'dredged in July, 1864, off Holy 
Island.' 

All the preceding Amphipoda are included in the tribe Gammaridea. From these the 
Hyperiidea are distinguished, among other things, by having no ' palp' to the maxillipeds. In 
other words, the fourth pair of mouth organs are here devoid of all the last four joints. In most 
Gammaridea these joints are well developed, and are never all of them wanting. Norman 
records that the Hyperiid Paratbemisto oblivia (KrSyer) has been taken by Dr. Brady off the 
mouth of the Tees. 8 

The tribe Caprellidea, distinguished from the other two by the degradation of the tail- 
part or pleon, has a rather less niggardly representation. From the often-mentioned stations 
off Souter Point Mr. Meek's list contains, of the family Caprellidae, Pariambus typicus (Kroyer), 
a skeleton shrimp of the most unassuming proportions, with a length not a third of an inch, no 
breadth worth speaking of, and of its legs one pair dwindled and two pairs altogether lost. 
Phtisica marina (Slabber), taken at 2^- miles off Souter Point, is better off in the matter of legs, 
and longer, but still a poor wisp of a thing, the generic name implying that nothing but a severe 
attack of phthisis could account for its wasted appearance. The whale-lice are first 
cousins to these skeletons, but have a more flourishing aspect, due perhaps to easy feeding 
on the oleaginous skin of the whale. That some of these Cyamidx have been at times 
found on the Durham coast may be fairly argued from the circumstance that 'In 1387 
Bishop Fordham issued a Commission, . . . stating in the preamble that all whales, 
sturgeons, porpeis, and thulepolls, wrecked on the coast of the royal franchise of Duresme by 
violence of the Sea, were the undoubted right of himself and his predecessors.' 4 It could not 
have been worth the bishop's while to claim for his predecessors the right to whales, if none of 
these monsters had ever been known to arrive. But if the whales came, the suitable species 
of Cyamus would certainly have made it their business to come with them. 

The Entomostraca are far from having that fixed number of segments which forms so 
remarkable a bond of union among the Malacostraca. On the contrary, the segments here 
may be either fewer than these or considerably more numerous. They are fewer in all the 
groups at present recorded from this county. These groups contain as a rule animals of 
very small size, some of them quite minute. To discriminate the numerous species would be 
impracticable without a fulness of detail which is here out of the question. Three orders have 
to be discussed, the Cladocera, Ostracoda, and Copepoda. 

The Cladocera are named from their biflagellate second antennas. These form conspicuous 
appendages of the more or less distinct head, which carries also the first antennas, the single 
eye, the palpless mandibles and the one pair of maxillae, the body with from four to six pairs of 
legs being for the most part included in the bivalved chitinous cover or carapace. About three 
dozen species of these little ' water-fleas,' as the ignorant are pleased to call them, have been 
recorded from the waters of Durham. The division of the Calyptomera embraces those in 
which the feet are well covered by the shell, though that is often too transparent to conceal 
them. This division is subdivided into two tribes, the Cten6poda and Anomopoda. In the 
former stands the family Sididas, to which belong Sida crystallina (O. F. Mttller) and 

1 Nat. Hist. Tram. Northumb. etc., xiv. (i), 98. 
8 Op. cit., i. 15. 

3 Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, v. 131 (1900). 
* Surtees, Hist. Dur., i. (2), 1 7 

1 60 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Diaphanosoma brachyurum (LieVin ; Norman in litt.).* The four following families belong to 
the second tribe. The Daphniidae furnish this county with Daphnia pulex (de Geer) from 
Shotton (Brady) ; D. obtuia, Kurz, taken by the Rev. Canon Norman at Bishopton (Brady) ; 
D. hamata, Brady, taken by Norman ' in a pond near the East Gate of Lambton Park ' 
(Brady) 5 D. lacustris, Sars, from Holy Island Lough (Meek and Brady) ; D. magna, Straus, 
which Brady calls Dactylura magna, remarking as to its occurrence : ' Dr. Norman has found it at 
Layton Farm, near Sedgefield, co. Durham, and I have myself taken it in a pond at Canal 
Farm, High Barnes, near Sunderland ' (Brady) ; D. longispina (O. F. Mailer) ; (Norman in 
litt.) ; Ceriodaphnia quadrangula (O. F. Mailer), Holy Island Lough (Meek and Brady) ; 
C. reticulata (Jurine) ; C. pulchella, Sars ; C. laticaudata (O. F. Mailer) ; this and the two 
preceding from Durham county proper (Norman in litt.) ; Simocephalus vttuius (O. F. Mailer), 
Holy Island Lough (Meek and Brady), and from Durham proper (Norman in litt.) under the 
new name Slmesa vetula, recently substituted by Norman, Simocephalus being preoccupied. 
The Bosminidae are represented by Bosmina longirostris (O. F. Mailer) ; (Norman in litt.). The 
Macrotrichidae comprise Macrothrix laticornis (Jurine), found ' at Fardingslake, and in the Glebe 
Engine Pond, Sunderland,' by G. S. B. (Norman and Brady) ; M. htrsuticornis, Norman and Brady, 
concerning which these authorities say in 1867, ' the only locality at present known for this 
new species is a slowly running stream at Ashburn, Sunderland, where it was found by G. S. B. 
in 1864 ' ; Ilyocryptus sordidus, Lievin, for which the same writers report ' two localities in the 
neighbourhood of Sedgefield, where /. sordidus first occurred in Britain, and was noticed by 
Mr. Norman.' The Chydoridae are numerously represented, containing Chydorus sph&ricus 
(O. F. Mailer) ; Eurycerau lamellatus (O. F. Mailer) ; Acropenu harp*, Baird ; all three 
signalised alike by (Meek and Brady) and by (Norman in litt.) ; Alona tenuicaudis, Sars, from 
Sedgefield ; A. costata, Sars, ' found in old colliery pond at Bishop Middleham, and in a pond 
near Houghton-le-Spring ' ; A. guttata, Sars, ' first found in Great Britain in a small pool at 
East Herrington,' subsequently ' also in ponds at Marsden ' ; A. tesiudinaria (Fischer), since 
transferred to Graptoleberis, from ' Boldon Flats, Fardingslake, and Hardwicke ' ; Alonopsit 
elongata, Sars ; Acroperus nanus, Baird, which has since become Alonella nana (Baird) ; 
PIcuroxui Itevls, Sars, ' at " Hell Kettles," near Darlington ' ; P. trigontllus (O. F. Mailer), 
found ' by A. M. N. in Hardwicke Lake and the Forge Dam, near Sedgefield,' and by 
' G. S. B. at "Hell Kettles," county of Durham* ; the foregoing eight species being recorded 
in 1867 (Norman and Brady), and Alona costata also in 1902 (Meek and Brady). Norman's 
manuscript list adds Alona quadrangular'^ (O. F. Mailer) ; A. affinis, Leydig ; Pleuroxus adunc us 
(Jurine) ; P. uncinatus, Baird ; Peracantha trvncata (O. F. Mailer) ; Leydigia /eydigii,Sch8d\er. 
As a sample of the characters which distinguish these families, it may be mentioned that the 
first antennas of the female are fixed in the Bosminidae, but movable in the Macrotriehidae ; 
the five pairs of feet are equally spaced in those two families, but in the Daphniidz the fifth 
pair is remote from the others ; in all the three the second antennae have the dorsal branch or 
flagellum four-jointed and the ventral one three-jointed, but in the Chydoridae both branches 
are three-jointed. From the first two families and part of the third the Chydoridae are also 
separated by the curious characteristic of having a looped intestine. To maintain the extra- 
ordinary activity which some species in this family display, one may surmise that a largq 
supply of food is needed, and the storage of this within their minute shells may well need an 
unusual arrangement of the digestive apparatus. 

The Gymnomera are distinguished from the Calyptomera by having the carapace small, 
not covering the thoracic feet, of which in the tribe Onychopoda there are but four pairs. Its 
single family, the large-eyed Polyphemidae, is represented in the fresh waters of Durham by 
Polyphemus pediculus (Linn.), (Norman in litt.) ; and in the sea by Evadne nordmanni, Lovn, 
and Pleopts polyphemoides, Leuckart, both reported by Brady from ' Durham coast (off Ryhope), 
common.'* For Pleopts the generic name now accepted is Lilljeborg's Podon. This has the 
marsupial part round-ended, as distinguished from Evadne, in which that part is triangular. 

1 To save a confusing repetition of references it may be expedient here to note that ' Norman in litt.' 
applies to a manuscript list kindly supplied me by Dr. Norman ; localities attested by the name of 
' (Brady) ' are from that author's paper ' On the British species of Entomostraca belonging to Daphnia and 
other allied genera,' in Nat. Hilt. Tram. Northumb., Dur., and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, xiii. (2), 217-248 ; the 
localities given from ' (Meek and Brady) ' refer to Mr. Meek's Holy Island collection determined by 
Dr. Brady, in the Report for 1902 of the Northumberland Sea Fisheries Committee, p. 49 (1902); the 
data referred to ' (Norman and Brady) ' are from the Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. and Dur., i. 354, etc. 
(1867). 

*Nat. Hiit. Trans. Northumb. and Dur., i. 30 (1867). 

1 I6l 21 



CRUSTACEANS 

They are both devoid of the neck-like constriction which distinguishes head from trunk in 
Polyphemus. 

As to the Entomostraca taken from Holy Island Lough by Mr. Meek the following 
explanations are given : ' This gathering was made on 27th June. The pond is a shallow 
one. The average depth is about 3 feet, and the bottom consists of soft black mud. It is 
to a large extent overgrown with Equisetum timosum, amongst which the coot and the black- 
headed gull meet. It gives origin to a small stream which runs close to the village, and 
was until recently used more or less for domestic purposes. The only fish life obtained was 
the three-spined stickle-back. . . The gatherings were made by means of a bottom net 
worked from a canvas boat kindly lent for the purpose by Mr. Newbigin. The proceeds 
consisted chiefly of Simocephalus vetulus, all the other species, with the exception of Pionocypris 
vidua, Cyclops viridis, and C. serrulatus, being very poorly represented.' 

The Ostracoda are so completely enclosed between their valves that externally they 
might be tr.ken for little molluscs rather than crustaceans. The body is seldom segmented, 
and never carries more than seven definite pairs of appendages. The tribe Myodocopa 
generally have a heart, which the other tribe, the Podocopa, manage to do without. From 
the former Brady and Norman report Philomedes brenda (Baird), belonging to the family 
Cypridinidts, off the coast of Durham, near the Dogger Bank, 1862 (A. M. N.), 1 and in the 
family Polycopidae Polycope orbicularis, Sars, at ' several points off the coasts of Durham and 
North Yorkshire.' 8 These are interesting marine species, over which it is impossible to linger, 
in view of the vast number of species, both freshwater and marine, from the other tribe, 
which the researches and writings of Brady and Norman have brought to light in connexion 
with this county. 

In the Podocopa the family Cyprididae supplies the district with Cypria exsculpta (Fischer), 
found at Seaton Carew ; C. opbtbalmica (Jurine), (N. in litt.) ; C. leev'n (O. F. Muller) and 
C. serena (Koch), from Holy Island Lough (Meek and Brady), the two latter species, under 
the more recently accepted name Cyc/ocypris, being reported also from Durham proper (N. in 
litt.) ; Cypris fuscata, Jurine (N. in litt.) ; C. incongruens, Ramdohr (transferred to Cyprinotus 
by Sars),* Rainton and Seaton Carew ; C. pubera, O. F. Muller, freshwater pond on Seaton 
Marsh ; C. v'trens (Jurine), between the typical shape of which and the variety ventricosa ' an 
intermediate form has been found by A. M. N. at Lumley Dene ; C. elliptica, Baird, ' found in 
a pond in Foxton Lane, Sedgefield, co. Durham (A. M. N.) ' ; C. reticulata, Zaddach, at 
Foxton, near Sedgefield ; C. ornata, O. F. Muller, ' the only known British specimens of this 
species were taken in a pond at Shotton Hall, co. Durham, in May, 1855 (G. S. B.) ' ; Cypri- 
notus salinus (Brady), originally established as Cypris sa/ina, of which Brady says, ' I first met 
with C. salina in a cooling pond at Monkwearmouth Colliery, where it lives in great numbers 
together with Cypridopsis acu/eata, Cypris reptans, and other species, in water which often 
reaches a temperature of 100 Fahr., and is so impregnated with earthy salts as to deposit 
a thick coating of carbonate of lime on the leaves of the plants which it supports'; 6 
Erpetocypris reptans (Baird), the species just mentioned as Cypris reptans ; E. strigata (O. F. 
Mailer), ' stream in Fulwell Cemetery, Sunderland (G. S. B.) ' ; E. tumefacta (Brady and 
Robertson), ' near Sunderland (G. S. B.) ' ; Ilyodromus olivaceus (Brady and Norman) (N. in 
litt.) ; 6 Prionocypris serrata (Norman) 7 (N. in litt.) ; Pionocypris vidua (O. F. Mailer), Holy 
Island (Meek and Brady), Durham proper (N. in litt.) ; P. obesa (Brady and Robertson) (N. 
in litt.) ; Cypridopsis aculeata (Lilljeborg), Cowpen Marshes (A. M. N. 1868), Monkwearmouth 
Colliery, and very 'abundant at Monkton Paper Mills, co. Durham (G. S. B.) ' ; C. villosa 
(Jurine), found by Brady ' in ponds at Silkswell and Fulwell, near Sunderland ' ; 8 Pota- 
mocypris fuha, Brady, ' at Fulwell Cemetery, Sunderland ' ; Notodromas monachus (O. F. Muller), 
many places in Durham ; 9 Candona Candida (O. F. Muller), of which ' the variety claviformis 

1 Trans. R. Dublin Sac., ser. 2, v. 655 (1896). * Loc. cit.,p. 707. 

8 Trans, R. Dublin Soc.,sei. 2, iv. (1889). Monograph of the Podocopa by Brady and Norman. Where no 
other reference is given the reader is requested to understand that the special localities for the Podocopa 
are taken from this work. (N. in litt.) signifies that the occurrence of the species in the county of 
Durham proper is guaranteed by Dr. Norman's manuscript list. 

* Crustacean Fauna of Central Asia, pt. iii, p. 28 (1903). 

6 Trans. Linn. Soc., London, xxvi. 368 (1868). Brady's Monograph of the British Ostracotta. This 
work will be cited as Man. Brit. Ostrac. 

6 Trans. R. Dublin Sot. ser., 2, v. 724. 7 Loc. cit., p. 725. 

8 Man. Brit. Ostrac., p. 377. Loc. cit., p. 381. 

162 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

was found in a pond at Sedgefield ' by Norman ; C. neglecta, Sars (N. in litt.) ; C. lactta 
Baird (N. in litt.) ; C. zencteri, Sars, of which Brady and Norman say in 1896, ' it is a British 
species, having been found by A. M. N. in a pond at Ferryhill in the county of Durham ' ;* 
C. compresfa, Koch, 8 for which, under the name C. pubescens (Koch), Brady and Norman in 
1889 give among other localities, 'pond in Lumley Dene, Seaton Carew Marshes, and 
Sedgefield, all in the county of Durham ' ; C. zetlandica, G. S. Brady, with which C. fFeltneri, 
Harting, is synonymous (N. in litt.) ; Ilyocypris gibba (Ramdohr) (N. in litt.) ; /. bradyi, Sars 
(N. in litt.) ; the rare marine species Pontocypris acupunctata, Brady, ' off Marsden, Durham, 
10 fathoms (G. S. B.)' ; Argillaecia cylindrica, Sars, 'off Seaham and Marsden, Durham coast 
(G. S. B.).' 

The family Cytheridae enriches the county with Cythere lutea, O. F. Muller, ' abundant 
in tide pools on the coasts of Northumberland and Durham,' * including C. viridis, Brady (not 
Muller), ' in tide-pools near Sunderland ' ; * C. pellucida, Baird, on the union of which with 
C. castanea, Sars, and its distinction from C. confusa, Brady and Norman, the monograph of 
1889 should be consulted ; C. tenera t Brady, 'off Seaham Harbour, Durham, 15 fathoms* ; 
C. albomaculata, Baird, ' on the Durham coast ' ; * the blind mud-lark C. limicola (Norman), 
Durham coast ; * C. (?) semipunctata, Brady, off coast of Durham ; C. gibbosa, Brady and 
Robertson, ' Seaton Carew Marshes ' ; C. borealis, Brady, of which it is said that ' the only 
British station in which this species has been found is at Seaton Carew, in the county of 
Durham, on mud-covered rocks, near low-water mark (G. S. B.) ' ; C. quadridcntata, Baird, off 
coast of Durham ; C. emaciata, Brady, off Durham ; C. tuberculata, Sars, ' in 40 fathoms,' 1 
this and the next five species from the same coast being referred to Cythere in 1889, but in 
1 896 transferred to Cythereis ; C. concinna (Johnston) ; C. finmarcbica (Sars) ; C. angulata 
(Sars) ; C. dunelmeruis (Norman) ; C. jonesii (Baird) ; the freshwater species Limnicythere 
inopinata (Baird), from ' Hardwick Lake and Raby Park, county Durham (Rev. A. M. Norman); 
Fulwell Cemetery, Gibside, and in a millstream at Hedworth, county Durham (G. S. B.) ' ; 8 
Cytheridea elongata, Brady, ' in tide-pools at Sunderland,' ' in all probability a washed-up 
specimen, as the valves were empty ' ; * C. papillosa, Bosquet, off the coast of Durham ; C. 
torosa (Jones), Sedgefield, in freshwater (A. M. N.) ; 10 C. punctilio ta, Brady, Seaton Carew ; 
Eucythtre declivis (Norman), Durham coast, including Eu. argus (Sars), from ' off Holy Island,' 
and Eu. anglica, Brady, 'dredged off the Durham coast (G. S. B.) ' ; ll Krithe bartonensis (Jones), 
off the coast of Durham ; Loxoconcha impressa (Baird), rock-pools, Sunderland ; 18 L. tamarindus 
(Jones), ' in tide-pools, Sunderland,' as well as in 30 fathoms depth off Durham coast ; 18 L. 
guttata (Norman), deep water off Durham coast ; 14 L. multifora (Norman), Durham coast ; 1 
L. pusilla, Brady and Robertson, ' off Seaton Carew, co. Durham, 4 fath.' ; Xestoleberis 
depressa, Sars, Durham coast ; 18 Cytherura nigrescent (Baird), ' in rock-pools at Sunderland ' ; " 
C. producta, Brady, ' off the coast of Durham ' ; C. clathrata, Sars, coast of Durham ; C. acuti- 
coitata, Sars, ' off Holy Island ' ; w Cytheropteron Jatissimum (Norman), Durham coast ; ll C. 
nodosum, Brady, off coast of Durham ; Bythocythere constricta, Sars, B. turgida, Sars, and B. simplex 
(Norman), all three off the aforesaid coast, the last having also been taken off Holy Island in 
45 fathoms ; 80 Pseudocytbere caudata, Sars, off Holy Island ; 81 Sclerochilus contortus (Norman), 
Durham coast. 8 * 

To the family Paradoxostomatidae are assigned Paradoxostoma variabi/e (Baird) ; P. normani, 
Brady ; P. hibernicum, Brady ; P. hodgei, Brady ; P. flexuosum, Brady ; all from various depths 
off the coast of Durham ; and Machterina tenuissima (Norman), taken off the same coast 
between 15 and 30 fathoms. 

From the vast and ancient group of the Ostracoda we pass to another which is also very 
extensive, but less adapted for fossil preservation. The Copepoda are not enclosed in a bivalved 

1 Trans. R. Dublin See., ter. , v. 730. * Loc. cit., p. 728. 

8 Mm. Brit. Oitrac., p. 396. * Loc. cit., p. 397. 

1 Loc. cit., p. 403. * Loc. cit., p. 406. 

1 Ibid. 8 Loc. cit., p. 420. 

Loc. cit., p. 4*2. > Loc. cit., p. 426. 

Loc. cit., pp. 430, 431, 475. ' Loc. cit., p. 434. 

18 Loc. cit., p. 436. M Ibid. 
11 Loc. cit., p. 450 (compared with Man. 1889, p. 185). 

" Mm. Brit. Ostrac., p. 438. " Loc. cit., p. 440. 

18 Loc. cit., p. 446. 19 Loc. cit., p. 448. 

10 Loc. cit., p. 45 1 81 Loc. cit., p. 454. 
M Loc. cit., p. 456. 

163 



CRUSTACEANS 

shell, but allow us to distinguish eleven segments, the first, however, being composite, to form 
what may be called the head, carrying the two pairs of antenna, the mandibles, first and 
second maxillae, and the maxillipeds. The next five segments are thoracic, each normally 
with its pair of appendages, and these are followed by five which bear no appendages, forming 
the tail, abdomen, or pleon. Still it sometimes happens that the last thoracic segment seems 
more closely united with the pleon than with the rest of the thorax. Hence Giesbrecht draws 
a line between the Gymnoplea which have the pleon bare of limbs, and the Podoplea, which 
have, or, more strictly speaking, seem to have a pair of limbs on the pleon. 

Since it will be impossible here to explain or discuss all the latest changes in classification, 
and since our knowledge of Durham localities for most of the species about to be mentioned is 
derived from the Monograph of British Copepoda which Dr. G. S. Brady wrote for the Ray 
Society, it will be convenient to follow the arrangement adopted in the volumes of that 
learned and well-known work. The distribution, however, of the genera into families is based 
on systematic essays of later date, which still show some variety of opinion among leading 
experts, and make it clear that new students of the Copepoda will not find their field of 
research already exhausted. To the family Temoridae are assigned Eurytemora velox (Lilljeborg), 
recorded by Brady as found ' in salt-marshes at Hylton (county Durham),' with the added 
remark, 'the few specimens which I have recorded as being taken in the sea at Sunderland, 
must, I think, be looked upon as waifs and strays ' ; * Eu. affinis (Poppe), ' in pools near Hartle- 
pool Slake, county Durham,' this being, according to Brady, a species apparently very liable to 
be confused with neighbouring forms. 3 The family Diaptomidas includes Diaptomus castor 
(Jurine), from ' ponds at Chester Road, Sunderland ; Shotton and Wardley, county Durham 
(G. S. B.).' 8 The family Centropagidae offers Centropages hamatus (Lilljeborg), of which Brady 
says that it is not uncommon at the surface in the open sea, adding, ' I have once taken it 
between tide-marks, amongst Algae in rock-pools, near Ryhope.' * The family Parapontellidae 
is represented by Parapontella irevicornis (Lubbock), ' in tide-pools on the Durham coast.' 
For Misophria pallida, Boeck, ' taken off Hawthorn (Durham coast) on a sandy bottom in a 
depth of 27 fathoms,' Sars establishes a family Misophriidae in the great group of Arpacti- 
coida. 6 The family Pseudocyclopidae (not to be confused with the JPseudocyclopiidas) has 
Pseudocydops crassicornis, Brady, dredged off Seaham Harbour in 2030 fathoms. The family 
Cyclopidae is more copiously represented, containing Oithona spinifrons, Boeck, possibly the same 
as the earlier 0. helgo/andica, Claus, observed ' in the North Sea off Sunderland ' ; Cydopina 
littoraltSy Brady, ' amongst weeds between tide-marks,' Ryhope, and off the Durham coast in 
depths of 445 fathoms ; C. (?) ovalis, Brady, 'one specimen only taken off Sunderland in the 
surface net ' ; Cyclops strenuus, Fischer, ' Seaton Marsh, county Durham ' ; 6 C. bicusptdatus, 
Claus, ' in gatherings from Lambton Park (A. M. N.)' ; 7 C. viridis (Jurine), with C.fuscus and 
C. albidus of the same author, reported in Norman's manuscript list ; C. insignis, Claus, ' at 
Hartlepool, where it occurred in brackish pools near the border of the slake ' ; C. serrulatus, 
Fischer (N. in litt.) ; C. fimbriatus, Fischer, ' in gatherings by the Rev. Dr. Norman from 
Rainton Meadows, county Durham ' ; 8 C. kaufmanni, Uljanin, a rare species hailing from 
Turkestan, taken freely by Norman from ' pond in Lambton Park (Durham),' and since found 
by Brady in Hampshire, not known elsewhere ; 9 C. helleri, Brady, taken at Whitburn, but 
subsequently regarded with doubt ; 10 C. phaleratus, Koch, pond at Gibside ; C. sa/inus, Brady, 
' got at Holy Island ' ; u Pterinopsyllus insignis, Brady, the earlier generic name, Lophophorus, 
being discarded on account of pre-occupation,is ' three specimens only of this very distinct and 
beautiful Copepod occurred in a dredging made by Mr. Robertson and the Rev. A. M. Norman, 
six miles off the Durham coast, near Hawthorn, on a sandy bottom, and in a depth of 
27 fathoms.' 

1 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb., Dur., and Netocastle-upon-Tyne, xi. (i), 106 (1891). (For the 
synonymy of the species the student should compare Sars, Crustacea of Norway, iv. 100. 1903.) 

2 Loc. cit., p. 108. 8 Loc. cit., p. 94. 

* Monograph of the Free and Semi-parasitic Copepoda of the British Islands, by G. Stewardson Brady, M.D., 
F.L.S., etc., vol. i. Ray Society (1878). It may be accepted that species named and explanatory 
quotations, without further reference, are given on the authority of this work. 

6 Crustacea of Norway, v. 4 (1903). ' Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. etc. xi. (2), 73. 

1 Loc. cit., p. 79. 8 Loc. cit., p. 9 1 . 

9 Loc. cit., p. 89. 10 Loc. cit., p. 91. 

11 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. etc., new ser. i. 5 (1903). 
18 Monograph, iii. 23, Ray Soc. (1880). 

164 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

The family Notodelphyidae, in which the egg-pouch of the female forms a strange dorsal 
protuberance, furnishes Notodelphys cerultea, Thorell, ' in Axld'ia parallelogramma, off Haw- 
thorn'; N. agilis, Thorell, in Ascidians taken off the coast of Durham, at depths of 
20-30 fathoms. The family Doropygidse, with a like peculiarity, contains Doropygus pulex, 
Thorell, of which many immature specimens have been found in Ascidians dredged off the 
coast of Durham ; D. porclcauda, Brady, found in Ascidia parallelogramma dredged from 
27 fathoms off Hawthorn. The family Ascidicolidz, which is extended by some authors to 
embrace a large assortment of families similar in their habits, in a restricted sense contains 
Atcidicola rosea, Thorell, from Ascidians dredged off the Durham coast, this species (as noted 
by Mr. Eugene Canu) sometimes occurring in great abundance actually in the stomach of a 
large Aicidiella, 1 a position one might suppose more suited for their sepulchre than their living- 
room. 

The great group of the Arpacticoida or family Arpacticidse in the large sense has been vari- 
ously divided into subfamilies or restricted families. As these are at present more or less in an 
evolutionary or revolutionary condition, it will be convenient to mention the following species 
simply as members of the higher assemblage. Longipedia coronata, Claus, is reported as taken by 
Brady ' abundantly on a sandy bottom off Seaton Carew (Durham), four fathoms ; off Marsden, 
Sunderland, and Seaham, twenty to thirty fathoms ' ; * Ectinosoma spinipes, Brady, with the 
preceding at various points, but not so abundant ; E. erythrops, Brady, dredged in 5 
30 fathoms off the coast of South Durham ; Zasime typica, Boeck (the identity of which is some- 
what doubted by Brady himself), off Hartlepool on sand in 25 fathoms ; Tachidius brevicorn'n 
(O. F. Muller), in brackish marsh pools, Hylton Dene and Hartlepool ; Robertionia tenuis 
(Brady and Robertson), off Hawthorn on sand at 27 fathoms, and off Seaham amongst mud 
IO fathoms deeper ; Amymone sphterica, Claus, which in spite of its spherical surname has 
the ' body much compressed,' entered as taken 4 miles off Marsden among rough sand, is 
corrected in 1 903 to A. rubra, Boeck,* and in the same year has its pre-occupied generic name 
altered to Tegastes by Norman ; * T. longimanus (Claus), off Hawthorn in 27 fathoms depth, 
the creature itself a fiftieth of an inch in length ; Stenhelia hispida, Brady, off Hartlepool in 
5 and off Marsden in 30 fathoms; 5. ima t Brady, in 10-35 fathoms off Marsden ; 5. 
ktrdmani, A. Scott, from ' Laminaria roots at Holy Island '; * Ameira longipes, Boeck, in 25 
45 fathoms off Sunderland and Seaham ; Jonesiella spinulosa (Brady and Robertson), which, it 
appears, must yield precedence to the earlier named Danielssenia typica, Boeck,* ' dredged off 
Hartlepool on a sandy bottom ; and in a depth of thirty-seven fathoms sixteen miles off 
Hawthorn (Durham) on a muddy bottom ' ; Delavalla rtflexa, Brady and Robertson, 5 miles 
off Hartlepool on sand ; D. rotusta, Brady and Robertson, in depths of 25-35 fathoms in 
several places off the coast of Durham ; Cantbocampus minutui (O. F. Muller), of which the 
generic name is commonly but wrongly given as Canthocamptus, and of which as a species 
Brady says that it prefers shallow pools in which vegetation is abundant, its colouring varying, 
' with the character of the plants and infusoria on which it probably feeds,' adding, ' the only 
considerable pieces of water in which I have found it are the lake in Axwell Park near Gates- 
head, and Holy Island Lough (Northumberland) ; but both these are really, as to size and 
character of vegetation, big ponds rather than lakes ' ; C. palustris, Brady, a brackish-water 
species (N. in litt.) ; Attheyella spinosa, Brady, of which the first specimens ' were found in 
an old engine-pond at Murton Junction, near Sunderland ' ; A. crassa, Sars (N. in litt.) ; 
A. pygmaea, Sars (N. in litt.) ; Laophonte similts, Claus, ' between tide-marks at Sunderland ' ; 
L. longicaudata, Boeck, dredged off ' Hartlepool ; Seaham, 20-30 fathoms ; Hawthorn, 
27 fathoms* ; L. lamellifera (Claus), ' on Laminaria and on muddy rocks near Sunderland' ; 
L. hispida (Brady and Robertson), 410 fathoms off Durham coast ; Normanella dubia (Brady 
and Robertson), 10-30 fathoms off Marsden and Hartlepool ; Cletodei limico/a, Brady, in 2O- 
24 fathoms off coast of Durham ; C. kngicaudatus, Brady and Robertson, in 5 fathoms off 
Hartlepool ; C. propinquus, Brady and Robertson, in 35 fathoms off Marsden ; Dactylopusia 
tiiboides (Claus), from ' Durham coast, amongst Laminari*,' the older generic name Dactylopus 

1 Les Copfpodes du Bouhnnais, p. 209 (1902). 

The references from this point are to the Monograph of Brit. Cofepoda, vol. ii. f Ray Soc. (1880). 

1 Brady, Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. etc., new ser. i. J. 

* Ann. Nat. Hut., ser. 7, xi. 368. 

1 Brady, Nat. Hist. Irons. Northumb. etc., new ser. i. 3. 

Sars, Cladocera, Copepoda, and OstratoJo of the Jana Expedition, p. 20. St. Petersburg. 

165 



CRUSTACEANS 

being now discarded as pre-occupied ; l D. tenuiremis (Brady and Robertson), in 45 fathoms 
2O miles off Sunderland, amongst muddy sand ; D. flava (Glaus), in 27 fathoms off Hawthorn ; 
D. brevicornis (Claus), on Laminaria at Sunderland ; Thalestris helgolandica, Claus, in 
27 fathoms off Durham coast; T. rufocincta, Brady, 'off Marsden, 10 fathoms, Hawthorn, 
27 fathoms' ; T. clausii, Norman, Durham coast, littoral among weeds, and from surface of 
open sea ; T. longimana, Claus, between tide-marks, ' Sunderland, Ryhope, etc. ' ; Westwoodia 
nobilis (Baird), a brilliantly coloured species with a pre-occupied generic name, found by Brady 
rarely on Lamtnaries near Sunderland ; Arpacticus chelifer (O. F. Mtiller), from many places on 
coast of Durham, and as to the young from roots of Laminaria Brady notes that specimens 
from Holy Island and tide-pools at North Sunderland were generally ' extremely melanotic ' ; * 
Pontopolites typicus, T. Scott, from Holy Island ; 8 Zaus spinatus, Goodsir, coast of Durham, 
usually amongst Laminaria saccharina or other fuci ; Alteutha depressa, Baird, at Sunderland, 
chiefly from Laminariee, the genus distinct from Peltidium ; * A. interrupta (Goodsir), in 
10 fathoms off the Durham coast ; Scutellidium tisboides, Claus, at Roker, near Sunderland, on 
Laminaria; and S.fasciatum (Boeck), plentiful on Durham coast wherever Laminaria sac- 
charina grows. 

Leaving at this point the Arpacticoida, we come to creatures of usually semi-parasitic 
habits, of which some have been already mentioned in the family Ascidicolidae. Cylindropsyllus 
l<evis, Brady, was dredged by Brady off Hartlepool in muddy sand at 5 fathoms ; 6 Lichomolgus 
fucicola (Brady), amongst fuci, near low-water mark, Ryhope, and 4 miles off Hawthorn 
and Marsden, amongst rough shelly sand, in about 25 fathoms ; L. liber, Brady and Robert- 
son, from the last-mentioned localities, in 2027 fathoms ; L. arenicola, Brady, off Seaton 
Carew, on sand in 4 fathoms ; L. thorelli, Brady and Robertson, off Marsden, in 25 fathoms, 
and off Hawthorn a little deeper ; Cydipicera nigripes, Brady and Robertson, from the same 
localities as the last-named species ; C. /ata, Brady, in tidal pool at Roker, near Sunderland ; 
Artotrogus normani (Brady and Robertson), 6 miles off Hawthorn, in 27 fathoms ; Dyspontius 
striatus, Thorell, at the last-named locality, where also was taken Acontiophorus scutatus (Brady 
and Robertson). 

From the foregoing catalogue it will be understood how numerous are the species which 
the enlightened industry of a very few enthusiasts can add to the known fauna of a county. 
But for the three or four naturalists whose names have so frequently recurred, Durham might 
have passed as a district singularly eschewed by the wide-ranging Copepoda, instead of being 
conspicuously rich in representatives of their microscopic multitudes. Small as the free-living 
and semi-parasitic forms usually are, there is another set derived from them, the truly parasitic, 
which sometimes attain a considerable size, and of these it may be said that Surtees in his 
history tells us something, without either intending to do so or being conscious that he was 
doing it. He informs us that Bishop Cosin in 1662, having had to pay a bill of 5 17*. id. 
for five sturgeon, which were chiefly given away in presents, desired his steward at Howden 
' to catch no more sturgeons.' 6 The episcopal right once fought for was evidently becoming 
a burden. But relying on this unwelcome abundance of sturgeons, one may without hesi- 
tation add to the Durham fauna the singular parasitic Copepod Dichelestium sturionis, Hermann, 
which frequents the gills of the great cartilaginous scale-armoured fish after which it is named. 
Similarly other fishes of the county, whether mentioned by Surtees or elsewhere, would in a 
general way justify the enumeration of their various ordinary parasites as belonging to the 
fauna of this region. 

Among the Thyrostraca, commonly called cirripedes or barnacles, certain parasitic forms 
of a very interesting character were recorded from Durham waters by Norman in his dredging 
list for 1863, namely, Pehogaster paguri, Rathke, as 'very rare'; P. sulcatus, Lilljeborg, 
' rare ' ; and Clistosaccus paguri, Lilljeborg, ' one specimen.' 7 All these are parasitic on hermit- 
crabs, the first and third according to Lilljeborg being found on Eupagurus bernhardus (Linn.), 

1 Norman, Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, n. 368. 

* Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. etc., new ser. i. 4. 
8 Loc. cit., p. 4, pi. i. figs. 4-12. 

* Brady in Fifth Ann. Rep. of the Fishery Board for Scotland, App. F, No. ri. p. 329. 
6 Mm. Brit. Copepoda, in., Ray Soc. (1880). 

6 Surtees, Hist. ofDur. i. (2), 17. 

7 Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. and Dur. \. 26. 

166 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

though not confined to that species, while as hosts for the second he specifies the forms now 
known as Eupagurus cuanensis (Thompson) and Anapagurus chiracanthus (Lilljeborg).i 

Several species of normal cirripedes are no doubt to be found in the district, such as 
Balanus balanoides (Linn.) ; B. hameri (Ascanius) ; Coronula diadtma (Linn.) on the immigrant 
whale ; Verruca str8mia (O. F. Mtlller) ; Trypetaa lampas (Hancock), till recently known by 
the pre-occupied name Alcippc? and Conchoderma auritum (Linn.), a common companion of 
Coronula. These and many more trophies of ardent investigation may be left for discovery or 
verification by some future chronicler. 

1 Lilljeborg in Nova Acta Reg. Sot. Sci. Upsala, ser. 3, Hi. 27, 28 (Extr. 1859), and Supplement, 
pp. II, 22 (Extr. 1860). 

* Norman, Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, xi. 368. 



167 



FISHES 

Attempts have been made from time to time by the authors of the 
county and parochial histories to give accounts of the fishes, but the 
work of compiling the following list of Durham fishes has been rendered 
especially light by the excellent catalogue of the fishes of Northumberland 
and Durham published by the late R. Howse,M. A., curator of the Hancock 
Museum, Newcastle. I have, however, been able to add definitely to the 
list of our local fauna, species about which Mr. Howse was doubtful, and 
to add others which have come to our knowledge since his list was 
published (1890.) 

It is rather curious that while not infrequent records of rare 
stragglers have been made for the coasts of Northumberland and York- 
shire, the majority of these have not visited, or if they have visited have 
not been recorded for Durham. Such it has been necessary therefore 
to exclude from the present list, but I have ventured to add species 
which from their well-known occurrence to the north and the south 
may be presumed to belong also to the Durham coast. 

Fresh- water fishes are distinguished by an asterisk (*), and those 
which occur in both fresh and salt water by two asterisks (**). 



TELEOSTEANS 



ACANTHOPTERYGII 

*I. Perch. Pe rca fluviatilis, Linn. 

In the Tees, Billingham Beck, in lakes and 
ponds, and in artificial ponds. ' Probably 
introduced into the district.' Howse. 



** 



2. 



Haddock. Sehastes norvegtcus, 



Bass. Morone labrax, Linn ; Labrax 
lupus, Cuv. 

Occasionally caught inshore and in the 
Tyne. 

3. Common Sea Bream. Pagellus centrodontus, 

Delaroche. 
Rare ; sometimes caught by trawlers. 

4. Black Sea Bream. Cantharus lineatus, 

Fleming. 

Hartlepool. Sir Cuthbert Sharpe, 1816. 
Also said by the late Mr. J. F. Spence to be 
landed at North Shields by trawlers occasionally. 
A recent local record is wanting. 

5. Gilthead. Chrysophrys aurata. Linn. 

Whitburn ? ' ; Howse. 

1 68 



6. Norway 

Cuv. 
Rare. 

7. Maigre. Sci<sna aquila, Lacep. 

Rare; 'Jarrow Slake, on the Tyne, 1838, 
Rudd ; Sunderland.' Howse. 

8. Swordfish. Xiphias gladius, Linn. 

'A specimen brought in by a trawler, 
North Shields, W. S. Corder.' Howse. 

9. Red Mullet. Mullus barbatus, Linn. 
Occasionally landed at North Shields from 

off the coast. 

10. Common or Ballan Wrass. Labrus 

maculatus, Bloch. 
Locally, Sea Sow and Old Wife. 
Not uncommon from rocky ground near 
the coast. 

11. Goldsinny Wrass. Ctenolabrus rupestris, 

Linn. 

Specimens have been got at Cullercoats 
(J. Hancock) and at Redcar (Meynell). 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



*I2. Miller's Thumb. Cottus gobio. Linn. 
Locally, Bullhead. 

Common in the Tees and most streams. 
Mentioned by Brewster and by Surtees. 

13. Father-lasher or Bull Head. Cottus scorpius y 

Linn. 

In rock pools and near the rocks ; common. 

14. Grey Gurnard. Trig/a gurnarduSy Linn. 
Very common. 

15. Red Gurnard. Trig/a cucu/us. Linn. 

Occasionally visits the coast. Mentioned 
by Fordyce, 1857. 

1 6. Streaked Gurnard. Trig/a Kneata, Linn. 
' Occasionally taken on our coast.' Howse. 

17. Sapphirine Gurnard or Tub-fish. Trigla 

hirundoy Linn. 

An occasional visitor. 

1 8. Pogge or Armed Bull-head. Agonus cata- 

phractuSy Linn. 

Common. 

19. Lump Sucker or Paddlecock. Cyclopterus 

lumpusy Linn. 

Common. 

20. Sea Snail. Liparlt vulgarity Flem. 
Rare. 

21. Montagu's Sucker. Liparlt montagui, 

Donovan. 

Common. 

22. Spotted Goby. Gobius minutus, Gmel. 

23. Two-Spotted Goby. Gobius ruthensparriy 

Euphras. ; Gobius pusillus, J. Lowe. 

Common in rock-pools. 

24. Blackfish. Centrolophus pompilus. Linn. 

' One specimen from a Cullercoats fisherman, 
and another recorded from Redcar.' Howse. 

25. John Dory. Zeus faber. Linn. 
An occasional visitor. 

26. Scad or Horse mackerel. Caranx tra- 

churuSy Linn. 

' Frequently caught in the herring nets. 
J. F. Spence.' Howse. 

27. Ray's Bream. Brama raii t Bloch. 
Occurs occasionally. 

28. Opah or Kingfish. Lampris /una, Linn. 

Sometimes caught by trawlers and also 
rarely on the coast to the north and south. 



29. Mackerel. Scomber scombrus. Linn. 
Locally, Bret. 

Migrates to the coast, July to September. 
Recorded by Surtees, 1823. 

30. Tunny. Orcynus thynnuSy Linn. 

' Frenchman's Bay in salmon nets Mr. 
Clift, South Shields, August, 1885.' Howse, 
who also records a shoal of small tunnies to 
the coast near Cullercoats in June, 1884. 

31. Bonito. Orcynus pelamys. Linn. 

A straggler caught off Sunderland recorded 
by Professor G. S. Brady, 1870. 

32. Greater Weever. Trachlnut draco. Linn. 

33. Lesser Weever or Stinger. Tracbinus 

vipera, Cuv. and Val. 

More common than preceding. 

34. Fishing Frog or Angler. Lophius pltca- 

toriuSy Linn. 

Sometimes called ' Mermaid.' Common 
and frequently sold like the cat-fish as ' rock- 
turbot.' 

35. Dragonet. Callionymus fyra, Linn. 
Locally, Gowdie. 

Common. 

36. Wolf or Cat-fish. Anarrhlchat lupus, 

Linn. 

Common, sold as ' rock-turbot.' 

37. Gattorugine or Tompot. B/enniui 

gattoruginey Bloch. 

Mentioned in the list of Hartlepool fishes 
by Sir Cuthbert Sharpe. 

38. Shanny. Blennius pholisy Linn. 
Common in the rock-pools. 

39. Yarrell's Blenny. Carelophus ascanii, 

Walb. 

Rare. 

40. Gunnel or Butter-fish. Centronotus gun- 

nelluiy Linn. 

Common between tide marks. 

41. Viviparous Blenny. Zoarces viviparus, 

Linn. 
Common between tide marks. 

42. Sharp-tailed Lumpenus. Lumpenut lampe- 

triformis, Walb. 

An example was got at Cullercoats in Feb- 
ruary, 1 903 ; but it is more than likely gene- 
rally, if rarely, distributed in the district. 



169 



22 



FISHES 



ANACANTHINI 

43. Cod. Gadus morrhua, Linn. 
The young are called codling. 

44. Haddock. Gadus eeglefinus, Linn. 

45. Bib or Pout. Gadus luscus, Linn. 
Locally, Brassie and Scotch Haddock. 

Fairly common. 

46. Poor Cod. Gadus minutus, Linn. 
Not uncommon. 

47. Coal-fish, Saithe, or Black Jack. Gadus 

virens, Linn. 

The successive stages of growth are named 
hallins, poddlers or billet, half-waxers, coal- 
saithe and black jack. 

48. Whiting. Gadus merlangus, Linn. 

49. Pollack or Lythe. Gadus pollachius, Linn. 

50. Hake. Merluccius vulgaris, Cuv. 

*5i. Burbot or Eelpout. Lota vulgaris, Cuv. 

Surtees recorded this species as occurring in 
the Skerne. 

52. Ling. Molva vulgaris, Flem. 

53. Five-bearded Rockling. Motel/a mustela, 

Linn. 

54. Four-bearded Rockling. Motella cimbria, 

Linn. 

Common about 3 to 6 miles or more off 
the coast. 

55. Three-bearded Rockling. Motella tricir- 

rata, Bloch. 

Rare. 

56. Lesser Fork-beard. Raniceps rantnus, 

Linn. 

Rare. 

57. TorskorTusk. Brosmius brosme, Mailer. 
Rare. 

58. Halibut. Hippoglossus vulgaris, Flem. 
Still frequently called ' Turbot.' 

59. Long Rough Dab. Hippoglossus liman- 

doides, Bloch. 

60. Turbot. Rhombus maximus, Linn. 
Locally, Brat. 

61. Brill. Rhombus Itevis, Linn. 
Not common. 



62. Common Topknot. Zeugopterus punctatus, 

Bloch. 

Rare ; usually caught in crab-pots. It is 
more than likely this species some of the 
fishermen call ' hard-ground soles.' 

63. Megrim. Lepidorhombusmegastoma. Donov. 
Rare. 

64. Plaice. Pleuronectes platessa, Linn. 

65. Pole Dab or Witch. Pleuronectes cyno- 

glossus, Linn. 

66. Lemon Dab. Pleuronectes microcephalus, 

Donov. 
Commonly called ' Lemon Sole.' 

67. Dab. Pleuronectes limanda, Linn. 
**68. Flounder. Pleuronectes flesus, Linn. 

69. Sole. Solea vulgaris, Quensel. 
Small examples are called ' slips.' 

PLECTOGNATHI 

70. Short Sun-fish. Orthagoriscus mola, Linn. 
An occasional straggler reaches the coast. 

PERCESOCES 

**7i. Grey Mullet. Mugil capita, Cuv. 
' In the Tyne. J. Hancock.' Howse. 

**72. Lesser Grey Mullet. Mugil chela, Cuv. 
Said to visit the coast in the autumn. 

73. Larger Launce or Sand-Eel. Ammodytes 

lanceolatus, Le Sauv. 

74. Lesser Launce or Sand-Eel. Ammodytes 

tobianus, Linn. 

More common than the preceding. 

75. Garfish. Belone vulgaris. Flem. 

' Taken in the autumn by men and boys 
fishing with rod and line from the rocks in 
Frenchman's Bay, on the Durham coast.' 
Howse. Also caught at the mouth of the 
Tees in the autumn. 

76. Saury Pike or Skipper. Scombresox saurus, 

Walb. 



Rare. 



HEMIBRANCHII 



**77- Three-spined Stickleback. Gastrosteus 
aculeatus, Linn. 

Common at the seaside in some places, in 
brackish water, and in fresh water ponds, 
lakes, streams and ditches. The sea speci- 



170 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



mens are usually ' mailed ' or ' rough-tailed,' 
and the fresh-water examples are ' smooth- 
tailed.' 

"78. Ten-spined Stickleback. Gastrosteus pun- 
gitius, Linn. 

Recorded in Sir Cuthbert Sharpe's History 
of Hartlepool. Occurs in a pond at Picton, 
near Stockton. 

79. Fifteen - spined Stickleback. Gastrosteus 

spinachia, Linn. 

LOPHOBRANCHII 

80. Greater Pipe-fish. Syngnathus acus, Linn. 

8 1. Snake Pipe-fish. Nerophis tequoreus. Linn. 
Not so common as the preceding. 

HAPLOMI 
82. Pike. Esox lucius, Linn. 

Wynyard Park, and other ponds, Tyne, 
Tecs, Billingham Beck, Skerne. Small ex- 
amples are called ' Jack.' 

OSTARIOPHYSI 
*8j. Carp. Cyprinus carpia, Linn. 

Introduced into Wynyard Park and other 
ponds. ' In becks near Stockton, escaped 
from Wynyard ponds. J. Hogg.' Howse. 

84. Gudgeon. Gotta fluviati/is, Flem. 

Common in the Tees and its tributaries, the 
Derwent, and other streams. Mentioned by 
Surtees. 

85. Rudd. Leuciscus erythrophthalmus. Linn. 
'Introduced into ponds . . . formerly in 
ponds near Marsden.' Howse. 

*86. Roach. Leuciscus ruti/us, Linn. 

In the Tync and the Tees. Recorded by 
Surtees. 

87. Chub or Skelly. Leuciscus cephalus, Linn. 

In the Tyne and the Tees. Recorded by 
Surtees. 

*88. Dace. Leuciscus dobula. Linn. (L. vu/garis, 
Yarrell, Day, &c.). 

Common in rivers. ' Recorded by Wallis, 
Surtees, and J. Hogg.' Howse. 

"89. Minnow. Leuciscus phoxinus t Linn. 
Common in rivers and streams. 

"90. Tench. Tinea vu/garis, Cuv. 

Introduced into Wynyard Park and Raby 
Park ponds. 



*9i. Bleak. Alburnw lucidus, Heck. & Kner. 

Recorded by Clarke and Roebuck as com- 
mon in the lower waters of the Tees. 

*92. Loach. Nemachilus kariatu/us, Linn. 
Common in small streams. 

MALACOPTERYGII 

93. Argentine. Maurolicus borealis, Nilsson. 

'In former years (1859-60) I frequently 
found this little fish washed up on the shore 
at high-tide mark on South Shields sands and 
in Marsden Bay during winter.' Howse. 

**94- Salmon. Salmo sa/ar, Linn. 

In the Tyne, the Tees, and more rarely in 
the Wear. Caught also near the coast with 
drift-nets. 

**95. Trout. Sa/mo trutta, Linn. 

The Brown Trout is common in rivers and 
streams. The Sea Trout and the Bull Trout 
ascend the Tyne, the Wear, and the Tees, and 
are caught also in drift-nets near the coast. 
The Bull Trout and the Sea Trout are more 
common in the Wear than in the Tyne or 
the Tees. Loch Leven Trout were introduced 
into the Tees ten years ago and are still caught. 

96. American Brook Trout. Salmo fontinalh. 
Mitchill. 

Introduced into the Tees. 

*97- Grayling. TbymallusvtxilKftr t Linn. 

Rare. In the Tyne and the Tees. Intro- 
duced into the Tees in 1839 by J. C. 
Chaytor. ' Introduced into the Derwent 
about six years ago. Rev. W. Feathcrston- 
haugh, May, 1890.' Howse. 

98. Smelt or Sparling. Osmerut eper/anus, 
Linn. 

In the Tyne and the Tees. Recorded by 
Wallis and by Surtees. 

99. Herring. Clupea barengui, Linn. 

100. Pilchard or Sardine. Clupea pi/char dus t 

Linn. 

An occasional visitor. Mentioned by For- 
dyce. 

101. Sprat. Clupea sprattus, Linn. 

Occurs with young herrings in the summer, 
and in 1902 both were present in extraordi- 
nary abundance all along the coast. 



171 



FISHES 



**I02. Shad. 
Rare. 



Clupea alosa, Linn. 



APODES 
**I03. Eel. Anguilla vulgaris, Turt. 

Common on the coast and in rivers and 



streams and ponds. The elvers ascend the 
rivers in vast numbers in early summer. 

104. Conger Eel. Conger vulgaris, Cuv. 

Common. The larva, Leptocephalus morrisii, 
was obtained at Whitburn by W. Hutchinson, 
and recorded by R. Howse. 



GANOIDS 

""105. Sturgeon. Adpenter sturio, Linn. 141 lb. was caught at Scotswood on the 

Landed by trawlers occasionally. Sometimes Tyne in 1894. Howse.' Mentioned by 
caught in the Tees. 'A specimen weighing Surtees and by recent writers. 



CHONDROPTERYGIANS 



106. Rough Hound or Small-spotted Dogfish. 

Scyllium canicula, Linn. 

Sometimes caught by trawlers off the 
coast. 

107. Porbeagle. Lamna cornubica, Gmel. 
Frequently recorded. 

108. Thrasher. Alopias vulpes, Gmel. 
An occasional visitor. 

109. Smooth Hound. Mustelus leevis, Flem. ; 

(M. vulgaris, Day.) 

It has not been recorded for the Durham 
coast, but it occurs to the north and the 
south, and has therefore likely been over- 
looked. 

no. Tope. Galeus vulgaris, Flem. 

'Whitburn.' R. Howse. Occasionally 
landed at North Shields by trawlers and liners 
from the nearer fishing grounds. 



in. Picked Dogfish. 
Risso. 

Common. 



Acanthias vulgaris, 



112. Greenland Shark. Lxmargus microce- 
phalus, Bl. Schn. 

' OffSunderlandand the Tyne.' R. Howse. 
Occasionally caught by trawlers. 



113. Spinous Shark. 
Blainville. 



Ecbinorhinus spinosus, 



Taken off the mouth of the Tyne in 1869 
and in 1876. J. Wright. 

114. Monk-fish or Angel-fish. Rhina squa- 
tina, Linn. 

' Occasionally brought in by the trawlers 



and fishermen sometimes three feet in length.' 
R. Howse. This is still the case. 

115. Torpedo or Electric Ray. Torpedo 

nobiliana, Bonop. 

A large example caught in a trawl net off 
Sunderland, June 18, 1896, and preserved in 
the Hancock Museum. 

1 1 6. True Skate. Raia baits, Linn. 
Common. 

117. Sharp-nosed Skate or White Skate. Raia 

alba, Lac6p. 

Common. 

1 1 8. Long-nosed Skate. Raia oxyrhynchus, 

Linn ; R. fullonica, Yarrell. 

Fairly common. 

119. Homelyn or Spotted Ray. Raia macu- 

lata, Montagu. 

Not common. 

1 2O. Cuckoo Ray. Raia circular is, Couch. 
Not common. 

121. Thornback. Raia clavata, Linn. 
Common. 

122. Starry Ray. Raia radiata, Donov. 
Locally, Jenny Hanover. 

Very common. 

123. Sting Ray. Trygon pastinaca, Linn. 
A rare straggler. 

124. Eagle Ray. Myliobatis aquila, Linn. 

' A small specimen was taken at Culler- 
coats, 1875.' R. Howse. 



172 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 
CYCLOSTOMES 

**I25. Sea Lamprey. Petromyzon marinut, *12J. Mud Lamprey or Pride. Pttromyzon 
Linn. branctlalii, Linn. 

Not common. , In strcams - Recorded by Surtees for the 

Skerne. 

126. River Lamprey. Pttromyzon fluviatiKs, I2 8. Hag. Myxine glutinoia, Linn. 

Locally, Sucker. 
In the rivers and streams. Abundant. 






173 



REPTILES 
AND BATRACHIANS 

Little more than a list can be given of the reptiles and the 
batrachians of the county of Durham, as attention appears only to have 
been paid to them in a very general way. All the common species are 
known in the county with the exception of the grass snake (Tropidonotus 
natrix) ; but there is no record of the natterjack toad (Bufo ca/amita), 
and the remaining rarer British species are hardly likely to occur. 

REPTILES 

LACERTILIA tne l ate Richard Howse (quoted in Leighton's 

_ T j r ,. T British Serpents}, but Howse did not believe 

1. Common Lizard. Lacerta wiipara. lacq. , . ,< T , 

f ' J ^ the species ever occurred naturally. It has 
Bell Zootoca vivtpara. *, ., , . . ' . , 

been described in certain newspaper articles as 

Often to be seen in dry places and about f req uent, but no confirmation has ever been 

old walls, and probably abundant in most parts forthcoming. If the grass snake is an inhabi- 

of the county. tant o f t h e county at all it is undoubtedly 

2. Slow-worm or Blind-worm. Anguis fra- Vel 7 scarce and by no means generally 

gilis, Linn. distributed. 

Common ; often seen on roads. ^ Common Viper or Adder. Vipera bertu, 

Linn. 
OPHIDIA Bell PeRas berus. 

3. Ringed Snake or Grass Snake. Tropi- Common, especially about dry, scrubby 

donotus natrix, Linn. woods and the borders of moorlands. Full-sized 
Bell Natrix torquata. local examples are in the Newcastle Museum. 
It seems doubtful whether the grass snake Colour variations are met with here as else- 
has a real place in the fauna of the county, where, and Howse states (loc. cit.) that 
It has undoubtedly occurred as an escape ' ; an individuals of the extreme types known as the 
instance of this at Sunderland was recorded by black and the red adder have been taken. 

BATRACHIANS 

The following appear to be as common 2. Common Toad. Bufo vu/garis, Laur. 
here in suitable situations as they are in other 
parts of England. 

CAUDATA 

EC AU DATA 3. Crested Newt. Molge cristata, Laur. 

i . Common Frog. Rana temporaria, Linn. 4. Common Newt. Molge vu/garis, Linn, 

174 



BIRDS 

The county of Durham is not naturally, and still less in its present 
economical conditions, favourably adapted for either abundance or variety 
of bird life, except in certain districts. 

Roughly speaking, the county may be compared to a wedge, an 
isosceles triangle, driven in between Northumberland and Yorkshire, 
having its base at the sea and its apex among the hills of the Pennine 
Chain, the Tyne forming its northern boundary from the coast for over 
twenty miles, and then generally the Derwent ; and the Tees, from its 
source to its mouth, bounding it on the south. The Wear, for its whole 
length, divides it into two unequal parts. These and their tributaries 
are its only rivers. From the Tyne to the watershed of the Tees Valley 
extend the coal-measures, covering two-thirds of the county, the western 
portion of the apex being mountain limestone or millstone grit, while 
the new red sandstone forms a strip along the lower part of the Tees 
Valley. The coast line affords little encouragement, and no protection, 
for sea birds. While Northumberland has its islands, Holy Isle, the 
Fames, and Coquet, some of them with magnificent cliffs, as breeding 
resorts, and Yorkshire its bold headlands from Whitby to Flamborough 
Head, the Durham beach from the Tyne to Hartlepool is slightly 
elevated from 50 to 100 ft., frequently broken by the narrow openings 
of little glens, or ' denes ' as they are locally termed. From Hartlepool 
to Teesmouth there is simply a succession of sand dunes. The Tyne and 
the Wear cannot be said to have any estuaries, and their banks are fringed 
by manufactories and docks down to the sea shore. The Tees has an 
estuary which has provided us with most of our water-fowl, but the river 
itself is now lined with ironworks and docks until it reaches the sea. 

Thus there is no shelter and little inducement for the passing sea- 
fowl to halt on our coasts. The little dells which open to the sea 
between Wearmouth and Hartlepool, some of which (as Castle Eden 
Dene) preserve remains of the primeval forest, afford refuge to many 
smaller birds, and a resting place to some few passing immigrants. 

When we leave the coast, the collieries and coke ovens which stud 
two-thirds of the county, destroying by their fumes trees and hedgerows, 
and bringing a vast population, have in many places driven away all the 
winged inhabitants save the house-sparrow. Happily there are not a few 
parks and sheltered river banks, shielded from the fumes, well stocked 
with the smaller passerines. The steep and often precipitous well-wooded 
banks of the Wear, even in the centre of the colliery districts, the 
sheltered trees escaping the effects of the smoke, are the resort of many 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

of our common species. In spite of relentless persecution the kingfisher 
may still be found, though in diminishing numbers, all along the course 
of the Wear, the Tees, and the Browney ; and I know of one secluded 
spot, close to the river Wear, where the wild duck still breeds. It is 
needless to say that outside the parks and preserved plantations there is 
but little game in the central portion of the county ; while the mistaken 
zeal of the gamekeeper has wellnigh exterminated every raptorial bird, 
even the beautiful and harmless kestrel being but rarely seen. The 
lapwing, in my younger days most abundant, is now very scarce in the 
breeding season in the east of the county. From these remarks the 
lower Tees Valley, still agricultural and free from collieries, must be 
excepted. 

But when we pass from the coal-measures, to the west of Bishop 
Auckland and Barnard Castle, we are in a region which may well rejoice 
the ornithologist's heart. As we get on the mountain limestone the 
features of the country are entirely changed. There is little arable 
culture, meadow land predominates, till we rise to the grand expanse of 
moorland, stretching to the watershed when we touch Cumberland. Here 
and there are scraps of primeval forest. We have evidence that prior to 
the denudation of the forests in the Roman times, for the working of the 
lead mines, the district was well wooded, chiefly with the Scotch fir, of 
which the stumps are found in the peat. Many streamlets run down 
tiny dells fringed with stunted oak, rowan, and other trees. The dipper 
or water-ousel may often be seen dipping and perching on a stone even 
on the smallest brooklet. The ring-ousel remains on the moors from 
early spring to late autumn, and fully appreciates the bird-cherry and 
the rowan berry. A careful observer, as he strolls by the bed of the 
upper Wear, may detect the pied flycatcher and perhaps the haw- 
finch. When he ascends on to the moors he is greeted by the shrill 
cry of the whaup (curlew) overhead, the wheatear jerks its tail as it 
drops among the stones of a crumbling dyke, the ring-ousel skims 
from a whin (furze) bush or perhaps at the foot of a neighbouring cliff; 
and if it be before the dreaded 1 2th of August the grouse springs from 
almost under his feet and startles him with its whirring flight. A few 
years ago the merlin might often be seen skimming over the heather ; 
now, alas, these beautiful little falcons are rarely seen, thanks to the 
ignorant zeal of game preservers and their keepers. The peewit and, on 
Kilhope Fell, the golden plover are plentiful, and occasionally a heron 
from Raby lazily flaps its wings as it soars up from some pool in a 
mountain burn. The true dotterel is said to have bred on the heights, 
but I can find no proof of this, and the nearest breeding locality I know 
of is Crossfell in Cumberland, where fifty years ago I took a nest of three 
eggs. In one part of the upper Wear valley there has been extensive 
planting of conifers within the last forty years, and in these woods the 
crossbill has bred, and I believe does so still. One valuable game bird, 
the blackcock, has very much diminished of late years, owing probably 
to the reckless shooting of the hen birds by yearly game tenants, whose 

176 



BIRDS 

only idea is to swell their bags, and who are perhaps not aware that the 
blackcock is polygamous. The drainage of the marshy bottoms, with 
their clumps of marsh myrtle in which these birds delight, has also 
contributed to their threatened extinction. 

Excluding these few species, the avifauna of West Durham is not 
far different from what it was in past centuries except but it is a very 
great exception the raptorial birds. Of these the peregrine falcon, the 
kite, the buzzard, the marsh and hen harriers have vanished within living 
memory. Of the golden eagle as a resident we find no trace, though the 
name of EaglesclifFe, a village on the rocky bank of the Tees, may attest 
its former existence. It very rarely passes over the county. On one 
occasion, some thirty years ago, in the month of November, I was crossing 
on foot from Teesdale to Nenthead above the source of the Wear. In 
passing over Kilhope Fell a dense fog came on. The course, for there 
is scarcely a road, is marked by tall posts at intervals for the benefit of 
travellers during the winter snows. At the foot of one of them I sat 
down till the mist should lift, for I could not see a yard in front of me. 
Suddenly it lifted, I looked up, and to my amazement a golden eagle in 
young plumage with its white tail was perching on the top of the pole. 
I know not which of us was most astonished at the mutual recognition 
it was off in a moment. A day or two after I read in a local paper that 
a golden eagle had been seen near Redcar, and soon afterwards, alas, that 
one had been shot in the East Riding. 

The exhaustion of the lead mines, for centuries the chief industry of 
West Durham, and the consequent diminution of the population, seem 
likely to promote the increase of all the feathered tribe, except the birds 
of prey, in our moorlands. 

What the ornithological fauna of the coast once was may be gathered 
from the following extract from the Cott. MS. (Grove's Hist, of Cleve- 
land, p. 399) about the date 1670. 

' Neere unto Dobham the Porte of the mouth of the Teese,' (now 
known as Cargo Fleet, and covered with iron and cement works) ' the 
shore lyes flatt, where a shelf of sand, raised above the highe water 
marke, entertaines an infynite number of sea-fowle, which lay theyr 
Egges heere and there, scatteringlie in such sorte, that in Tyme of 
Breedinge, one can hardly sett his foote so warylye, that he spoyle not 
many of theyr nests.' 

The number of species which may be enumerated as of the county 
of Durham, in accordance with the custom which includes every bird 
which has ever occurred in a state of nature within its limits, is 249. 
Of these the number of species permanently resident or breeding is 105. 
Regular winter visitors, 33. Irregular but frequent visitors, 39. Merely 
accidental visitors, 72. The following are extinct as breeding species 
within our limits, though some of them still occur occasionally : Nut- 
hatch, raven, marsh-harrier, hen-harrier, Montagu's harrier, kite, buzzard, 
peregrine falcon, bittern, sheldrake, pintail duck, pochard, dotterel, ruff, 
black-headed gull, lesser black-backed gull. 

i 177 23 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



SYSTEMATIC LIST OF SPECIES 



1. White's Thrush. Turdus varius, Pallas. 
A specimen, the eighth recorded in Britain, 

was taken 31 January, 1872, in Castle Eden 
Dene, having been shot and wounded a fort- 
night before, by Mr. Rowland Burdon. It 
lived three weeks after its capture. Mr. Bur- 
don gave it to me. On examination the 
furculum was found to have been long since 
fractured, but to have coalesced, though very 
clumsily. 

2. Missel-Thrush. Turdus viscivorus, Linn. 
Resident, but not numerous, in suitable 

localities. Had largely increased within the 
last sixty years, but has latterly diminished, 
probably from the increase of human popu- 
lation. 

3. Song-Thrush. Turdus musicus, Linn. 
Abundant except in winter, when most 

migrate. A few remain, even in the severest 
seasons, but they will not venture to come to 
the window sills for food until several days 
after the blackbirds have set them the example. 
I have observed that in a hard frost while 
numbers of redwings perish, the song-thrush 
survives. 

4. Redwing. Turdus Uiacus, Linn. 

A regular winter visitor. In mild seasons 
it generally disappears till the beginning of 
spring, while in severe winters many remain 
only to succumb to a long frost. 

5. Fieldfare. Turdus pi/aris, Linn. 

A winter migrant, arriving generally in large 
flocks about the end of October. If there be 
a continuance of severe frost they disappear 
as soon as they have stripped the rowan and 
holly berries, halting again for a few days on 
their return north in spring. 

6. Blackbird. Turdus meru/a, Linn. 

Very abundant. Remains through the 
severest weather. 

7. Ring-Ousel. Turdus tort/uatus, Linn. 

A regular summer resident, arriving in April 
and remaining till October in the moorlands 
of the west of the county. It is by no means 
gregarious during its stay. 

8. Wheatear. Saxicola aenanthe (Linn.). 
Abundant in the 'wild west' of the county; 

a few in other parts arrive at the beginning of 
April. It affects the dry stone dykes of Wear- 
dale and Teesdale, where it nests. 

9. Whinchat. Pratincola rubetra (Linn.). 

Locally, Haychat. 
A summer resident, not uncommon even 



in populous districts. Arrives towards the end 
of April and leaves in October. 

10. Stonechat. Pratincola rubicola (Linn.). 
A resident in small numbers and generally 

distributed, especially about fox coverts. It 
builds almost always in whin (furze) bushes, 
and should really be called whinchat, rather 
than its congener. 

1 1 . Redstart. Ruticilla phtenlcurw (Linn.). 
A regular spring and summer resident, 

arriving about the middle of April, but by no 
means numerous. A few years ago, a pair 
bred in an ivy-clad tree close to a public walk 
in the 'Banks ' in the city of Durham. 

12. Black Redstart. Ruticilla titys (Scopoli). 

A rare occasional visitor. But while in the 
south of England it is looked upon rather as 
a winter visitor, here it has only been noticed 
from spring to autumn. In the year 1845 a 
pair built their nest on a cherry tree trained 
on a wall in the garden of the Rev. Dr. Raine, 
at Crook Hall, in the suburbs of Durham city. 
I regret to say the birds were shot. The 
male is in Durham Museum ; the nest and an 
egg were given to the late John Hancock. 

13. Red-spotted Bluethroat. Cyanecula suecica 

(Linn.). 

One obtained by H. G. Stobart, Esq., at 
Wolsingham, 26 September, 1893. Another 
at Chester-le-Street about the same date, and 
another two or three years ago. 

14. Redbreast, or Robin. Erithacus rubecula 

(Linn.). 
Universal. 

15. Whitethroat. Sylvia cinerea. (Bechstein). 
An abundant summer visitor everywhere. 

1 6. Lesser Whitethroat. Sylvia curruca (Linn.). 

A summer visitor, breeding in several parts 
of the county, but extremely scarce and local. 
Mr. Hancock mentions a nest taken close to 
Newcastle but in the county of Durham. 

17. Blackcap. Sylvia atricapilla (Linn.). 
Very common from early spring to late 

autumn. Occasionally met with as late as 
December. 

1 8. Garden-Warbler. Sylvia hortensis (Bech- 

stein). 
Not so common as the last, arriving later. 

19. Goldcrest. Regulus cristatus, K. L. Koch. 
A resident, and abundant in all our fir 

plantations. Its numbers are largely rein- 
forced towards the end of autumn. 



178 



BIRDS 



20. Firecrest. Regulus ignicapillus (Brehm). 

A rare and accidental visitor. I possess a 
specimen shot at Brancepeth by Mr. Dale, 
keeper to Lord Boyne, in April, 1852. 

21. Chiffchaff. Phylloscof>us rujus (Bechstein). 

Our first spring arrival, and abundant 
wherever there are old trees, and in pleasure 
grounds. 

22. Willow- Warbler, or Willow -Wren. 

Phylloscopus trochilus (Linn.). 

The most abundant of all our summer 
visitors, arriving early in April. 

23. Wood-Warbler, or Wood-Wren. Phyllo- 

scopus sibilatrix (Bechstein). 

Arrives about the beginning of May. Is 
plentiful in wooded districts only. 

24. Reed-Warbler. Acrocephalut streperui 

(Vieillot). 

The only known instance of its occurrence 
is a nest of four eggs taken by Mr. T. Thomp- 
son, of Winlaton, nearly forty years ago, between 
Blaydon and Derwenthough. The nest has 
been carefully preserved, and is unmistakable. 
(N. H. Trans. Northumh. and Dur. xiv. 1 1 9.) 

25. Great Reed-Warbler. Acrocephaltu tur- 

doides (Meyer). 

The first specimen of this species known 
to have been taken in Britain was shot at 
Swalwell on the Tyne on 28 May, 1847 
(Ann. and Mag. xx. p. 135). It has not since 
occurred in the district. 

26. Sedge-Warbler. Acrocephalus phragmitis 

(Bechstein). 

An abundant summer visitor. A few years 
ago a pair bred in the dwarf willows on the 
banks of the Wear in the city of Durham, 
close to the public walk. 

27. Grasshopper-Warbler. Locustella ntrvia 

(Boddaert). 

A regular summer visitor to certain loca- 
lities, especially the banks of the Tyne and 
the Derwent. I once had three nests with 
their unmistakable eggs brought to me from 
near Gateshead. 

28. Hedge-Sparrow. Accentor modularis, Linn. 
Common except on the moors. 

29. Dipper or Water Ousel. Cinclus aquaticus 

(Bechstein). 

Resident on all the burns and rocky streams 
in the west and occasionally by the streams 
near the coast. Much persecuted through the 
ignorance of anglers. 



30. British Long-tailed Tit. Atredula rosea 

(Blyth). 

Generally distributed throughout the county, 
but not very numerous. The whiteheaded 
continental form A. caudata (Linn.), though 
more than once taken on the north bank of 
the Tyne, has not yet been recorded within 
our limits. 

31. Great Tit. Parus major , Linn. 

Abundant everywhere. Resident through- 
out the year. 

32. Coal-Tit. Parus ater t Linn. 

Common, but by no means as numerous as 
the preceding species. 

33. Marsh-Tit. Parus palustris. Linn. 

Plentiful, and I think more numerous in 
this county than the coal-tit, but more shy, 
resorting generally to ' woods and scrub.' 
While the three other species come regularly 
to a window sill to be fed, it is only after a 
long continued frost that the marsh-tit ven- 
tures to approach. 

34. Blue Tit. Parus carru/eus, Linn. 
Quite as numerous as the great tit. Resident. 

35. Nuthatch. Sitta aesia, Wolf. 

Now only an accidental straggler. A cen- 
tury ago it appears to have been well known 
in suitable localities in the county. Sixty 
years ago it used to breed in Auckland Castle 
Park, but for the last fifty years the only record 
I can find of its occurrence is one shot at 
Wolsingham in 1873, and another at Elton 
about ten years ago. 

36. Wren. Troglodytes parvu/us, Koch. 
Resident. Common everywhere. 

37. Tree-Creeper. Certhia familiaris, Linn. 

A permanent resident wherever there are 
woods, and especially old trees. 

38. Pied Wagtail. Motacilla lugubrii, Tem- 

minck. 

Common. A few remain through the 
winter, but the majority go south. 

39. White Wagtail. Motacilla atta, Linn. 

This, the continental form of the preceding, 
is an accidental visitor. One was brought to 
me in the spring of 1904. Noticed in the 
4 Banks ' at Durham by Mr. Cullingford the 
same year. 

40. Grey Wagtail. Motacilla melanope y Pallas. 

Generally distributed in summer. A few 
remain through the winter. 



179 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



41. Blue-headed Wagtail. Motacilla flava, 

Linn. 

An irregular spring and summer visitor. 
Has bred several times between the Tyne and 
the Derwent. 

42. Yellow Wagtail. Motacilla rait (Bona- 

parte). 

A regular summer visitor arriving early in 
April, and leaving in September. 

43. Tree-Pipit. Anthus trivialis (Linn.). 

A summer visitor. Abundant. Arrives in 
the middle of April. 

44. Meadow-Pipit. Jlnthus pratensis (Linn.). 

A resident species, abundant in the west, 
but found wherever there is open ground. 

45. Rock-Pipit. Anthus obscurus (Latham). 

Frequently obtained on our coast. I am 
not aware of its breeding here, though it 
does on the coasts of Northumberland and 
Yorkshire. 

46. Golden Oriole. Oriolus galbula, Linn. 

A female was taken at Hebburn in 1831, 
now in Newcastle Museum. 

47. Great Grey Shrike. Lanius excubitor, 

Linn. 

A winter seldom passes without one or 
more captures being reported. A few years 
ago one remained for several days about the 
shrubberies and gardens near Durham city. 
The bird with only one bar on the wing, 
known as Lanius major (Pallas) has frequently 
occurred. 

48. Red-backed Shrike. Laneus collurio, Linn. 
A rare accidental visitor. 

49. Waxwing. Ampelis garru/us, Linn. 

An irregular winter visitor. When it does 
arrive, it is generally in considerable numbers. 
In 1849 and 1866 it was very numerous in 
South Durham. Though not in flocks, I 
noticed daily, walking in different directions, 
three or four perched on trees by the highway. 
Another flight was in 1876, and a few in 1871. 

50. Pied Flycatcher. Muscicapa atricapilla, 

Linn. 

A summer visitor, not so rare as is generally 
supposed. It breeds regularly in several parts 
of the county. One year a pair inhabited the 
' Banks,' a public wooded walk by the river 
side, in the city of Durham, for nearly a 
month. They were undoubtedly breeding 
when they were shot by a miscreant. In 



1866 several pairs bred near Barnard Castle, 
and in 1901, many pairs about Wolsingham 
and Stanhope. 

51. Spotted Flycatcher. Muscicapa griso/a, 

Linn. 

A most abundant summer visitor. Found 
anywhere from the end of April. 

52. Swallow. Hirundo rustica, Linn. 

Nothing can be more distressing to the 
lover of nature, than the rapid diminution of 
the swallow tribe within the last ten years. 
Where there used to be fifty skimming about, 
there are now but two or three. This year 
there is scarcely a swallow to be seen in the 
neighbourhood of the city of Durham. I am 
at a loss to account for the disappearance, for 
it is not from persecution on the spot, and the 
reduction has been gradual. Perhaps it is 
due to the awful slaughter of the returning 
migrants on the south coast of France. 

53. House-Martin. Chelidon urbica (Linn.). 

Arrives generally a day or two later than 
the swallow. Formerly most abundant, but 
of late years becoming fewer and fewer, till 
now in the eastern and central parts of the 
county it is almost extinct. Ten years ago 
it nested in numbers about the Cathedral 
windows, and on many houses in and about 
the city of Durham. This year there is not 
one. The destructive instincts of urban 
housemaids, but chiefly the seizure of its nests 
by that avian rat, the house-sparrow, may 
partly, but only partly, account for the 
change. 

54. Sand-Martin. Cattle riparia (Linn.). 

Generally arrives a few days before its con- 
geners. It seems to have maintained its num- 
bers fairly, wherever there are suitable banks 
for nesting. 

55. Greenfinch. Ligurinus chloris (Linn.). 

A common resident. Often seen in flocks 
during the winter. 

56. Hawfinch. C/3ccothraustesvulgaris,Pa\lzs. 

Formerly a rare casual visitor, but of late 
years steadily increasing, and that in all parts 
of the county. In 1902 I knew of nests in 
a garden near Durham, also in the most 
secluded part of Upper Weardale, and in other 
places too numerous to mention. 

57. Goldfinch. Carduelis elegans, Stephens. 

An occasional visitor, generally in autumn. 
I have been unable to find any proof of its 
having bred in the county, though it is said to 
have done so near the Tees. 



180 



BIRDS 



58. Siskin. Carduelis spinus (Linn.). 

A regular winter visitor ; sometimes, but 
rarely, remaining to breed. The nest and 
eggs have been taken several times ; the first 
recorded was at Brancepeth, 5 May, 1848. 
I had a nest and four eggs from Weardale in 
1874. 

59. House-Sparrow. Passer domesticus (Linn.) 

Everywhere, except on the moors, an in- 
creasing nuisance. 

60. Tree-Sparrow. Passer montanus (Linn.). 

A constant resident in a few localities, 
where it especially affects old trees. Always 
to be found among the trees on the ' Banks ' 
of Durham city. 

61. Chaffinch. Fringilla caflebs, Linn. 

Common and universal. The females, and 
apparently some of the males, leave us in 
winter. 

62. Brambling. Fringilla montifringilla, Linn. 

A regular winter visitor, but in very varying 
numbers ; in some seasons large flocks are 
met with. 

63. Linnet. L'nota cannabina (Linn.). 
A common resident. 

64. Meally Redpoll. Linata linaria (Linn.). 
A frequent winter visitor. 

65. Greenland Redpoll. Linota hornemanni. 

Holboell. 

The only recorded example from the 
British Isles was taken on Whitburn 
sea banks on 24 April, 1855. It had been 
noticed flying about there for some days. It is 
now in the Hancock Museum, Ncwcastle-on- 
Tyne. 

66. Lesser Redpoll. Linota rufescens (Vieillot). 

Not very plentiful except at the seasons of 
migration, but many are resident, and breed 
in young plantations and thickets. 

67. Twite. Linota flaviros tris (Linn.). 

A resident on all our moors, where it breeds. 

68. Bullfinch. Pyrrhula europtra, Vieillot. 
A constant resident, but not very abundant. 

69. Crossbill. Loxia curvirostra t Linn. 

A constant resident in woods and fir planta- 
tions in Weardale. It breeds as early as Feb- 
ruary. It was first noticed as a nesting bird 
in the county in 1838, but since then has 
certainly increased. 



70. Corn-Bunting. Emberiza mi/iaria, Linn. 
Common and resident. 

71. Yellow Hammer. Emberiza citrinella y 

Linn. 

Common and resident. Decreased much 
in numbers of late years. 

72. Little Bunting. Emberiza pusilla, Pallas. 

The second recorded occurrence of this 
Siberian wanderer in Britain was a male bird 
taken at Bishop Auckland, II October, 1902 
(Zoologist, 1902, p. 466). 

73. Reed - Bunting. Emberiza schatniclus, 

Linn. 

Resident. Not uncommon by streams and 
in marshes. 

74. Snow - Bunting. Plectrophanes nivalis 

(Linn.). 

A regular winter visitor, often in large 
flocks. 

75. Lapland Bunting. Plectrophanes lapponicus 

(Linn.). 

An accidental winter visitor. One was 
shot in January 1860, out of a flock of 
snow-buntings close to Durham, and is now 
in our Museum. 

76. Starling. Sturnus vu/garis, Linn. 

Most abundant. Has enormously increased 
of late years. Its numbers diminish in 
winter. 

77. Rose-coloured Starling. Pastor roseus 

(Linn.). 

An accidental wanderer. More than a 
dozen instances of its capture in the county 
have been reported in the last few years. 

78. Jay. Garrulus glandarius (Linn.). 

The misdirected energies of the game- 
keeper have all but exterminated the jay in 
the eastern and central parts of the county, 
where in the memory of man it was not 
uncommon. A few may be seen in Wear- 
dale and in Raby Park. 

79. Magpie. Pica rustica (Scopoli). 

The magpie, like the jay, has almost dis- 
appeared, and from the same cause. Very 
occasionally a brood may be raised in some 
sequestered wood. 

80. Jackdaw. Corvus montdula, Linn. 

Abundant, though not so numerous as ten 
years ago. 



181 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



81. Raven. Corvus corax, Linn. 

Never now seen, save as a chance wan- 
derer. Within my memory bred in several 
places, but the native race has been utterly 
exterminated. 

82. Carrion-Crow. Corvus carone, Linn. 

Very rare except on the moors, where it 
may occasionally be seen. 

83. Hooded Crow. Corvus cornlx, Linn. 

Very common in winter, especially on the 
sea coast. 

84. Rook. Corvus frugilegus. Linn. 
Abundant in every wooded domain. 

85. Sky-Lark. Alauda arvensis. Linn. 

Common in spring, but in rapidly diminish- 
ing numbers. Many migrants from the 
north visit in late autumn. 

86. Wood-Lark. Alauda arbor ea, Linn. 

I know only of one instance of its capture 
in the county. A pair were shot at Swal- 
well in March 1844, and are now in the 
Hancock Museum, Newcastle. 

87. Shore-Lark. Otocorys alpestris (Linn.). 
An irregular winter visitant. Several 

were captured in 1855, 1857, ant ^ 1867. 
In the winter of 187071, four specimens 
were taken on Seaton Snook, and several 
others seen. 

88. Swift. Cypselus afus (Linn.). 

This charming bird was very common 
twenty years ago, but alas, is now really 
rare. Formerly at least twenty pair nested 
in the western towers of Durham Cathedral ; 
but during a so-called restoration every resort 
of the swift, as of the barn-owl, was carefully 
plastered up, and not a bird remains. One 
solitary pair were the only ones left in the 
city or vicinity in 1903. 

89. Nightjar. Caprimulgus europ&us, Linn. 

Not a very uncommon summer visitor, 
especially on our western moorlands. In the 
summer of 1862 a pair nested in a corner of 
Greatham churchyard, not far from the 
coast. 

90. Wryneck. Jynx torquilla. Linn. 

Only an occasional visitor, though it has 
been known to breed several times in the 
county. 

91. Green Woodpecker. Gecinus viridis 

(Linn.). 

Formerly common, now rare. It still 
breeds in a few woods and parks, as at Raby. 



92. Great Spotted Woodpecker. Dendro- 

copus major (Linn.). 

Occasionally met with at all times of the 
year in the wooded parts of the county, and 
breeds regularly in some few localities. 

93. Kingfisher. Alcedo ispida, Linn. 

In spite of relentless persecution the king- 
fisher maintains its existence, though in 
diminishing numbers, on all our rivers and 
streams. 

94. Roller. Coradas garru/us, Linn. 

A rare accidental visitor. One was taken 
in 1847 on the Tees, and another by Mr. 
Gornall at Bishop Auckland, 25 May, 1872. 

95. Hoopoe. Upupa epops, Linn. 

A rare accidental visitor. Mr. T. H. Nel- 
son has one obtained by the late Mr. Gornall 
of Bishop Auckland, and Mr. Cullingford had 
one which was killed near Durham twenty 
years ago. 

96. Cuckoo. Cuculus canorus, Linn. 

A common spring visitor, universally dis- 
tributed. Arrives about the middle of April. 

97. White or Barn-Owl. Strix flammea, 

Linn. 

A resident species, formerly common, now 
becoming rare. 

98. Long-eared Owl. Asia otus (Linn.). 

A resident in wooded districts, but threat- 
ened with extermination by gamekeepers. 

99. Short -eared Owl. Ao accipitrinus 

(Pallas). 

Generally an autumnal visitor, but some 
remain on the moors throughout the year. 
It has been known occasionally to breed. I 
once took a nestling which I kept alive for 
two years. In the year of the visitation of 
field voles this owl was very common. 
Their numbers vary greatly in different 
years. 

100. Tawny Owl. Syrnium aluco (Linn.). 

The least rare of all the owls. A perma- 
nent resident. Two or three pairs frequent 
the ' Banks ' in the city of Durham, nesting 
in ivy-clad trees in the gardens close to the 
houses. Two years ago a pair bred in the 
garden of the Rev. Dr. Greenwell. He was 
in the habit of feeding them daily, and on 
leaving home charged his servant to feed them 
every evening. On his return after some 
weeks, the servant told him she had set por- 
ridge regularly for the owls, and that they 
had always eaten it. On his exclaiming 



182 



BIRDS 



' Nonsense ! ' and going to the tree, he found 
abundance of pellets, showing that the por- 
ridge had been a successful bait for the rats 
and mice and saved the owls the trouble of 
going far afield. 

101. Tengmalm's Owl. Nycta/a tengmalmi 

(J. F. Gmelin). 

An accidental visitor. One was taken at 
Whitburn, n October, 1848, now in the 
Hancock Museum. Several others have been 
reported since that date. 

The Scops Owl, Seeps giu (Scopoli), has been 
set down as occurring in Durham but with- 
out sufficient evidence. 

102. Snowy Owl. Nyctea xandiaca (Linn.). 

One was shot near Bishop Auckland on 
7 November, 1858. 

103. Marsh-Harrier. Circus * ruginesus(L,\nn.). 
Formerly resident, and nesting. Now ex- 
terminated. The last bird of which I have 
heard was in 1840. In my youth I have 
several times taken the nest. 



104. Hen-Harrier. Circus cyaneus (Linn.). 

Common and bred regularly in certain 
localities till about the year 1876. Now 
only an accidental visitor. 



Circus 



cmeracem 



105. Montagu's Harrier. 

(Montagu). 
Formerly a resident breeding, but now 
extinct. The last known nest was in 1835. 
Three or four specimens have been taken in 
the last fifty years. 

106. Common Buzzard. Buteevu/garis,L,each. 

Locally Glede. 

Now a rare occasional straggler. Within 
living memory it regularly bred in many 
parts of the county, but has been exterminated 
by game preservers aided by egg collectors. 
I remember, when a boy, having taken three 
nests of four eggs each, in one season, I think 
in 1 834, none of the nests being a mile apart. 

107. Rough-legged Buzzard. But to lagopus 

(J. F. Gmelin). 

A rare winter visitor. One in Newcastle 
Museum was taken by the late G. T. Fox at 
Marsden. Several were shot on the Tees, 
and one at Bishop Auckland in 1840. I 
only know of one other instance since that 
date. The late Raph Carr Ellison of Hedge- 
ley informed me that in the seventies a solitary 
rough-legged buzzard took up its quarters for 
three winters running, in the woods close to 
his house. Being a keen naturalist, the bird 



was strictly preserved by him, and never left 
the place, which swarmed with rabbits. I 
saw the bird myself on one occasion. 

1 08. Golden Eagle. Aquila chrysaftus (Linn.). 

We have no record of the golden eagle 
nesting in this county, though it bred in North- 
umberland on Cheviot as late as about 1760. 
It is now the rarest of casual visitors. One 
in first year's plumage was seen by me, as 
mentioned in the introduction, on Kilhope 
Fell. Seldom a year passes but there is a 
statement in the newspapers of an eagle being 
seen, generally near the coast, but of which 
species cannot be ascertained. 

109. White-tailed or Sea Eagle. Haliaftus 

albicilla (Linn.). 

A very rare visitor. A specimen was shot 
on the Tees on 5 November, 1823. Mr. 
Hancock observed closely a bird of this species 
in Lambton Park for several days. It went 
thence on to Ravensworth, where it remained 
for some time, and finally departed unharmed. 

no. Goshawk. Astur palumbarius (Linn.). 

Does not seem ever in historic times to 
have been a resident. It is now the rarest of 
occasional visitors to the county. One, a female, 
shot in Castle Eden Dene in 1872, and which 
I saw in the flesh, now in the possession of 
Col. Rowland Burdon, is the only unquestioned 
instance I can find. 

111. Sparrow-Hawk. Accipittr nisus (Linn.). 

Very rarely to be seen. In Upper Wear- 
dale, and in woods near the Tees, a few pairs 
have hitherto escaped destruction. 

112. Kite. Milvus ictinus, Savigny. 

LocafyRcd Glebe. 

Formerly bred in our woods. Now extinct. 
Three were shot at Bishop Auckland in 1834, 
one of which is in Newcastle Museum. I 
have heard of one or two instances in later 
years of its occurrence near Stockton. 

113. Honey-Buzzard. Pernis apivorus (Linn.). 

Occurs not infrequently on spring and 
autumn migration. Though it is known to 
have bred in Northumberland, I cannot ascer- 
tain that the nest has ever been taken in 
Durham. 



Falco pertgrinus. 



114. Peregrine Falcon. 
Tunstall. 

Stated by Selby eighty years ago to be 'not 
uncommon.' Up to 1860 it bred near 
Weardale Head. The late Mr. Rowland 
Burdon, of Castle Eden, has often pointed out 



183 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



to me the niche in the cliff above Gunner's 
Pool in Castle Eden Dene, where the pere- 
grine annually bred in his boyhood (circ. 
1810), strictly preserved by his father. When 
the falcons disappeared the little platform was 
taken possession of by a pair of kestrels, and 
for many years the kestrels reared their young 
there. Now the peregrine is seen occasionally 
on the coast and rarely on the moors, in any 
case only a passing stranger. 

115. Hobby. Falco subbuteo. Linn. 

A casual visitor, but has frequently occurred. 
Mr. Hogg mentions one shot at Norton ; 
Mr. Hancock had one taken in Streatlam 
Park ; a specimen in Durham Museum was 
shot at Thornley, in November 1822, and I 
obtained one at Greatham in 1868. It has 
been stated, though without sufficient proof, 
to have nested in Streatlam Park. 

1 1 6. Merlin. Falco aesalon, Tunstall. 
This beautiful little falcon was formerly 

one of the most interesting objects on all our 
moors, where it bred regularly among the 
heather or the rocks. It is now but rarely 
seen, owing to the exterminator, the game- 
keeper. There may be a few pairs on the 
Weardale moors, but I have not seen any of 
late years. 

117. Red-footed Falcon. Falco vespertinus, 

Linn. 

Once recorded from the county; a specimen, 
now in Newcastle Museum, in full male 
plumage, having been shot near South Shields 
in October 1836. 

1 1 8. Kestrel. Falco tinnunculus, Linn. 

The commonest of our raptorial birds, 
though vastly reduced in numbers within the 
last fifty years. Some intelligent game pre- 
servers, recognising its value, have forbidden 
its destruction. I once met a gamekeeper 
who had just killed a kestrel, averring that its 
crop was full of young partridges. We opened 
it it contained 127 wire-worms. The 
keeper was silent. 

119. Osprey. Pandion haliaftus (Linn.). 

A rare occasional visitor, and probably 
never resident. One, now in the Newcastle 
Museum, was taken near Heworth on 23 Sep- 
tember, 1841. Another was shot at Aldin 
Grange, near the city of Durham, on 22 Oc- 
tober, 1883. 

1 2O. Cormorant. Pbalacrocorax carboa, Linn. 

Frequent on the coast. Does not now 
breed in the county. Many years ago it 



nested on Marsden rocks. It often ascends 
the rivers many miles into the interior. 

121. Shag or Green Cormorant. Pbalacrocorax 

graculus (Linn.). 

Not uncommon on the coast, but not so 
frequent as the former species. 

122. Gannet or Solan Goose. Sula bassana 

(Linn.). 

Frequently seen on the coast, occasionally 
far inland. 

123. Heron. Ardea cinerea. Linn. 

The only remaining heronryin the county 
is that in the park of Raby Castle. There 
was formerly another at Ravensworth, the 
seat of the Earl of Ravensworth, but some of 
the trees having been cut down the whole 
colony forsook the neighbourhood, and took 
to an island in Lake Derwentwater, where 
they nested on the brushwood. In the 
beginning of the nineteenth century there 
were heronries near Sedgefield and Gainford. 

1 24. Little Bittern. Ardetta minuta (Linn.). 

Is recorded as having once been taken at 
Stanhope in 1869 (Zoologist, 1884, p. 101), 
though it has occurred several times in North- 
umberland and frequently in Yorkshire. 

The squacco heron Ardea ralloides, Scopoli, 
is said by Seebohm to have occurred once in 
Durham, but I have been unable to verify 
this statement. Mr. Saunders (Yarrell, iv. 
196) mentions Durham as an accidental 
locality for the night-heron Nycticorax griseus 
(Linn.). I think this is doubtful. 

125. Bittern. Botaurus stellarls (Linn.). 

The bittern was a resident in some marshy 
districts within living memory. It is now 
only an irregular winter visitor, but always 
late, generally in the month of February. An 
aged fowler told me some forty years ago, 
that in his youth a pair always bred in Cowpen 
marshes, near Stockton. One was shot there 
in January 1901. Several have been taken 
near the Tees. 

126. Black Stork. Ciconla mgra (Linn.). 
One morning in August, 1862, my children 

came running into my study at Greatham 
Vicarage, to tell me a black stork was walk- 
ing about in the Seaton fields. (They were 
familiar with the bird, as a mounted specimen 
stood in the hall.) I went out and watched 
the bird for an hour, marching about in a 
swampy meadow. The next morning it was 
still there, but was shot in the afternoon by a 
man from Hartlepool. It is now in the 
Hartlepool Museum. 



184 



BIRDS 



127. Glossy Ibis. Plegadisfalcinellus(Linn.). 
The only occurrence of this occasional 

straggler to our coasts, was one shot at Billing- 
ham, near Stockton on 25 November, 1900. 

128. Grey Lag-Goose. Anser cinereus, Meyer. 
Generally occurs in the marshes near Tees- 
mouth in winter, but in very small numbers. 
The scarcest of all our familiar wild geese, 
though for thirteen years that I lived close to 
the marshes seldom a season passed without 
one specimen at least being brought to me. 



in twelve years by the gunners on Cowpen 
Marsh. None of them showed any signs of 
having been in captivity.] 

135. Whooper Swan. Cygmu musicus, Bech- 
stein. 

Frequently taken, especially in hard winters, 
on the coast. 



1 29. White-fronted Goose. 

(Scopoli). 

A not uncommon winter visitor on the 
coast, especially in hard weather. Seldom in 
any large number. 

130. Bean-Goose. Amer segetum (J. F. 

Gmelin). 

The most abundant of all our geese in 
winter, arriving early in November. They 
often come far inland to feed, but always 
roost by the sea shore. 



136. Bewick's Swan. Cygmu bewicki. Yarrell. 
By no means so rare as is frequently sup- 
posed. It visits us irregularly in hard winters, 
sometimes in flocks. Three were taken to- 
Anser albifrons gether at Blaydon in February 1887. 



131. Pink-footed Goose. Anser brachyrhynchus 

Baillon. 

Frequent in winter on our coast and in the 
estuary of the Tees. 

132. Red-breasted Goose. Bernicla ruficollit 

(Pallas). 

The first two specimens of this bird known 
to have occurred were taken at the beginning 
of the year 1776. One shot near London, 
which came into the possession of Mr. Tun- 
stall, is now with the rest of the WycliflFe 
Museum in Newcastle Museum, and is figured 
by Bewick ; the other was taken alive on the 
Tees, and lived for nine years with ducks on 
a pond near Mr. TunstalPs residence. One 
is stated to have been shot in 1845 m Cowpen 
Marsh, which has produced so many rarities, 
by Mr. J. Hikely, and two are said to have 
been seen the same year on the Tees. 

133. Bernacle Goose. Bernicla leucopsis 

(Bechstein). 

A winter visitor. Not so common as the 
brent. 

134. Brent Goose. Bernicla brenta (Pallas). 

A common autumn and winter visitor to 
the coast. 

[Egyptian Goose. Cbenalopex tegyptiacus 
(Linn.). 

Shot several times on the coast, never inland. 
Three were brought to me at different times 



137. Mute Swan. Cygmu olor (J. F. Gmelin). 

Not unfrequently shot in winter. These 
may very possibly be wild birds from their 
northern homes in Sweden and Denmark. 

138. Common Sheldrake. Tadorna carnuto 

(S. G. Gmelin). 

Formerly a well-known breeding species on 
the sandhills and rabbit warrens by the coast, 
especially about Seaton and Teesmouth. Sixty 
years ago there were several pair in the rabbit 
warren of Middleton, now in the heart of 
West Hartlepool. The bird is now only an 
occasional straggler, though in Northumber- 
land it still breeds. 

139. Ruddy Sheldrake. Tadorna casarca 

(Linn.). 

The only recorded occurrence is the appear- 
ance of a small flock in the interior of the 
county, one of which was shot and brought 
to Mr. Cullingford for preservation on 23 Sep- 
tember, 1892. 

140. Mallard or Wild Duck. Anas boscbas, 

Linn. 

Still found in all suitable localities. In 
many, a breeding species. 

141. Shoveller. Spatula clypeata (Linn.). 

A rather scarce spring and autumn migrant, 
sometimes breeding. A pair nested at Sal- 
holme in 1 88 1. (Zoologist, 1882, p. 90.) 

142. Pintail. Dafila aceta (Linn.). 

A rather scarce winter visitor. Said to have 
formerly bred in the county. 

143. Teal. Querquedula cricca (Linn.). 

A resident. Still breeds in small numbers 
in Upper Weardale and Teesdale. 

144. Garganey. Querquedula cireia (Linn.). 
A rare visitor. One was shot in Cowpen 

Marsh on 3 September, 1882. 



185 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



145. Wigeon. Mareca penelope (Linn.). 
A common autumn and winter visitor. 

146. Pochard. Fuligula ferlna (Linn.). 

Frequently met with throughout the winter. 
Said to breed here occasionally, but I have no 
certain proof, though it breeds sometimes in 
North Yorkshire and Northumberland. 

147. Ferruginous Duck. Fuligula nyroca, 

(GUldenstadt.). 

Has been shot twice at the mouth of the 
Tees. 

148. Tufted Duck. Fuligula cristata (Leach). 

A not very common winter visitor, though 
breeding in Northumberland. A pair shot at 
Elton, near Stockton, by Mr. Sutton. 

149. Scaup-Duck. Fuligula marila (Linn.). 
Abundant in winter on the coast. 

150. Goldeneye. Clangula glaucion (Linn.). 

A common winter visitor on the coast, 
generally females or young. 

151. Long-tailed Duck. Harelda glacialis, 

(Linn.). 

Occuis frequently on the coast in winter. 
Many were shot at Teesmouth in 1887. 

152. Eider Duck. Somateria mo/lisstma(Linn.'). 

Though largely increased, owing to protec- 
tion in its breeding places in Northumberland, 
it is only a winter straggler to the Durham 
coast. 

153. Common Scoter. (Edemia nigra (Linn.). 
Common in winter on the coast. 

154. Velvet-Scoter. (Edemia fusca (Linn.). 

An irregular winter visitor, often in com- 
pany with the common scoter. On the Tees 
one was taken 18 October, 1881, and another 
19 November, 1889. These were early visi- 
tors. 

155. Goosander. Mergus merganser, Linn. 

A not uncommon winter visitor, often found 
some distance up our rivers, and on inland 
tarns. One was taken lately on the Wear in 
the city of Durham. 

156. Red-breasted Merganser. Mergus $er- 

rator, Linn. 

Scarcely so common as the last species, nor 
does it habitually go so far inland, but found 
every winter. 

157. Smew. Mergus albellus, Linn. 

An irregular and rare visitor. In the winter 
of 186970 two males in full plumage were 



taken in the city of Durham, and one at Bishop 
Auckland in January 1838. All those that I 
have known of have been taken inland. 

158. Ring-Dove or Wood-Pigeon. Columba 

palumbus, Linn. 

A permanent resident, rapidly increasing. 
In autumn its numbers are recruited by large 
flocks from the north. 

159. Stock-Dove. Columba anas, Linn. 
Formerly utterly unknown in the north. 

Its first recorded appearance was at Elton in 
1862 or 1863. In 1867 and perhaps a year 
or two earlier it bred there. It was first 
noticed in Castle Eden Dene on 26 October, 
1869. The specimen is now in Durham 
Museum. In 1871 it bred in Castle Eden 
Dene, as well as at Elton, and close to Dur- 
ham. Since then it has spread over the whole 
county as a spring and summer migrant. It 
nests regularly in the ' Banks ' in the city of 
Durham. I should mention that the Wear 
forms a peninsula, and on both sides is the 
city. The banks of the river are steep and 
well wooded, with many old gardens sloping 
to the water's edge. The stock-dove nests 
in the old trees and in drains. There were 
seven nests in 1902. A pair have regularly 
laid their eggs in a drain in the centre of the 
Prebends' Bridge, entering by a gurgoyle 
quite out of the reach of boys. Another 
took possession of a drain by the side of the 
cathedral, entering by a similar gurgoyle in 
the face of the cliff, and made their nest 
immediately under a grating in the middle of 
the gravel walk in the monks' garden. The 
eggs were swept away by a thunder shower. 

1 60. Rock-Dove. Columba Kvia,].F. Gmelin. 

Breeds in decreasing numbers in Marsden 
Rocks, and occasionally in the Blackball 
Rocks near Castle Eden. 

161. Turtle-Dove. Turlur communis, Selby. 

Formerly unknown save as an occasional 
straggler. Now a few are found every spring, 
and 1 have reason to believe have bred at 
Castle Eden, and near Sedgefield and Wol- 
singham. 

162. Pallas's Sand-Grouse. Syrrhaptes para- 

doxus (Pallas). 

This sand-grouse, first observed in Britain 
in 1859, did not occur in Durham till the 
great irruption of 1863. From the month 
of May to July many were seen and taken 
on the coast, on the sandhills of Seaton, and 
Cowpen marshes. I saw a flock of nearly 
twenty for several days, but I regret to say 



186 



BIRDS 



most of them were shot. Another irruption, 
during which numbers were shot all over the 
county, was in the spring of 1888, when 
Mr. Cullingford had over sixty specimens 
brought to him. 

163. Black Grouse. Tetrao tetrix, Linn. 
Locally M oor- fo wl . 

Formerly very abundant, and found in 
every suitable part of the county. Now re- 
stricted to a few wild localities in the west of 
the county, where its numbers are every year 
diminishing, chiefly from the indiscriminate 
slaughter of the hens by strangers who hire 
the shooting for a year. In the leases of the 
Prior and Monks of Durham in the fourteenth 
century we find conditions of supplying so 
many moor-fowl a year. The grandfather of 
the present Rowland Burden, of Castle Eden, 
used to shoot black game on his estate close 
to the sea a hundred and twenty years ago. 

164. Red Grouse. Lagopus scoticus (Latham). 

Abundant on the moors in the west. The 
Durham and North Yorkshire moors are said 
to be the best stocked in the country, and the 
birds are decidedly heavier than the Scottish 
ones. A hundred years ago grouse still lin- 
gered on the patches of heath and moorland 
in the east of the county, as at Hartbushes 
near Castle Eden. 

165. Pheasant. Phasianus coichicus. Linn. 

Universal wherever preserved. Generally 
shews traces of the ringnecked species. 

1 66. Partridge. Perdix cinerta t Latham. 
Plentiful in ordinary seasons. 

167. Red-legged Partridge. Caccabis rufa 

(Linn.). 

A rare accidental straggler. Breeds in the 
East Riding of Yorkshire. A number were 
turned out by Prince Duleep Singh when he 
leased Mulgrave Castle, and since then they 
are occasionally shot north of the Tees, as at 
Elton. 

1 68. Quail. Coturntx communis, Bonnaterre. 

An irregular spring and summer visitor, 
occasionally nesting. In the year 1868 a 
brood of at least eight was raised in a meadow 
at Greatham. Two young birds were shot 
in September. The remainder I have every 
reason to believe got away safely, but none 
returned the next year. 

169. Corn Crake, or Land-rail. Crex fra- 

tensii, Bechstein. 

A regular spring and summer visitor, but 
much diminished of late years. 



170. Spotted Crake. Porzana maruetta 

(Leach). 

A summer visitor, less rare than is com- 
monly supposed. It has not unfrequently 
nested in different parts of the county near 
Durham city, and for several years on Bolden 
Flats. It has been taken as late as 19 No- 
vember. 

171. Baillon's Crake. Porzana bailtoni 

(Vieillot). 

One specimen shot on the banks of the 
Derwent, 12 July, 1874. Bewick mentions 
the capture of the ' little crake,' but there 
are no means now of ascertaining the species. 

172. Water-Rail. Ral/us aquaticus, Linn. 

Not uncommon in suitable localities. 
Breeds occasionally. 

173. Moor Hen, or Water Hen. Gallinula 

chloropus (Linn.). 

Very abundant. Resident throughout the 
year. 

174. Coot. Ful'tca atra, Linn. 

By no means uncommon. Inhabits our 
larger ponds and tarns. 

175. Pratincole. Glareola pratincola. Linn. 

The only instance on record is one taken 
at Stanhope on 10 July, 1876. 

176. Stone-Curlew. CEdicnemui scohpax (S. 

G. Gmelin). 

A rare accidental visitor. One was taken 
near South Shields on 4 February, 1864, and 
another at Teesmouth on 1 1 January, 1901. 

177. Dotterel. Eudromias morinellus (Linn). 

Passes every year in some numbers both at 
spring and autumn migration. It is said to 
have bred formerly on Kilhope, but not in my 
memory. 

178. Ringed Plover. /Egialitis hiaticula (Linn.). 

A resident by the sea shore, where it 
breeds on gravelly beaches. 

179. Golden Plover. Charadrius p/uvia/is, 

Linn. 

A resident on the moorlands in the west, 
where it breeds. In winter common by the 
sea shore along with the lapwing. 

1 80. Grey Plover. Squatarola helvetica (Linn.). 

Not uncommon, chiefly on the coasts in 
winter, but occurs at other seasons. In the 
collection at Elton is a specimen in full 
summer dress, shot there by Mr. Sutton. 
Mr. Hancock mentions several other instances. 



187 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



1 8 1. Lapwing or Peewit. Vanellui vulgaris, 

Bechstein. 
Locally Peesweep. 

Common in the east, though in sadly 
diminishing numbers. In the wilder parts of 
the county very abundant. 

182. Turnstone. Strepsilas interpret (Linn.). 
A regular visitor to the coast. 

183. Oyster-catcher. Hamatopus ostralegus, 

Linn. 

Not uncommon on the coast. Breeds here 
occasionally. 

184. Avocet. Recurvirostra avocetta, Linn. 

Saunders' edition of Yarrell mentions its 
having been taken two or three times at 
Teesmouth. I have not been able to find 
the authority. It has been taken at Hartley, 
but that is in Northumberland. 

185. Grey Phalarope. Phalaroptu Julicarius 

(Linn.). 

An irregular visitor on the coast. Two 
taken in 1824 at Haverton Hill are mentioned 
by Hogg. 

1 86. Woodcock. Scclopax rusticula, Linn. 

Has for over ten years bred in the county 
and does so still, but the number shot have 
considerably diminished of late years. Two 
years ago there was a nest close to Durham 
city. 

187. Great Snipe. Gallinago major (J. F. 

Gmelin). 

Rarely an autumn passes without one or 
more specimens being recorded. Selby men- 
tions their appearance in 1826. I possess a 
specimen, adult, shot in that autumn by Lord 
Barrington's keeper at Sedgefield. 

1 88. Common Snipe. Gallinago ccelestis 

(Frenzel). 

Still breeds in a few favoured and undrained 
localities. By far the larger number are 
migrants. 

189. Jack Snipe. Gallinago galllnula (Linn.). 

A regular autumn and winter visitor, but 
in small numbers. 

190. Pectoral Sandpiper. Tringa maculata, 

Vieillot. 

Accidental. Has been recorded three 
times, from Hartlepool, Teesmouth, and 
Bishop Auckland. 



191. Dunlin. Tringa alfiina, Linn 

In large numbers on the coast in winter. 
Formerly bred on the moors in the west, and 
possibly does so still in small numbers. 

192. Little Stint. Tringa minuta, Leisler. 

A rare visitor on its autumnal migration, 
generally in September. 

193. Temminck's Stint. Tringa temminci, 

Leisler. 

A very rare autumnal visitor. Has been 
taken in the estuary of the Tees. 

194. Curlew-Sandpiper. Tringa subarnuata 

(Gttldenstadt). 

In small numbers on the sea shore and 
estuaries in winter, often in company with 
dunlins. 

195. Purple Sandpiper. Tringa striata, 

Linn. 

Occurs occasionally on the sea shore in 
autumn and winter. 

196. Knot. Tringa canutas, Linn. 

A fairly common autumnal migrant. A 
few remain on the coast through the winter. 

197. Sanderling. Calidrii armaria (Linn.). 

Common on the coast in autumn and 
winter, especially in October. It has been 
shot several times in June in full summer 
plumage at Seaton and Teesmouth. 

198. Ruff and Reeve. Machetes pugnax 

(Linn.). 

Now a rare and uncertain visitor. Bred in 
Northumberland up to 1853, and said on 
reliable authority to have formerly nested on 
Bolden Flats. Was taken in Cowpen Marsh 
on 3 September, 1881. 

199. Common Sandpiper. Totanus hypoleucus 

(Linn.). 

A regular spring and autumn migrant, 
breeding in suitable localities. 

ZOO. Wood Sandpiper. Totanus glareola 
(J. F. Gmelin). 

A rare and uncertain autumn migrant. 

201. Green Sandpiper. Totanus ochropus 
(Linn.). 

A rare and irregular visitor, generally inland. 
Has been recorded from Hilton Castle, Octo- 
ber, 1830; Streatlam Park, 1838; Elton, 
1 88 ? Castle Eden Dene, 1860 ; Bishop 
Auckland, 1849; Mainsforth, 1903. 



188 



202. Redshank. Totanus calidris (Linn). 

Common in winter ; a few remain through- 
out the year, but their former nesting resorts 
are now drained. I am assured a few still 
nest in Upper Weardalc. 

203. Spotted Redshank. Totanus fusau 

(Linn.). 

An accidental straggler, recorded from 
Blanchland 12 August, 1840, also Jarrow and 
Elton, dates uncertain. 

204. Greenshank. Totanus canescens (J. F. 

Gmelin). 

Occurs occasionally at spring and autumn 
migration. Taken at Castle Eden and Elton. 

205. Bar-tailed Godwit. Limosa lapponica 

(Linn.). 

Not uncommon in autumn on the coast. 
A few occur occasionally in winter and 
spring. 

206. Black-tailed Godwit. Limosa tegtcepbala 

(Linn.). 

A rare visitor on autumnal and vernal 
migration. I find no trace of its ever having 
nested in the county. 

207. Curlew. Numenius arquata (Linn.). 

Local Whaup. 

Resident. Many breed on the moors in 
the west. In winter great numbers frequent 
the sea shore and marshes. 

208. Whimbrel. Numenius phaopus (Linn.). 

Spends the winter regularly on the coast in 
small parties, frequenting the salt marshes of 
Cowpen. 

209. Black Tern. Hydrochelidon nigra, Linn. 

An occasional visitor. Specimens are in 
the Castle Eden and Elton local collections. 
One was taken in the Tees, 7 August, 1886. 

210. White-winged Black Tern. Hydro- 

ckelidon leucoptera, Schinz. 

Once obtained at Port Clarence,Teesmouth, 
on 1 5 May (year unknown), now in the New- 
castle Museum. 

211. Sandwich Tern. Sterna cantiaca,]. F. 

Gmelin. 

Not infrequent in summer, as numbers breed 
in Northumberland. 



BIRDS 
213. 



Sterna macrura. Nau- 



Arctic Tern. 

mann. 
Common in summer and early autumn. 

214. Little Tern. Sterna minuta, Linn. 
A summer visitor, rather rare. 

215. Sabine's Gull. Xema sabinii, J. Sabine. 

One was shot at Seaham Harbour on 
IO October, 1879, and is now in Newcastle 
Museum. 

2 1 6. Little Gull. Larus minutus, Pallas. 

An almost regular autumn and winter 
visitor, occurring in most local collections. 
I had three specimens brought to me from 
Cowpen Marsh in different years. Mr. Abel 
Chapman shot one in 1886, at Whitburn, as 
early as 28 August. 

217. Black-headed Gull. Larui ridlbundm, 

Linn. 

Very common, though it has no breeding 
place left in the county. Comes far inland, 
and may be seen following the plough thirty 
miles from the coast. 

218. Common Gull. Larus canui, Linn. 

Abundant, and resident throughout the year, 
but does not breed in the district. 



219. Herring Gull. 
Gmelin. 



Larus argentatuSy J. F. 



A non-breeding resident. 



Abundant. 
Larus fui 



220. Lesser black-backed Gull. 

Linn. 

A very common species. Resident through- 
out the year, but breeding in Northumberland. 

221. Great black-backed Gull. Larus marinus, 

Linn. 

Not abundant, but always to be found off 
the coast in winter. 

222. Glaucous Gull. Larus g/aucus, Fabricius. 

A not very rare winter visitor, generally 
in immature plumage. 

223. Kittiwake. Rissa tridactyla, Linn. 

Common throughout the year, but has no 
breeding station. 

224. Ivory Gull. Pagopbila eburnea, Phipps. 

A specimen in immature plumage was taken 
at Seaton Carew in February 1837, and is 
now in Sunderland Museum. 



212. Common Tern. Sterna fluviati/is, 225 

Naumann. 

In summer, but not so abundant as the 
Arctic tern. 



Great Skua. Stercorarius catarrbactes, 

Linn. 

A rare winter visitor. One was captured 
off the Tees on 14 October, 1887. 



189 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



226. Pomatorhine Skua. Stercorarius poma- 

torbinus, Temminck. 

Occurs not unfrequently, especially in the 
estuary of the Tees. 

227. Arctic or Richardson's Skua. Sterco- 

rarius crepidatus, J. F. Gmelin. 
Frequent on the coast, chiefly in early 
winter. 

228. Long-tailed or Buffon's Skua. Sterco- 

rarius parasitictu, Linn. 
Occasionally in winter. At Whitburn in 
1837. Several off the Tees in 1879. I know 
of five other specimens trken in the county, 
dates uncertain. 

[Great Auk. Aha impennis, Linn. 
Though we have every reason to believe 
that the great auk was taken in Northumber- 
land in the early part or middle of the 
eighteenth century (Hancock, Birds of North- 
umber land and Durham, p. 165), yet there is 
no trace of it in Durham in historic times. 
But it may claim a place here, from the dis- 
covery in the spring of 1878, in one of the 
seaworn caves in the face of the Whitburn 
Lizards, of the remains of the great auk. The 
birds had evidently been eaten by man, for 
many human bones, including five skulls, 
were found in the caves, as well as those of 
all our domestic animals, and of the red deer, 
roe, badger, marten-cat, and many others. 
The bones are now in the Newcastle Museum. 
See Nat. Hist. Trans,, Nortbumb., vii. 361, 

Mff.] 

229. Razorbill. Aha torda, Linn. 
Common on the coast throughout the year. 

230. Common Guillemot. Una troile, Linn. 

Abundant at all seasons, but, like the razor- 
bill, not breeding in our limits. 

231. Black Guillemot. Uria grylle, Linn. 
Occurs only in winter. Not uncommon. 

232. Little Auk. Mergulm alle, Linn. 

An uncertain winter visitor, sometimes 
arriving in great numbers. One of these 
irruptions was in October 1841, when hun- 
dreds appeared off Hartlepool and the Tees, 
and many were picked up far inland. An- 
other invasion was on 5 December, 1895 
to January 1896, when between thirty to 
forty specimens were brought to Mr. Culling- 
ford, Durham Museum, of which one at least 
was picked up dead in the city. 



233. Puffin. Fratercula arctica, Linn. 
Common on the coast. Resident, but has 

no breeding stations. 

234. Great Northern Diver. Coiymbus gla- 

cialis, Linn. 

Occasional in winter. Seldom a season 
passes without one or two being taken at 
Teesmouth. Its occurrence in summer plum- 
age is very rare. 

235. Black-throated Diver. Colymbus arcticus, 

Linn. 

More frequent than the last. One was 
captured on the Wear, near Durham city, in 
full summer dress. 

236. Red-throated Diver. Colymbus septen- 

trionalis, Linn. 

Not uncommon in winter, and occurs at 
other seasons. I have had three specimens 
from Cowpen Marsh in nuptial dress. 

237. Great Crested Grebe. Podicipes cristatus, 

Linn. 

A rare straggler, only on the coast. One 
at Elton, another taken at Teesmouth, 
12 January, 1901. 

238. Red-necked Grebe. Podicipes griseigena, 

Boddaert. 

An occasional winter visitor. There are 
specimens in all our local museums, but with- 
out dates. Off the Tees, 19 November, 1892. 

239. Slavonian Grebe. Podicipes auritus,l,mn. 

Not uncommon in winter. Hogg mentions 
one near Stockton in 1823, but of late years 
it has been frequently taken. 

240. Eared Grebe. Podicipes nigricollis, Bre. 

A very rare visitor. I only know of one 
Durham specimen, in Mr. Sutton's collection. 

241. Little Grebe or Dabchick. Podicipes 

fluviatilis, Tunstall. 

Still breeds on the Tees, and occasionally 
on tarns and ponds throughout the county, 
generally distributed. 

242. Storm-Petrel. Procellaria pelagica, Linn. 

Not unfrequently found after a storm, and 
has been picked up dead some distance inland. 
In December 1895 and January 1896 many 
were taken. One was picked up dead in an 
inn yard in the city of Durham. 

243. Leach's Fork-tailed Petrel. Oceano- 

droma leucorrhoa, Vieillot. 

Accidental. One specimen washed ashore 
north of Hartlepool, date uncertain. 



190 



BIRDS 



244. Great Shearwater. 
Fabri. 



Puffinus major, 



One captured off the Tees, January or 
February 1874. A few years ago one was 
picked up dead about the same place and 
brought to Mr. Cullingford, Durham Museum. 



Puffinus griseus, J. F. 



245. Sooty Shearwater. 
Gmelin. 

A single specimen shot on the Tees off 
Redcar. (Zoologist, 1884, p. 147.) The 
first recorded British example was shot at the 



mouth of the Tees in August, 1828 (Proc. 
Zoo/. Soc., 1832, p. 129), described by Strick- 
land. 

246. Manx Shearwater. Puffinus anglorum, 

Temminck. 

An occasional visitor in winter. Has 
occurred at Castle Eden, Hartlepool, and 
Seaton Carew. 

247. Fulmar. Fulmarus giaeialis, Linn. 

A rare winter visitor. Has been obtained 
five times of late years on our coast. 



191 



MAMMALS 

The varied surface of the county of Durham offers, or has 
offered in the past, congenial haunts for most of the British mammals. 
In the western part of the county the extensive moorlands and the 
secluded and wooded valleys have served as retreats for some of the 
wilder species ; and though the coal mining and other industries have 
had, from the naturalist's point of view, an unfavourable influence on the 
eastern part, this has not been the case to nearly the extent that might 
have been expected. The coast line also enriches the fauna by the 
addition of a number of marine mammals, whilst the operations in caves 
and bogs, and in the dredging of the larger rivers, have brought to light 
many interesting evidences of the former presence of animals which have 
long since disappeared from the district. The paucity of records for the 
county of Durham in comparison with those for many other counties is 
regrettable. An excellent summary of the known facts relating to the 
mammal fauna up to the year 1863 is given in the catalogue by Messrs. 
Mennell and Perkins 1 ; but since that time very little systematic observa- 
tion has apparently been attempted. An especially interesting field for 
investigation is presented by the local bats, to which hardly any critical 
attention has been paid for many years. A few points regarding particular 
animals are worthy of special note. The wild cat (Fe/is catus) appears to 
have survived in the county until about fifty years ago ; the pine marten 
(Mustela martes) and polecat (Putorius putorius) have only been exterminated 
within comparatively few years, and recent occurrences in the neighbour- 
ing counties even render it not altogether improbable that one or both 
may yet stray within the borders again ; the old English black rat is 
almost certainly still in existence in one or two towns within the county. 
In reference to the cetaceans, it is a curious fact that while I am only able 
to record five species for this county, at least double the number have been 
obtained on the coast between the Tyne and the Tweed. 

CHEIROPTERA 

1 . Long-eared Bat. Plecotus auritus, Linn. in the southern part of the county. It is 
This bat is abundant in the county, and is plentiful in places a little south of the Tees, 

perhaps the commonest species. and * have the following records for the county 

itself : Mr. H. G. Stobart has shot it at Croft ; 

2. Great or White s Bat (Noctule). P lfu - Mr> j Greenwel i describes a bat, evidently of 

trellm noctula, Schreber. this spedeS) which he frequendy sees at Es _ 

~Bz\\ScotophiIiis noctula. White Vespertine combe ; in the Naturalist for 1 886, Mr. W. D. 

altivolans. Roebuck records the taking of twenty-five 

I believe this fine species is not uncommon noctules from an oak near Barnard Castle ; and 

1 Trans. TytttsiJe Naturalists' Field Clul, vi. 
192 




A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



in the same volume Mr. T. H. Nelson men- 
tions that one was shot at the Flats, near Bishop 
Auckland, in the summer of 1885. Mennell 
and Perkins do not give the species, but the 
bat taken at Cleadon in 1836 and referred to 
in their catalogue as a serotine has been 
examined in the Newcastle Museum by 
Messrs. Roebuck and Southwell and found by 
them to be a noctule (Zoologist, 1887). 

3. Pipistrelle. Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Schreber. 

Bell Scotopbilus plflstrtUus. 

This species is common throughout the 
county. 

4. Natterer's Bat. Myotis nattereri, Kuhl. 

Bell yesfertiRo nattereri. 

Mennell and Perkins record the taking of a 
Natterer's bat ' on a tree in Hoffal Wood, 
Durham,' on the authority of the late W. 
Backhouse. I cannot hear of any subsequent 
instance of the capture of this species in the 
county. 



5. Daubenton's Bat. Myotis daubentani, 

Leisler. 

Bell Vespertine daubentmll. 

W. Backhouse, quoted by Mennell and 
Perkins, reported the occurrence of this bat at 
Darlington, apparently on good evidence. In 
the same catalogue a white variety is men- 
tioned, taken at 'Auckland St. Andrew, 
Durham.' As the species is widely distributed 
in Scotland and is also found in Yorkshire, 
there is a strong probability that it occurs 
fairly frequently in Durham. 

6. Whiskered Bat. Afyotiimystacinus,L,eis\cr. 

Bell Vespertine mystaclniu. 
The whiskered bat is pretty generally dis- 
tributed in Yorkshire (Roebuck and Clarke), 
and has been taken several times in Cumber- 
land (Zoologist, 1 890). It is therefore probably 
not rare in the county of Durham ; but the 
only records I know of are those of W. Back- 
house from ' Shotley Bridge (Darlington ?),' 
quoted in Mennell and Perkins' catalogue, and 
the allusion in the Zoologist for 1888 to a 
specimen from Durham. 



INSECTIVORA 



J. Hedgehog. Erinaceui europteus, Linn. 

This animal is common in all the more 
wooded parts of the county. 

8. Mole. Talpa europtea, Linn. 

Moles are as abundant here as elsewhere. 
Varieties of a cream or silver-grey colour are 
by no means uncommon, and I have records 
of such from many parts of the county. These 
varieties often have a more or less brilliant 
tinge of orange on the under-side and flanks. 
Several instances of this have been reported 
from Winlaton by Mr. Thos. Thompson, and 
a silver-grey mole with the orange tinge was 
sent to the Newcastle Museum in 1903 from 
the Woodlands, Consett, by Mr. W. B. van 
Haansbergen. 

9. Common Shrew. Sorex araneus, Linn. 

This species is very abundant, as in all 
parts of the country. 

10. Pigmy Shrew. Sortie minutus, Pallas. 
Bell Sorex pjgmteiu. 

The only positive evidence of the occur- 



rence of the pigmy shrew that I have been 
able to find is that afforded by a specimen in 
the Newcastle Museum. This is labelled as 
having been taken at St. John's, Wolsingham, 
by Wm. Backhouse ; it was sent by him to 
John Hancock about 1850. The species is 
probably not so scarce as the absence of further 
records might suggest. 

II. Water Shrew. Neomys fodiens, Pallas. 
Bell Cnssopus fidiens. 

This species is probably distributed gene- 
rally through the county on quiet streams 
and ponds, but is not often noticed, as is fre- 
quently the case where it is quite common. 
Mennell and Perkins gave records from Castle 
Eden and Darlington ; Mr. R. Lofthouse 
mentions it (Naturalist, 1887) as occurring on 
the lower part of the Tees, and I have the 
following additional records : near Wolsing- 
ham, common (W. Backhouse) ; Upper 
Teesdale, fairly common (W. Walton) ; on a 
pond close to the city of Durham (J. Culling- 
ford) ; on the small ' stells ' about Hartlepool 
before these were built over (J. . Robson). 



CARNIVORA 



12. Wild Cat. Ftlii catui, Linn. 

The wild cat held its ground in the county 
of Durham down to considerably more recent 
times than was the case in most parts of Eng- 



land, as might have been expected from the 
character of much of the district. Exact re- 
cords are, however, almost entirely wanting ; 
but the fact stated by Canon Tristram, that it 



193 



MAMMALS 



was to be found up to about the year 1 840 in 
Castle Eden Dene, by no means one of the 
most secluded parts of the county, renders it 
probable that in the more remote and unculti- 
vated parts the wild cat was not exterminated 
until at least the middle of the last century. 
It is rather remarkable that no remains of this 
animal appear to have been noticed in any of 
the limestone caves that have been explored, 
though bones of the wolf, badger, and even of 
the marten, are not scarce. 

13. Fox. Fulpes vu/pes, Linn. 
Bell Vulpes vulgaris. 

Foxes are plentiful in almost all parts of the 
county. 

14. Pine Marten. Mustela martes, Linn. 
Bell Martes abietum. 

At the time when Mennell and Perkins 
were compiling their catalogue (1863) they 
were able to say of the pine marten that 
' although the animal cannot be called common, 
it is widely distributed over both counties.' It 
is difficult to imagine that the marten was not 
somewhat scarcer at that date than the word- 
ing of this statement might be taken to imply, 
though its final extermination, due largely to 
the increased use of steel traps, probably took 
place very rapidly. The last known capture 
in this county was on 31 May, 1882, at 
Hoppyland, a few miles west of Bishop 
Auckland ; it is recorded (Zoologist, 1882) by 
Mr.X.H. Nelson, who also refers to the taking 
of a nest with three young at the same place 
thirty-three years previously. It is an interest- 
ing fact that from among the remains of 
human and other occupants discovered in a 
cave near the coast at Whitburn, bones of the 
marten were identified by the late Mr. John 
Hancock (Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. and 
Durham, vii.). 

15. Polecat. Putorius putorius, Linn. 
Bell Mustela putorius. 

From the information I have been able to 
obtain, it would appear that the polecat has 
been exterminated in the county only within 
the last ten or twelve years. Mr. J. Culling- 
ford had several before that time, but has had 
none since ; and Mr. W. Walton reports two 
killed near Middleton-in-Teesdale about fifteen 
years ago, one being still in his possession. 
Mr. G. E. Crawhall tells me that up to forty 
years ago polecats were not infrequently killed 
in Weardale, but that he has heard of none 
there in more recent years. He remembers 
a female and litter of young being caught 
near Wolsingham. Mennell and Perkins de- 
scribe it (1863) as 'still plentiful in both our 



counties ' ; and the following is also quoted 
from their catalogue : ' The Rev. G. C. Abbes 
tells us that a very fine polecat visited his 
garden at Cleadon a few years ago, and was 
so bold and fearless that it came close to him 
when gardening, and suffered him to push it 
back with his rake when it interfered with his 
work.' 

1 6. Common Stoat. Putorius ermineus, 

Linn. 

Bell Mustela erminea. 

The stoat is abundant in nearly all parts 
of the district. Examples in the white winter 
coat and in all stages of approach to it are 
frequently killed or seen. 

17. Weasel. Putorius nivalis, Linn. 
Bell Mustela vulgaris. 

As common here as elsewhere. An albino 
example from upper Teesdale is reported by 
Mr. W. Walton. 

1 8. Badger. Me les meles y Linn 
Bell Meles taxus. 

The badger has held its ground successfully 
in the county of Durham. It is fairly plentiful 
in the more secluded western half of the county, 
and also inhabits some of the quieter woodlands 
of the eastern half. The Rev. Canon Tristram 
has given me some interesting information 
regarding the badgers in Castle Eden Dene. 
They were common there at one time, but dis- 
appeared for some years ; for the last five 01 
six years, however, several pairs have been 
known to be in the dene. A female with a 
litter of young was once kept there in confine- 
ment, living on good terms both with her 
captors and with the pigs. Canon Tristram 
tells me,' the local name of the badger is " pate," 
and a small subsidiary glen is known as the 
" Pate-priest's Dene," from a French refugee 
priest who lived a hermit life 1 1 o years ago 
in the glen, and was much given to badger 
hunting.' A large number of bones of the 
badger were found in the Whitburn cave. 
The late Richard Howse in mentioning this 
fact (Nat. Hist. Trans, vii.) states that the 
badger 'has now disappeared from our locality' 
and only survives in some of the southern 
counties, an opinion which seems to have been 
general at the time (1878). 

19. Otter. Lutra /utra, Linn. 
Bell Lutra vulgaris. 

Otters are still plentiful on the streams and 
rivers of the county and frequently descend 
to the neighbourhood of the towns. They 
are occasionally seen near the bridges at Durham 
(J. Cullingford), and individuals have been 



194 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 



captured in Middlesborough and Stockton 
(R. Lofthouse). 

20. Common Seal. Pboca vitulina, Linn. 

A large colony of seals formerly existed and 
bred on Seal Sand at the mouth of the Tees ; 
but the great development of the Cleveland 
iron industry and the consequent increase of 
traffic on the river, together with the extensive 
works of the Tees Commissioners, have led to 
the complete desertion of the place. Mennell 
and Perkins state that about a thousand seals 
frequented the Tees mouth between 1820 and 
1830 ; from the excellent account of the 
colony given by Mr. R. Lofthouse in the 
Naturalist for 1887, it appears that it was 



reduced to twenty or thirty seals by about the 
year 1867. The final desertion probably took 
place not long afterwards. But seals are still 
frequently seen on the coast (Canon Tristram, 
R. Lofthouse, and others), and sometimes enter 
the rivers. They appear to retain a preference 
for the vicinity of Hartlepool and the Tees. 

21. Grey Seal. Halich&rus grypus, Fabr. 

This large seal probably visits the Durham 
coast only very rarely. One was found at 
Seaton Snook in 1871 (Clarke and Roebuck) ; 
and Mr. R. Lofthouse mentions several 
instances in which large seals, probably of this 
species, have been seen about the mouth of 
the Tees. 



RODENTIA 



22. Squirrel. Sciurus leucourus, Kerr. 
Bell Sciurus vulgaru. 

The squirrel is plentiful in the wooded parts, 
though perhaps hardly so abundant on the 
whole as in the more southern counties. 
Formerly it appears to have been scarcer or at 
least less evenly distributed than at present. 
Canon Tristram writes,' in my boyhood it was 
unknown here,' that is, about the city of 
Durham, and in Mennell and Perkins' 
catalogue he reported it as having been 
' once seen ' at Castle Eden. 

23. Dormouse. Mutcardinta avellanarius t 

Linn. 
Bell Myoxtu avtllanaritu. 

The dormouse is certainly rare in the county, 
but the recorded instances of its occurrence 
suggest that it might be found more frequently 
by careful watching. Mennell and Perkins 
state that ' it has been taken occasionally in 
the woods which clothe the valley of the 
Derwent, at Gibside, Winlaton Mill, and 
near Ebchester (Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. i., p. 335).' 
It has also been seen by Mr. N. M'Lachlan 
at Headlam (Zoologist, 1885); Mr.J. Grecnwell 
mentions 'one taken near Hamsterley about 
fifty years ago,' and Mr. J. Cullingford in- 
forms me that he has had two from close to the 
city of Durham within the last four years. A 
mouse described by Mr. F. Fenwick from the 
Wolsingham district is most likely of this 
species ' chestnut coloured, with white breast, 
builds its nest in hazel bushes of dried grass ; 
rare.' 

24. Brown Rat. MM dtcumanus, Pallas. 

As common here as elsewhere. Mr. R. 
Lofthouse (Naturalist, 1 887) notes the fact that 
it 'swarms in all the reclamation embankments 



constructed by the Tees Commissioners, par- 
ticularly those constructed of slag.' 

25. Black Rat. Mm rattus, Linn. 

This interesting species is probably not yet 
quite exterminated in the county of Durham. 
Mennell and Perkins, in 1863, were able to 
mention ' Stockton, where, as in many other 
places in our district, the species still lingers, 
though in constantly diminishing numbers.' 
It still existed in old warehouses at Stockton 
in 1887 (Lofthouse), and in all probability 
survives there at the present day. Examples 
from Stockton (1868) are in the Newcastle 
Museum, and Canon Tristram also has one 
from there (1873). For particulars of its 
former presence in Durham I am again 
indebted to Canon Tristram, who tells me in 
a letter, ' There was a colony of black rats in 
and about Durham Cathedral which had been 
there from time immemorial. When at 
Durham School, in the thirties,! knew of them, 
and they were said to visit the school, which 
was then in the churchyard. The last known 
to have been taken was in the year 1879 ; a 
trap was set for it by the verger.' Mr. J. 
Cullingford doubts whether the black rat is 
even now exterminated in Durham, and tells 
me that about seven years ago one was killed 
near the town by the late Mr. F. Greenwell. 

26. House Mouse. Mus musculus, Linn. 
Very common about habitations everywhere. 

27. Long-tailed Field Mouse. Mus sylvaticus, 

Linn. 

This species is plentiful, at any rate in the 
wooded and cultivated parts of the county. 

28. Harvest Mouse. Mus minutus, Pallas. 
The harvest mouse appears to have been 

very rarely noticed in the county of Durham 



195 



MAMMALS 



and is doubtless scarce ; though I have lately 
seen it myself a very short distance north of 
the Tyne. 

Mr. W. Backhouse found it at St. John's, 
Weardale, 800 feet above sea level (Trans. 
Tyneside Nat. Field Club, iv.), and Mr. J. 
Cullingford has had the nest recently from a 
cornfield close to the city of Durham. 

29. Water Vole. Microtus amphibius. Linn. 
Bell Arvicola amphibius. 

Common along all the streams. 

30. Field Vole. Microtus agrestis, Linn. 
Bell Arvicola agrestis. 

Very abundant. A quiet observer may 
often see it sitting at the entrance to its burrow 
in a hedge bank. Mr. V. A. Reppon records 
the killing of a black field vole in his park at 
Frosterley in 1889. 

31. Bank Vole. Evotomys glareolus, Schreber. 
Bell Arvicola gkreolus. 

The bank vole is doubtless as common in 
the county of Durham as elsewhere ; for 



Mr. R. I. Pocockhas shown (Zoologist, 1897) 
that its supposed scarcity was due to the fact 
that it is not to be trapped in the same way as 
the field vole. Before this became generally 
known the bank vole was sometimes recorded 
as a comparative rarity from the county. The 
Rev. H. H. Slater (Zoologist, 1887) had, how- 
ever, found it to be by no means scarce in the 
eastern district. 

32. Common Hare. Lepus europteus, Pallas. 
Bell Lepus timidus. 

Hares are as numerous in many parts of the 
county as in other similar districts in England, 
though they seem to me to be hardly so abun- 
dant on the whole as in Yorkshire. They 
are naturally rather scarcer on the higher 
moorlands. Mr. R. Lofthouse mentions 
that they show a particular fondness for the 
reclaimed land about the estuary of the 
Tees. 

33. Rabbit. Lepus cuniculus, Linn. 
Very numerous in all suitable places. 



UNGULATA 



34. White Park Cattle. Bos taurus, Linn. 

Herds of white cattle, such as the one still 
maintained at Chillingham in Northumberland, 
were formerly kept at Bishop Auckland and 
Barnard Castle. A manuscript of the year 
1635, quoted in the Annals of Nat. Hist. 1839, 
describes the park at Bishop Auckland as 
' a daintie stately parke wherein were wild 
bulls and kine, wch had two calves runers ; 
there are about twenty wild beasts, all white, 
will nott eridure yo'r approach, butt if they 
bee enraged or distressed, verye violent and 
furious ; their calves will bee wondrous fatt.' 
The Barnard Castle herd is alluded to by 
Mr. J. Watson in the Naturalist for 1887. 

35. Red Deer. Cervus elaphus, Linn. 

The former abundance of the red deer in 
the district is proved not only by old chronicles 
(e.g. Leland's Itinerary, quoted by Mennell 
and Perkins), but also by the numerous remains 
found in all parts of the county in peat bogs, 
river beds, caves and ancient camps. The 
descendants of the original wild red deer of 



Weardale were maintained in the bishop's park 
at Stanhope until about 1640; in Teesdale 
they were preserved to a somewhat later date, 
for four hundred are recorded to have perished 
there in the snow in 1673 (Egglestone's 
Stanhope). 

Well preserved antlers and bones of red 
deer from Hartlepool, Whitburn Cave, and the 
bed of the Tyne, amongst other places in the 
district, are in the Newcastle Museum. 

36. Fallow Deer. Cervus dama, Linn. 

This is an introduced species kept in some 
of the parks. 

37. Roe Deer. Capreolus capreolus, Linn. 
Bell Capreolus caprea. 

Apart from the known fact that the roe 
deer was once generally distributed in England, 
there is definite evidence of its former presence 
in the county of Durham. Its remains were 
found in the Heathery .Burn Cave, near Stan- 
hope, and in the Whitburn Cave on the coast. 
Bones from the Whitburn Cave are in the 
Newcastle Museum. 



CETACEA 



38. Cachalot Sperm Whale. Physeter mac- 

rocephalus, Linn. 

Mennell and Perkins allude to the bones of 
a young cachalot deposited in the crypt of 
Durham Cathedral, and state that the animal 



was ' stranded near Hartlepool and sent to the 
Bishop of Durham in the days when he 
claimed " Jura Regalia " within the limits of 
the See.' Canon Tristram informs me that 
some of the bones still remain, and that it was 



196 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 






in the reign of Charles II. that the stranding 
of this whale occurred. The authors quoted 
above also record that ' the atlas of another 
individual of this species was recently found 
by Edward Backhouse, Esq., buried at some 
depth in the sand near Scaton.' 

39. Bottle-Nosed or Beaked Whale. Hy- 

peroodon rostratus, Chemnitz. 
Bell Hype root/on Butzkopf. 

A skeleton of this species was found in the 
bed of theTyne near Newcastle in 1857, and 
is described in the Transactions of the Tyneside 
Field Club, iv. This is one of the commoner 
whales in British seas and has probably often 
visited the Durham coast. One was captured 
only just north of the Tyne about 1850. 

40. White Whale Beluga. Delphinapterw 

leucas y Pallas. 

Bell Beluga leueat. 

This forms the most recent and perhaps the 
most interesting addition to the cetacean fauna 
of the county. A full grown male, fourteen 
feet in length, was captured at the South 
Shields sands on 10 June, 1903, and after a 
prolonged struggle was landed at North 



Shields. Its skeleton is in the Newcastle 
Museum. 

Full details and a photograph are given in 
the Transactions of the local natural history 
society 1 by Mr. A. Meek, M.Sc., who 
also reports the fact that since this capture 
another white whale, possibly the mate, has 
been seen at various points off the coast from 
Northumberland down to Flamborough Head. 
This is the first recorded occurrence of the 
species on the east coast south of the Forth. 

41. Grampus. Orca gladiator, Lacpede. 
Bell Pboctfna orca. 

I know of no instance of the actual strand- 
ing of an individual of this species on the 
Durham coast, but it is by no means uncom- 
mon in the North Sea. I saw a grampus, or 
at least its unmistakable dorsal fin, on one 
occasion during the summer of 1901 a few 
miles off the coast. Sir Cuthbert Sharp* men- 
tions the grampus in a list of local animals. 

42. Porpoise. Phoctena communis, Cuvier. 

Porpoises arc abundant off the Durham 
coast. 



1 Train. Nat. Hist. Sot. Nortbumb. and Durham (new ser.), i. 
History of Hartlepool, 1816. 



I 9 7 



HISTORY OF DURHAM 



PRE-HISTG 




The Einburgb G>jrpliil 



THE VI CTORIA H1STORV 



C REMAINS. 



16' 



RlrtRINCI 

*f iKMllaneoui Flndi, XtoUOtic Imflimatlt. Ooua. tit. 
X BroaB* Implements 



:.:. 



.'.a' 




40' 



E COUNTIES OF ENGLAND 



T 



EARLY MAN 

f ^HE rarity of prehistoric antiquities in the county of Durham is a 
circumstance to which more than one writer on the subject has 
called attention. The county of Durham, though it lies between 
districts which abound in the various remains of pre-Roman 
times, and though it presents natural features apparently well adapting it 
for early occupation, is markedly deficient in discoveries of weapons and 
implements of the stone and bronze ages, as it is also wanting in fortified sites 
and places of burial, of which latter only thirteen have been met with during 
the various operations of agricultural and other work. 1 No remains of the 
palaeolithic age have been found within the county, though the bones of 
animals associated with that period have in a very few cases been discovered. 
Nothing has ever come to light to prove that man occupied any part of 
England as far north as Durham, or within a great distance south of it, in 
palaeolithic times, and even at a very much later date, during the neolithic and 
bronze periods, everything goes to show that Durham was a sparsely-populated 
district. Nevertheless, some of the discoveries belonging to pre-Roman times, 
particularly two of the bronze age, are of the highest importance, and have 
furnished data of a very valuable kind. 

THE NEOLITHIC AGE 

The various stone implements and other objects which may be referred 
to the neolithic age are not numerous, and many of them may belong to the 
bronze age. These remains consist of ground or polished axes made of basalt 
and other hard stone; axe-hammers of stone, quartzite hammer-stones, and 
arrowheads of flint, some beautifully formed and finished ; and knives and 
scrapers of the same material. One scraper of flint, now in the British 
Museum, was associated with an interment at Copt Hill, Houghton le Spring; 
it was found in a cinerary urn, and probably belonged to the bronze age. 

The following is a list of stone weapons and implements found in the 
county : 

DURHAM COUNTY. Two ground axes, respectively 7} inches and 5^- inches in length. 

GAINFORD. Perforated stone hammer. (Proc. Sac. Antiq. Newcastle, ser. iii. vol. ii. p. 74.) 

HAMSTERLEY. Many arrowheads, scrapers, flakes, etc., of flint. 

HOLLY BUSH (parish of Lanchester). Leaf-shape arrow-head of flint. 

JARROW. Two axes with surfaces entirely ground, 7^- inches and 5$ inches long respectively. 

(Archttologia Mliana, N.S. vol. v. p. 1 02 ; Evans, Stont Imp!, and ed. p. i o I .) 
LANCHESTER COMMON. Arrow-head with square-ended barbs, now in the museum of the Soc. of 

Antiq. of Ncwcastle-upon-Tyne. (Evans, Stone Im/>/., p. 383.) 
MILNE HOUSE (near Frosterley). Perforated hammer made of micaceous sandstone. 
NEWTON KETTON. Large numbers of flint arrow-heads and other flint implements. 
QUEBEC. Polished stone axe belonging to Rev. F. G. Wesley, Hamsterley. 
RABY CASTLE. Dark grey stone axe, ground, but of somewhat rough workmanship, nearly 7 inches 

in length. (Evans, Stone Imp/. 2nd ed. p. 105.) 
REDWORTH. A large axe-hammer. 

1 Greenwell, British Barrows, p. 440. 
199 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

SHERBORN HOSPITAL. Ground axe, 5$ inches long, oval in section and with conical butt, in the 

collection of Dr. Sturge. 

STANLEY (parish of Brancepeth). Well-made axe-hammer. 
SUNDERLAND (in the river Wear, above the bridge). Axe-hammer beautifully made, in the museum 

of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
SUNDERLAND (Millfield). Large axe-hammer, perforated for handle, in the collection of Dr. Sturge. 

(Evans, Stone Impl. 2nd ed. p. 194.) 
WEARDALE (Cowshill). Ground basalt axe, 9^ inches long, in the collection of Dr. Sturge. (Evans, 

Stone Impl. 2nd ed. p. 106.) 
WOLSINGHAM (Coves Houses). A circular-perforated article of basalt, 3 J inches in diameter, in the 

collection of Dr. Sturge. (Evans, Stone Impl. 2nd ed. p. 229.) 

The only burial-place which can be attributed to the neolithic period is 
a barrow at Copt Hill, Houghton le Spring. It appears to have originally 
been used for interments during the neolithic age. The original burials 
consist of burnt bodies, and the way in which they had been burnt and the 
manner of their deposit was of such a nature as to show they were of persons 
living in the neolithic age. Secondary burials of the bronze age were also 
found, one of which, that of a burnt body, was enclosed in a cinerary urn, 
accompanied by a flint scraper. Near the surface was an Anglian burial of an 
unburnt body in a cist of stone. 

The association of this series of burials, quite distinct in time, is not 
probably to be accounted for by their having been of persons who were in any 
way connected, or of any sacredness or sentiment attached to the place. A 
mound had been thrown up as a memorial to people living in neolithic days, 
who were buried there. Sometime afterwards bronze-age folk dwelling in the 
locality had made use of an existing barrow for their own burials, and had 
enlarged and altered the shape of the original mound ; and still later on, 
actuated by the same motives, Anglian settlers had utilised a conspicuous barrow 
as a convenient mode of making a monument for their own dead, without the 
labour of erecting one. Such a continuance of the use of a burial mound 
over different and distant times has occurred elsewhere. 



THE BRONZE AGE 

The discovery of the uses of metal and the method of smelting and 
working it indicates the beginning of a new era of human culture. It is 
difficult to over-estimate the importance and value of this discovery. It must 
have meant for stone-using man an advance as great as the general use of steam 
or electricity in modern times. 

One of the most interesting discoveries in Durham of articles be- 
longing to this age was made before the year 1812. A hoard of bronze 
weapons and implements was found near Stanhope, in the valley of the 
Wear, in the western part of the county. An account of the discovery, 
written by the Rev. W. Wilson, rector of Wolsingham, and published by the 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne x in 1 8 1 6, gives some interesting 
particulars and some rather amusing speculations as to the nature of the several 
components of the hoard. 'They were found,' writes the author 'by a 
labourer, upwards of four years ago, in the parish of Stanhope, in the county 
of Durham, under some large rough stones casually scattered upon the 

pa JEliana, 410. ser. i. 13-16. 
200 



EARLY MAN 




GOLD AULI.T. 




HOLLOW GOLD RING. 



BRONZE SOCKETED Kxin. 



BitoNzt SOCKITID K.MFL. 



BRONZE SHAR-READ. 




BON SOCKETED AXE. 





HALF A CELT MOULD. 



BRONZE TANGRD RAIOE. 

ARTICLES FOUND IN HEATHERY BURN CAVE. I. 
201 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

declivity of a mountain, and covering nearly an acre of land. The place is 
at a little distance from the river Wear . . . They had probably been hidden 
there by some deserter, and, in my opinion, are the arms, etc., of a single 
Roman foot soldier, one of the velites, consisting of five spear-heads or hastae, 
in sequences of different sizes, part of a sword, fragments of a pectorale or 
breast-plate, together with all the tools or accoutrements for repairing, 
sharpening, and burnishing these arms.' 

There can be no doubt that this hoard was a deposit of the bronze age, 
none of the objects showing any trace of Roman influence. The sword, 
leaf-shape spear-heads with their rather pronounced midrib, socketed axes, 
gouge, and portions of what may be decorative discs worn on the breast, point, 
however, to the later part of that period, when the art of casting and elaborately 
finishing articles in bronze had reached its highest development. The whole 
find corresponds, to a great extent, with the articles found in Heathery Burn 
Cave, and the weapons, etc., are so similar in each case that they might 
have come from the same workshop. 

The Heathery Burn Cave discovery is justly regarded as one of the most 
valuable finds of the bronze age ever made in Britain, and it requires a some- 
what detailed description. The cave was situated a little more than a mile to 
the north of Stanhope, 800 feet above sea-level, and more than thirty miles 
distant from the coast. It opened out from the side of a ravine formed by 
Heathery Burn, a small affluent of Stanhope Burn, a tributary of the Wear. 
The floor of the cave was about 10 feet above the present level of the burn, 
which runs through a narrow and steep-sided gorge, clothed, as it probably 
always has been, with wood. The rock here is carboniferous or mountain 
limestone, and the cavern has evidently been formed by the chemical and 
physical action of water passing through a fissure in it. 

As long ago as 1843, when the entrance to the cave was destroyed 
in making a tramway, eight bronze rings were found. They were plain in 
character, of different sizes, and similar to other rings which have since been 
discovered in the cave. They are said to have been placed when found on a 
piece of bronze wire. 

Further discoveries were made in 1859, and at various intervals between 
that year and 1 872, but owing to the discontinuance of the quarrying at the spot 
nothing since then has been found. Before the place where the quarrying 
ceased was reached all signs of occupation had disappeared; nor is it likely 
that anything remains in that part of the cave which has not been explored. 
A good many accounts 1 of the cave and its remarkable contents have been 
published. The great importance of this discovery consists in the fact that 
the objects found in the cave constituted the whole equipment of a family of the 
bronze age. Everything which was in the dwelling-place when the occupants 
perished, probably by drowning, had remained there undisturbed on the floor 
under a layer of stalagmite until the time when the various relics were acci- 
dentally found. 2 More remarkable and valuable than the actual remains were 
the nature and circumstances of the discovery itself. Other sites have yielded 
bronze-age objects in greater numbers and of equally skilful workmanship, 

1 Arch. liv. 87-1 14 ; Proc. Soc. Antiq. of Land. (2nd ser.), ii. 127 and v. 426 ; Arch Journal, xix. 358 ; 
Geologist, v. 34, 167 ; etc. 

* Guide to the Bronze Age Antiquities in the B.M. 

2O2 



EARLY MAN 





BRONZI ARMLIT. 




BRONZI ARULIT. 





BRONU PIN. 



BRONZI Piss. 



BRONZI BOTTOM : FRONT AND BACK 




BRONZE Due : BACK AND FRONT. 



ARTICLES FOUND IN HEATHERY BURN CAVE. IL 



203 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

but in no other case has the entire personal property of a family at the moment 
when they were living and were dead been found. 

With reference to the cave itself it may be explained that its main axis 
had a direction nearly north and south, and was, more or less, parallel to the 
ravine through which Heathery Burn finds its course. At the south end it 
came in contact with a vein of ironstone, which stopped its further extension 
in that direction. It then turned abruptly at a right angle to the east, and so 
continued for a distance of 65 feet, forming an eastern limb or extension 
which had an average width of about 12 feet. 

The limestone floor of the cave had become covered with a deposit of 
gravel and sand which was not continuous over the entire floor, nor was it of 
uniform thickness, the average being about a foot. Above it was a bed of 
stalagmite varying in thickness from 3 to 6 inches. The height did not in 
any part exceed 10 feet, and in some parts it was much less. The width 
varied from 10 feet to 30 feet, but in one part it was only 2 feet. 

The following list comprises the most important articles found in the cave: 

An armlet of gold of penannular form, with the ends slightly dilated, made by a narrow band 
of thin metal, with the edges turned over. 

Penannular hollow ring of gold, skilfully made by joining two thin plates, one turned over the 
other at the outer edge. This, which is no doubt to some extent an ornamental object, has usually 
been found associated with armlets ; its use is uncertain. 

Bronze swords, two complete specimens, one of which is broken into three pieces, and a portion 
of a third ; they are of the ordinary leaf-shape form, well cast and finished, with handle-plate and 
rivet-holes for the attachment of bone or wood to complete the handle. 

Bronze spear-heads, eight or more in number, all of leaf-shape pattern, varying in length from 
6f inches to n inches. They are very well made, and two are beautiful specimens of graceful 
form and good proportion, having a slight rib, which runs on each side parallel to the midrib, or 
socket-ridge, which forms a most tasteful addition to them. 

Implements, as might be expected, are more numerous than weapons. They consist of several 
kinds, namely : 

Three knives, two of which have sockets with rivet holes, and a third a tang. One of the 
socketed knives is ornamented with six knobs, survivals, no doubt, of the heads of rivets. The tanged 
one shows signs of long-continued use on its whetted edges. 

One bronze 'razor' with a tang, and the usual triangular-shaped notch with a small perforation 
beneath its point. This class of implement may have been used for cutting leather or hides rather 
than for shaving, but they more probably served as razors. 

At least nineteen socketed axes, which varied in length from 3^ inches to 4 inches. The 
larger proportion are decorated with three vertical ribs, a very common feature, which occurs in one 
of the axes in the Stanhope hoard. Others are quite plain ; but one has an ornament now and then 
met with on socketed axes which suggests the survival of the curved wings of the flanged axe. 

Half of a celt mould, a pair of tongs, a waste runner of bronze, and a piece of rough copper, 
found in the cave, afford sufficient evidence that these people made their own tools. Some of the 
axes were probably cast in the mould, of which one-half was found. 

Two small bronze chisels, one socketed, the other having the opposite end pointed as if it were 
intended to be used as an awl or borer. 

Three socketed gouges, or hollow chisels. 

Fifteen or more bronze pins, of lengths varying from 2% inches to 5f inches. 

Fourteen or more rings, in addition to the eight already mentioned as having been found in 
1 843. They are all quite plain, and of varying sizes and thickness. 

Three bronze armlets, and a portion of a fourth. Two of them are penannular with expanding 
ends ; the third, however, is of a quite different form, being made of a piece of thin wire doubled 
over with a loop in the middle, having the two ends of the wire so bent round as to clasp the loop. 

Eight cylindrical hoops of thin bronze, probably armlets. They have been cast in one piece 
with great skill, and have on the inside a groove which corresponds to a raised rib running round the 
middle of the armlet outside. If they were armlets, of which there cannot be any doubt, they were 
probably worn on the upper part of the arm. They are certainly not, as has been suggested, the naves 
of chariot wheels. 

204 



EARLY MAN 




PixrotATiD OBJECT or Dm HON. 



OIJECT or Dill Hos. 




AUU.CT or LIGNITE. 




BONE SriNDLt-WHOBL. 



BONI IMFLIMENT. 




BONE PIN. 




BONE PIN. 



ARTICLES FOUND IN HEATHERY BURN CAVE. III. 



205 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Six discs of bronze, four of which have a diameter of 5f inches and two of sj inches, slightly 
convex, with a hole in the centre, a raised rounded moulding at the edge, and four loops at the back 
for attachment to some soft material. They are of rare occurrence, and probably formed ornamental 
adjuncts to a dress, and were worn as decorations for the breast, serving the same or a similar purpose, 
as the bronze plates found in the Stanhope hoard. 

Two bronze buttons one ornamented with nine concentric raised ribs on its face, and having 
five loops for attachment at the back ; the other having a boss on the upper side and a loop on the 
under side. 

One bronze finger ring(?) made out of a thin piece of wire, the ends of which, after having 
been flattened and widened, have been turned over, the one upon the other. 

One bronze cauldron (18 inches high and 14^ inches wide at the mouth), made of three sheets 
of metal neatly riveted, and furnished with two massive handles and strengthening frame on the 
bottom. It had been used for cooking purposes, and when found had a deposit of carbon upon it. 

There were various other objects of metal found above the stalagmite bed which had no relation 
to the bronze-age occupants of the cave ; among them was a bronze key, probably Roman, and a 
penny of George II. 

Implements of stone found in the cave comprise a thick flake of flint 3^ inches long, possibly 
used as a strike-a-light. Three other flakes of flint one may have been used as a borer were also 
found. There were also a well-shaped circular and perforated piece of limestone, perhaps a spindle- 
whorl, and two whetstones. 

Ornaments of stone comprised four armlets of lignite, three of which were imperfect ; two 
beads formed of stalagmite, a single bead of dark-coloured amber, a long bead of bone, and two small 
perforated water-rolled pebbles of stone. There was also a humble necklace of three sea-shells, viz., 
two periwinkles and a small whelk. 

Bone and deer's horn implements were rather numerous. They comprised a long, narrow 
implement made of the leg-bone of a deer or some such animal, shaped like a modern paper-knife, 
of which a number were found. They may have been skinning knives, or perhaps implements used 
in weaving for driving back the woof in the manufacture of woven goods. There was also a knife 
made from the split and sharpened tusk of a boar. Bone pins in considerable number and one of 
lignite were found, of which at least twenty-three have been preserved. They have usually been 
manufactured out of the leg-bone of some small animal. There were also found three bone 
spindle-whorls, or they may have served as buttons ; also three horse's and two dog's teeth pierced for 
suspension, and used as pendent ornaments. 

Some enigmatical objects, made from tines and beams of the antlers of the red deer, were 
discovered. They are both straight and curved in form, five of them are pierced with three holes, 
of which the middle one is larger than those at the ends, and pierces the horn in a direction at right 
angles to them. Similar curved articles of deer's horn have been found in lake dwellings of the 
bronze age in Switzerland, and in the river Thames. The suggestion has been made that they have 
served as the cheek pieces of bridle bits, but this theory lacks proof. Several straight pieces of deer's 
antlers perforated at the middle were also found. In addition to the above there were other imple- 
ments of bone, horn, etc., the precise use of which cannot be determined. There was no complete 
vessel of pottery found, but several small fragments were preserved. It had all been hand-made, and 
was principally unornamented, of a pale yellowish tinge with a tendency to red. Some bones, 
including three imperfect skulls, of the occupants of the cave, were recovered, and were examined 
by Professor Huxley and Mr. Carter Blake. They have unfortunately been lost. 1 

There were very numerous remains of animals in the form of bones, horns, tusks, teeth, etc. 
Many of the bones had, as usual, been broken in order that the marrow might be extracted. 2 

It is evident, judging from the large number and variety of objects found 
here, that this cave, damp, dark, and inconvenient as it must have been, was 
the dwelling place of several people for a considerable period. It may not 
have been the permanent living place of this family, but occupied only on 
special occasions and for some special purposes. 

In addition to the discoveries in Heathery Burn Cave, and the hoard of 
bronze weapons, etc., both in the parish of Stanhope, some other bronze-age 
antiquities have been found in various parts of the county. 8 

1 Geologist, v. 204. 

8 There is a full account of this cave and its remarkable contents in Arch. vol. liv. 871 14. 
* Thanks are due, and are hereby accorded, to Mr. Robert Blair, F.S.A., Dr. Sturge, and Mr. E. Wooller 
of Darlington for some of the information contained in this list. 

206 



111 




DRINKING CUP FROM SACRISTON. 



BRONZE SWORD 
FROM RIVER TEES 

OPPOSITE 
MIDDLESBROUGH. 



BRONZE RAPIER- 
BLADF. FROM 

RIVER TYNE AT 
NEWCASTLE. 




BRONZE DAGGER 

FROM 
RIVER TYNE 

ABOVE 

NEWCASTLE. 



BRONZE SPEAR-HEAD 

FROM Kl\m TYNJ 

ABOVE NEWCASTLE. 



BRONZE RAPIER- 
BLADE FROM RIVER 

TYNE AT 
NEWCASTLE. 



BRONZE RAPIER- 
BLADE FROM RIVER 

WEAR AT 
CLAXHEUGH. 

To fact fap 106. 



EARLY MAN 

BARNARD CASTLE. A sepulchral urn was found here which is now in the British Museum. 

BRANDON. Socketed axe. 

BROOMYHOLME. A circular bronze shield with central boss was discovered there, but the finder, 

who was unaware of its archaeological value, in order to gratify his friends, cut it up like a 

cake and sent to each a slice. The greater part is preserved in the Museum of the Society of 

Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. It is of the usual type of the British shields of the 

time, the face covered with concentric, alternate bands of raised ribs and of rows of dots. 
CHESTER LE STREET. A bronze axe was found at this place and is now in the Museum of the 

Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
DURHAM CITY. A flat copper celt which was found here is now in the British Museum. It is of 

the early type, and the composition of the metal, as shown by analysis by Professor Gowland, 

contains only a very slight proportion of tin. 
ESHWOOD NEAR FiAss. Flanged axe. 
FAWNLESS NEAR WOLSINGHAM. Flanged axe. 
HARTON. Socketed celt or axe-head, found on the Trow Rocks. It has one loop and longitudinal 

ribbed ornamentation. (Information from Mr. Robert Blair, F.S.A.) 
HOUGHTON LE SPRING, COPT HILL. An urn 13 inches high, containing burnt bones, and a flint 

scraper, found in a barrow, are now in the British Museum. The rim of the urn is decorated 

with oblique incised lines. 

HOWDEN-LE-\VEAR. Looped palstave, now in the British Museum. 
HURBUCK, NEAR LANCASTER. Two stone moulds for casting the plain flat axes were found here. 

They are both about the same size (7 J inches by 5^ inches and 3 inches thick) and each contains 

the hollows for casting three axes, two on one face and one on the other. The largest axe 

would have been 6 inches long and 4$ inches wide at the cutting edge, the smallest 2$ inches 

long and I J inches wide. 
MEDOMSLEY. Leaf-shape bronze sword, accompanied by two rings used in connection with the 

belt. Several bronze articles were also found at another place near Medomsley. 
MORDEN CARR. Socketed axe. 
PIERCEBRIDGE. Flanged axe. 
SOUTH SHIELDS. A flint knife found with an unburnt body in a cist at the Trow Rocks, Westoe, 

near South Shields, is now in the British Museum. 
SUNDERLAND, HILTON (in river). Socketed axe. 
TEESDALE, HOLWICK. In the British Museum there are two jet beads approximately square in 

form, and ornamented with series of dots or short dashes arranged in parallel lines so as to 

occupy spaces of somewhat elongated lozenge shape. 
TRIMDON GRANGE, TRIMDON. Fragment of cinerary urn found in a barrow, and now preserved 

in the Greenwell Collection at the British Museum. 
RIVER TEES, OPPOSITE MIDDLESBROUGH. A leaf-shape sword with long slot in handle-plate and 

four rivet-holes for attachment to handle. 
RIVER TYNE, BELOW NEWCASTLE. An extremely fine bronze sword (27^- inches long and ij- inches 

wide), the broad tang or handle-plate being pierced with eight holes for securing the handle ; 

now in the Greenwell Collection at Durham. A very similar sword, found in the Tyne at 

Newcastle, is now in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
RIVER TYNE, KING'S MEADOWS, ABOVE NEWCASTLE. A socketed spear-head, with two lunate 
openings in the blade : also a massive dagger (13 inches long) with three rivets and two narrow 

ribs running the entire length, one on each side of the curved midrib. 

RIVER TYNE, NEWCASTLE. A beautifully shaped rapier blade (19^ inches long), with pronounced 
narrow midrib, and two small nicks for attachment to the handle : also a well-shaped rapier 

blade (15^ inches long). Two rivets in handle-plate. 
RIVER TYNE, ABOVE NEWCASTLE BRIDGE. Large spear-head. 

RIVER WEAR, NORTH SHORE, AT CLAXHEUGH, ABOVE SUNDERLAND. A rapier blade, with two rivet 
holes in the handle-plate. 

BARROWS AND OTHER SEPULCHRAL DEPOSITS 

The prehistoric burials in the county of Durham, as is the case with the 
implements, weapons, and other traces of early man, appear to belong almost 
entirely to the age of bronze, but the burial mound at Copt Hill, Houghton 
le Spring, was originally a neolithic barrow, with secondary interments 
belonging to the bronze age introduced. 

207 



HISTORY OF DURHAM 



ANGLO-SA: 



26 



'<U-h L.*,i, T., l ,-,n.,~^^y^^ Sl ^,, 

r-' iW -i\.'V.y''//, V.R-r/v J^/v,,7i.v.; 



, V<,tlH.;..,k ! ' fiKZSi , <T^T--^ '-'^^ ~^''\^.fl : ^^S^^^f4'"'' l ''' : ' l r^~-^^ 

';:/,../;-. ' JL^rr'--'" '' ^^ru^ataiiworiK 1 \^f~ '^M-rf-^^il ~> " P"**^ 

; "%%%'''' .,'::';;'::;, I,. , w ,' ^-^je^/'f^^, ZLu 



J "" Jf "" . J.) 'Jjl""W'i" \ J-.n.fcVA"" ^i 
,A "! \ 



/ ' 




HM KAj^mr^v Gcogpnjiic J Intit..lf 



THE VI CTORIA HI STORY C 



IN REMAINS. 



REFKRENCI 
Inurnwnu 55 

Mlcollineou F1nd> 
O Sculptured Stonn 
A Sundials 



TEES & A Y 




E COUNTIES OF ENGLAND 



ANGLO-SAXON 
REMAINS 

WITH the exception of sculptured memorial crosses of standing form, 
and recumbent grave-covers, complete or in a fragmentary con- 
dition, the remains indicating the state of the arts and cultiva- 
tion in the present county of Durham during the post-Roman and 
the pre-Norman periods, are exceedingly meagre. Of glass vessels only one is 
available for description, and bronze ornaments for personal use are very scarce. 
Again, in the matter of weapons, with the exception of the valuable hoard 
from Hurbuck, there are few to be mentioned. Cemeteries have been found 
at Hartlepool and Monkwearmouth directly connected with churches, and at 
Darlington where no such connection is apparent, while single burials that 
may indicate sites of cemeteries have been brought to light at Castle Eden 
and Heworth, 1 which also were probably connected with churches. 

The discovery at Darlington, perhaps the most important, was made in 
1876, by Mr. Haxby Dougill, a builder of that town, when making excava- 
tions for a sewer, to be laid between Dodd Street and Selborne Terrace on 
the Greenbank estate, which lies to the north of the parish church. The 
importance of the find was fortunately realized by a local antiquary, Mr. J. T. 
Abbott,* who made observations on the site, and collected a number of objects 
found associated with the burials. About a dozen skeletons of males, females, 
and children were found, and, at the head of each, was a small urn, of burnt 
clay. The bodies had been laid with the feet to the east. Among the articles 
accompanying them were a number of brooches, of various sizes, some of 
which showed traces of gilding ; two circular brooches ; a pair of tweezers ; 
a number of broken brooches and pins ; and two large cruciform brooches, 8 
all of bronze ; also a necklace composed of amber, glass, and stone beads, and 
, a chalk object, no doubt a spindle whorl, which may have been round the 
neck of one of the persons interred. The weapons found were iron swords 
and spear-heads, and two or more iron bosses of shields. The period to 
which these articles point is that of the very early Anglian occupation, possibly 
before the introduction of Christianity into Northumbria. Three spear-heads 
preserved measure respectively loj inches, I2j inches, and 16 inches in 
length. They are of the early Anglo-Saxon form, the sockets being split 
up to show part of the shaft. The three spear-heads and a fibula are in the 
possession of Mr. Edward Wooler of Darlington, the shield bosses are in that 
of Canon Greenwell of Durham, and some other objects are in the collection 
of Sir John Evans. 

1 The rock burial at East Boldon to be referred to below may be mentioned in this connection. 
* Mr. Abbott contributed an account of the find to the Nortb-Eastern Independent of Saturday, I February, 
1879. 

1 Five similar examples are figured on Plate V. of The Induitrial Artt of the Anglo-Saxont, De Baye. 

211 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

The cemetery at Hartlepool was discovered in July, 1833, during 
excavations in a field called Cross Close, about 150 yards south-east of the 
ancient church of St. Hilda, and was possibly connected with the nunnery 
over which that saint presided about the middle of the seventh century. 1 It 
is a misfortune that no accurate observations were made at the time of the 
discovery by any competent archasologist, as many of the stones accompanying 
the burials were dispersed and destroyed before their unusual and interesting 
character was noticed. Several skeletons were found buried at a depth of 
of about 3! feet and lying on the limestone rock. They were laid north 
and south with their heads resting on small, square flat stones (hence called 
pillow-stones) ; while above the skeletons were other stones of a memorial 
character. Of these, only seven complete stones have been preserved; 
the number originally found is unknown. Four of them are in the British 
Museum, two in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, and one is in the Cathedral Library at Durham. They are all 
of rectangular form and vary in size, the greatest length being only 1 1 J inches. 
Some fragments of another stone of circular form, 13! inches in diameter, 
were found. When complete this stone had contained, in incised lines, an 
elegant cross, with circular boss in the centre, and circular terminations to the 
four arms. A border of lines and sunk circles surrounded the stone, and the 
remaining fragments contained most of the letters forming the words 
REQUIESCAT IN PACE. The letters are of the Saxon form, the square c being 
used. 

In referring to these stones, it will be convenient to number them as in 
Dr. Haigh's list. 8 Nos. 3, 5, 7 and 8 are in the British Museum. No. 3 
is 7^ inches by 5^ inches, and shows a raised cross and border formed by 
sinking the field. The cross has semicircular terminations, or half bosses, 
at the extremities of the limbs, and a boss at the intersection. Across 
the lower part the letters EDILUINI in Saxon minuscules are incised. No. 5 
is 8J inches by 7 inches, and has also a raised cross and border formed in 
the same manner. The cross is of a very unusual form ; its limbs termi- 
nate in steps of two degrees on either side each limb, and the centre boss is 
of the lozenge form stepped into four degrees in each angle. On the field 
is incised an inscription in five lines in minuscules, ORATE PRO EDILUINI 
ORATE PRO UERMUND ET TORTHSUiD, which is remarkable, as it repeats 
the names which occur singly on three other stones. No. 7 is 8 inches by 
7! inches, and has again the characteristic type of cross, but formed by in- 
cised lines only, with the name HANEGNEVB also incised ; the letters are 
uncial with the exception of the G, which is minuscule. No. 8 is lof inches 
by 8| inches, and has an elegant cross formed of broad double and treble in- 
cised lines, the arms ending in circles with outer circles and curious scroll 
terminations. The surface is unfortunately damaged, but retains the letters 
. . . OUGUID in minuscules. The two fragments of the circular stone, and 
No. i on Dr. Haigh's list are lost. 

The two rectangular stones preserved at Newcastle (2 and 4) have each 
a cross of the same form, in one case in relief, in the other incised. The 

1 The fact that the bodies were laid north and south, it has been argued, is against the suggestion that 
they were the remains of Christians. 

* Brit. Arch. Assoc. Journ. i. 185-196. Arch. xxvi. 497, pi. Hi. 

212 








w 




HARTLEPOOL : GRAVESTONE No. 3. 




HARTLEPOOL : GRAVESTONE No. 7. 




HARTLEPOOL : GRAVESTONE No. 8. 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

inscription on the former is, in Saxon letters, ORA PRO VERMVND TORHTSVID, 
and that on the latter, in runes, the female name HiLDDiGYTH. 1 The stone 
at Durham (6) has also a cross in incised lines. In the upper part are the letters 
Alpha and Omega, and below is the name BERCHTGYD in minuscule characters. 

Further discoveries were made in the year 1838 and also in 1843, 
when some pieces of coloured glass and a bone needle were found. 

A curious object which accompanied one of the interments is in the 
possession of the Rev. Canon Greenwell. It is composed of hard limestone, 
and is in the form of the small mortars used for pounding drugs. It measures 
7! inches in length and 5 inches in width, and 4$ inches in height. The 
interior is 3! inches in diameter, and on one side is a sinking in the rim, no 
doubt for the purpose of guiding the passage of the contents when reduced to 
a powder. Its general appearance is that of the ' creeing trough ' of later 
periods. 

The only relic of the cemetery at Monkwearmouth which has been 
discovered is the small stone, now in the British Museum, bearing upon it the 
name TIDFIRTH,* in runes. This was found in 1834 at a great depth, about 
20 feet from the south side of the ancient church of St. Peter, and within the 
area of what is called the Manor House, where, probably, was the cemetery 
connected with Biscop's Monastery. Tidfirth was the last bishop of Hex- 
ham, and was deposed about the year 821. The occurrence of the stone 
with his name at Monkwearmouth has been thought to imply that he was 
on a journey, possibly to Rome, and having died before his intended 
embarkation, was buried there. 

Among the bronze ornaments of this period is a curious brooch or 
buckle preserved in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne and found probably about the beginning of the nineteenth century 
(the date has not been recorded), associated with a burial in a rock tomb at 
East Boldon, near Sunderland, and was presented to the society by the late 
Rev. G. C. Abbes of Cleadon. It is ornamented with three small circular 
bosses of gold to enclose polished garnets, one of which is wanting. 

The most important series of weapons of this period in the county came 
to light in the year 1870, on the farm at Hurbuck, near Lanchester. They 
were noticed by the late David Balleny, the owner of the farm, when fishing 
in the Smallhope Burn, 2 miles west of Lanchester. 8 The hoard comprised 
two swords, four scythes, two tools, one of which resembles a gouge, two 
buckles or brooches, without pins, eight axes of different forms, several of 
them being of the francisca type, and the pointed butt of a spear shaft, 
which is slit up for half its length and retains the rivet which secured it to 
the shaft. Of the above articles seventeen are in the possession of 
Mr. Edmund Balleny of Little Greencroft, and two axes in that of Canon 
Greenwell of Durham. The late Dr. Edward Charlton, of Newcastle, pro- 
cured from the hoard one scythe and one axe, the present location of which 
is unknown. The two swords are in very different states of preservation ; 
the more perfect is an example of the long iron sword or spatha, and is 2 feet 
1 1 inches long. The blade is double edged, 2 inches wide at the guard, 

1 Brit. Arch. AUK. Journ. \. 185-196. 

1 The Priory ofHexbam (Surtee* Soc.), vol. 44, introd. p. zl., and Arch. jERana, vi. 1 96. 

8 Arch. Journ. xviii. 67. 

213 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

and i inch at the tip. It is entirely of iron and a solid forging, and very 
closely resembles a sword found at Canwick Common, near Lincoln. 1 The 
guard is of the curved form, the hilt 3 inches long, and the pommel has a 
curved base, the knob being solid and heavy in order to counterbalance the 
weight of the blade. The attenuated form of the handle indicates that it 
was furnished with a leather wrapping or wooden mount. The other sword 
is now 28 inches in length, and is much corroded. It has been very highly 
finished, and some portions of its polished surface retain considerable traces of 
inlaying with gold. All indications of the guard, the hilt, and the pommel 
are gone, and it is not unlikely that its original length was as much as 
3 feet. 

The scythes average 15 inches in length with blades if inches in width. 
They have tangs at right angles to the blades, one of which is 4 inches 
long, with which they were attached to whatever form of handle was used 
to wield them. Two rings are possibly the remains of harness buckles. 
The larger one is circular, 3^ inches in diameter, the ends overlap, and are 
welded together with a strap, very rudely attached. The smaller one is of 
rectangular form, 3^ inches by 2 inches. The two objects for which it is 
most difficult to suggest a use are two bars, respectively 18 inches and 
1 3 inches in length ; the longer one has a circular section and is pointed at 
both ends, a long tapering point at one end and a blunt point at the other. 
Its general appearance is that of a modern crowbar. The shorter tool has 
also a circular section for the greater portion of its length, f inch in diameter ; 
one end is widened out to the extent of an inch and flattened, the other is 
also expanded to an inch in width, and resembles a rudely-formed spoon. It 
may have been used as a gouge for shaping timber. 

The eight axes are of special interest. They vary in form ; some of them 
being of the Saxon 8 type, others resemble the francisca. The blade of the 
largest axe is of the former kind, and is i o inches in length from the out- 
side of the socket to the cutting edge of the blade. This is expanded and 
measures 12 inches from one point to the other, with an average width of 
an inch. The neck connecting the socket with the blade is f inch wide, and 
has an average thickness of f inch. The socket measures if inches width 
and depth, and is perforated to accommodate a shaft, of the usual oval form, 
2 inches by i inch. Two smaller axes of the same form measure respectively 
5! and 6 inches in total length. Another, of the francisca type, is 8 inches 
in length, and 2j inches wide on the cutting edge. Two others are of a 
similar form. 

The last object to be described exactly resembles a miner's pick of the 
present day, and was, no doubt, used for similar purposes. It is loj inches 
long, pointed at both ends, and perforated in the centre to accommodate a shaft 
2 inches by i inch. Viewed from the side, it is fashioned to a curve of about 
i foot in radius ; while at the centre, the socket is expanded to a depth of 
ij inches. 

Of the two axes in Canon Greenwell's possession, one is of the Saxon 
type, and is 9! inches long from the extremity of the socket to the edge of 

1 Social England, i. 259. Notes to Illus. p. xxi. 

8 Richard F. Burton, The Book of the SworJ, p. 94, fig. 98 ; Kemble, Horte Feraks, pi. 26 and 27, 
pp. 207-208. Akerman's Pagan SaxonJom, pi. xxiii. ; Inventarium Sepulchrale passim, Lindenschmit Altertkummer, 
vol. ii. heft iii. tof. 2 ; Lindenschmit, Handbuch, pt. i. 192-3 ; Demmin, Arms and Armour, 155. 

214 




g 

'So 



s 

u ^ 
z g 

J 



ac ^ 



t- 

8 




- 

o 

M 



o ' 






o 

z 

< 



w 







I 
h- 
cr 




O 

ec 

3 


6 

S 
o 






i. 
- 






To face fa ft 114 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

the blade. The blade measures 12 inches in length. The axe of the fran- 
cisca form is 5^ inches long and 3^ inches wide at the cutting edge, this 
being set at an angle of 21 degrees to the axial line. Remains of the 
wooden handle are in the socket. 

In the excavation that was undertaken on the site of the destroyed portion 
of the Chapter House at Durham in 1 874, an iron spear-head, coated with gold, 
was found in association with one of the burials at a lower level than that at 
which the bishops were interred. It therefore belonged to an interment of 
the period between 995 and 1083. Such a spear was a common accom- 
paniment of a male burial of the period. It measures 7 inches in length 
and I*, inches in width. The socket is I inch in diameter, and retains the 
rivets and a part of the shaft. It is preserved in the Cathedral Library, Durham. 

Only one glass vessel of the Anglo-Saxon period is known to have been 
found in the county. It is of singular interest and beauty, and was discovered 
in 1775 at Castle Eden by some workmen employed in uprooting a hedge 
about 100 yards from the bridge which spans the burn dividing the 
church from the castle. It was associated with a burial, and the con- 
temporary description of the find states that ' The mouth of the vase was 
applied to a human skull, so near the surface, as to leave the bottom of the 
vase exposed in the gutter of the hedge, the body had been deposited 
horizontally with the head towards the east and had been covered with a 
heap of common field stones. The labourer represented the skull and bones 
as appearing entire ; but he was prevented by the clergyman of Castle Eden 
from making any further research. The ground was, however, again opened 
soon after by Mr. Burden's directions ; and a cavity was discovered beneath 
the cairn, or heap of stones, large enough to contain a body of ordinary 
dimensions, with a quantity of deep coloured soil, the remains probably of 
the bones which had mouldered on the admission of the air. The vase was 
full of earth, and, when emptied, appeared to retain a subtle, aromatic smell.' 
It may be added that the place of discovery is almost exactly opposite the 
spot where the grant of William de Thorp fixes the cemetery of the ancient 
chapel of St. James in the twelfth century : ' Costera sub cemeterio.' 

This glass cup, which belongs to a well-known type, is quite isolated in 
the north of England and deserves more than a passing notice. It is in 
excellent preservation, and its blue colour is somewhat exceptional, glass of the 
period being generally of an amber yellow or an olive green. Several examples 
are included in the national collection, but it is very seldom that a specimen is 
found entire. Continental examples from the Rhine valley and Normandy 
have long been known, and it would be unwise to claim an exclusive Anglo- 
Saxon origin for them, though many have been found in Kent and our 
southern counties, and fragments have been obtained as far north as Northants. 1 
Of itself the Durham specimen proves nothing as to the tribal connections of 
the inhabitants during the sixth and seventh centuries, as it might easily have 
been obtained by commerce, or in a raid on the south ; but it should always 
be borne in mind that the so-called Anglian cinerary urns practically cease at 
the Yorkshire border. It would be interesting, however, to derive some clue as 
to the earliest Anglo-Saxon occupants of what is now Durham from the contents 
of the graves. In this connection it may be noticed that though at Darlington 

1 y. C. H. Northants, \. 244. 
215 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

the skeletons lay with their feet at the east end of the grave, obviously 
Christian interments in the cemetery of Hartlepool nunnery were north and 
south. The presence of weapons and grave furniture in the former case 
seeming to imply that the east-and-west burials at Darlington were not those 
of Christian converts. Orientation may eventually prove of importance in 
determining the date and character of Anglo-Saxon burials. 

A curious coincidence should be mentioned in connection with a barrow 
(grave-mound) at Cambois, Northumberland. With a burial were found an 
enamelled bronze brooch and part of a bone comb, 1 which can be approxi- 
mately dated. Many combs of this kind, with a stout handle tapering to the 
head of the comb, and one row of teeth, are to be seen in the York Museum, 
and can be assigned with little hesitation to the Danish period. Apart from 
this association it would be difficult to place the brooch, which has a flat 
circular centre enclosing a bird, apparently with a branch in its beak, the 
ground being filled with blue, green, and white enamel of the c&amp/eve kind. 
Round the centre, but on a lower level, is a band of embossed work, probably 
meant for running-scrolls. Another, modelled perhaps from the same original, 
but further from the prototype, and somewhat debased and smaller was pro- 
bably found on the site of Hyde Abbey, near Winchester, well-known as the 
burial place of Alfred. The enamel colours are somewhat indistinct, but the 
design is the same, and the diameter is about if inches. 8 That these two 
enamelled brooches were of Danish manufacture is not probable, and they 
may be English work, or have come from Gaul or the Rhine district, where 
the bird was in use as a Christian symbol. 

The only hoard of coins of this period which has been discovered in 
the county was a small one of about a dozen pieces, found while digging 
a grave in the burial ground attached to the chapel at Heworth, near Gates- 
head, about the year 1822. They were contained in a curiously shaped 
vessel of coarse earthenware, poorly glazed, 2j inches high and 2 J inches in 
diameter in its widest part. The mouth measures if inches by i inch 
inside, and is formed into a rudely formed lip. Opposite to the lip a broken 
patch seems to indicate that the vessel was originally supplied with a handle 
in the form of a hook. It may be generally described as somewhat resem- 
bling a small cream jug. In two places blackened patches show that it had 
been in contact with fire. The coins are of bronze, of the type known as 
stycas, and are all of the reign of Ecgfrith (670685). On the obverse they 
bear the letters, + ECGFRID REX, and on the reverse the single word LVX ; inter- 
spersed with these three letters are a number of radiating lines which may 
represent the rays of the sun. The Rev. John Hodgson, 8 in exhibiting one 
of the coins at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, conjectured that the motto LVX was either complimentary to the 
character of Ecgfrith, or as an allusion to the flourishing state of Christianity 
during his reign. 

Mr. LongstafFe mentions four silver pennies of Alfred's time, found at 
Gainford about 1865.* They were then in the possession of the Rev. J. 
Edleston, and were discovered together outside the north-west angle of the 
chancel of Gainford church. 

1 Both are in the British Museum. V. C. H. Hants, i. 397. 

8 Arch. sESana, i. 1 24, pi. vi. * Ibid. vi. 233-4. 

316 




GLASS VESSEL FOUND AT CASTLE EDEN IN 1775. 



To fatt fag, 216. 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

SCULPTURED STONES 

The county of Durham contains a very large number of architectural 
and sculptured remains of the period. In this section, only the sculptured 
stones which are of a memorial character will be dealt with. Those which 
are clearly architectural details will be referred to in the section on archi- 
tecture. The art of the memorial stones may be said to be entirely of 
Christian character. The earlier examples are the more beautiful, and dis- 
tinctly of the Anglian school ; while the later are manifestly inferior both in 
design and execution. Dealing in detail with the various stones it will be 
convenient to adopt a topographical and alphabetical arrangement. 

Auckland, In the church of St. Andrew, commonly called South 
Church, is a very interesting collection, nearly the whole of which was 
taken out of the walls of the south transept at the time it was rebuilt in 
1 88 1. The existence of these stones in the walls of this part of the church 
is a fact of some interest, as the transept was an extension of an earlier 
building, and was built upon a portion of the ancient burial-ground on the 
south of the older church. The crosses, therefore, were probably in situ 
when the extension was made, and were broken up and used in the walls as 
building material. 

Five of the fragments belong, apparently, to the same memorial, and 
may conveniently be described together. They consist of a portion of the 
pedestal or base-stone which carried the shaft and cross, the latter being 
represented by three other pieces. The base was apparently split up into 
eight portions for use as walling stones. Of these, three remain, and show 
the width and height of the original. There is considerable ' batter ' on all 
four sides, and a triple bead-moulding is carried round the upper angles and 
down the sides to the termination of the figure subjects. The side which is 
most perfect contains three nimbed figures, the centre one of which has a 
book in the left hand, with the right hand raised and the two first fingers 
pointing towards the figure on the left. Of the two outer figures one has 
the right hand raised, and the other the left, the open hand points to the 
central figure. 1 Portions of two of the returned faces remain, each containing 
the greater part of a nimbed figure. 

The two pieces of the shaft of the cross show that it was one of great 
interest and beauty, and has higher artistic merits than any other example of 
like work in the county. A small portion of the bottom of one of the sides, 
when compared in its width with the much larger fragment, indicates that 
the shaft was a lofty one and that the greater part of it is wanting. This 
comparison, assisted by the arrangement of the sculpture on the Bewcastle 
cross, shows pretty clearly that the larger fragment came from near the top 
of the shaft. The front and back of the shaft have pictorial subjects in 
panels, the upper of which in each case is almost entire and has a semicircular 
head. Each contains two figures, of which one holds in his hand a sceptre 
tipped with three balls; another, in the other picture, a scroll rolled up. 
The drapery of the figures represented with raised hands, flows over the arm 
in easy folds, while the vestment in another case is enriched with bands 

1 The Rev. J. F. Hodgson conjectures that the scene is one of the later events in the life of our Lord. 
Arch. jEliana, xz. 30. 

I 217 28 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

containing lines of raised pellets. Below are portions of two other subjects. 
One of these is a Crucifixion with three nimbed figures having curled hair 
like that of the evangelists in the Lindisfarne Gospels, and of David in the 
Durham Cassiodorus. 1 This is important as suggesting that this memorial 
is probably as early as c. 700. In any case it seems to belong to the very 
best period of Anglo-Saxon sculpture. Over the head of the figure of our 
Lord is a square panel with the letters p A s, an abbreviation of ' passus est,' 
the final letter being of the Greek form as used in the pictures of the 
evangelists in the Lindisfarne Gospels. The angles are treated with the 
usual triple bead, the outer bead being worked into a cable moulding. 8 These 
beads are carried across the shaft as divisions between the subjects. Both 
sides are ornamented with a very finely sculptured rolling scroll, similar to 
those on the stones at Jarrow, Jedburgh, Bewcastle, Ruth well, Easby and 
elsewhere. The whorls enclose animals and birds, which are represented in 
all cases as eating the fruit which forms the terminations of the various stems. 
At the lower termination on one side is the upper part of a human figure, 
the upraised hands of which hold a bow and arrow, pointed at one of the 
animals. The small fragment which formed the foot of one of the sides has 
upon it the commencement of a scroll of that peculiar expanded form which 
occurs at Bewcastle and Ruthwell. Standing upon this is a figure repre- 
sented as ascending, only the feet and legs of which remain. 

Another stone is an almost perfect example of a horizontal grave-cover, 
or possibly a headstone. It is a rectangular slab 2 feet 6 inches by I foot 
8j inches, and has upon it a cross, the head of which is of the square patee 
form. At the intersection of the arms is a boss, and the arms and the stem 
are covered with shallow knot- work. In the spaces on either side of the 
shaft are long shallow knots with double cords. Above the arms are ten 
raised pellets in each space, probably meant to represent stars. 1 

Ayclijfe. There have been found here twelve fragments of cross-shafts 
and headstones, (i) A small head or foot stone, 1 6 inches high, 1 1 inches 
wide, and 7 inches thick, now deposited in the museum of Archaeology and 
Ethnology, Cambridge. The sides are tapered and the head is semicircular. 
The edges are worked with flat knot-work, very much decayed ; the front 
and back have each two nimbed figures of full height. They are represented 
as clad in short tunics, hollowed or raised above the knees ; the legs are 
bare, the hands folded and pressed on the breast. The faces are thin and of a 
pointed oval form, around which the hair is indicated. One of the figures 
holds an object with a trefoil pointed end, possibly a lily. As the two figures 
are slightly different in height they may possibly be intended to commemorate 
two children, (ii) A small semicircular headstone measuring 1 3 inches high, 
14^ inches wide, and 6 inches thick, has on either face a cross of the Anglian 
form, raised on a sunk ground. At the intersection of the arms is a circular 
boss. A single cord passes over the whole, and is knotted at each termination 
in three loops. The angles are beaded, and the same design occurs on both 
faces, while carried round the edge of the stone is a flat-knotted band of a 

1 Dur. Cath. Libr. MSS. B. II. 30. 

s Rev. G. F. Browne (the bishop of Bristol), Magazine of Art, part 52, pp. 156-7. 

3 Similar pellets occur on a stone, clearly of early Saxon date, at Simondburn in Northumberland, and on 
the tympanum of an early Norman doorway at Wold Newton in Yorkshire, where they are associated with an 
annular object probably intended to represent the moon. Keyser, 'Norman Tympana and Lintels, fig. 1 6. 

218 





7 
; 



: 

- 



o 

s. 




2 t 

C/3 < 



r<>/ /j^, us 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

single cord, (iii) A fragment of the arm of a cross of Anglian form. It has 
knot-work of simple character on the two faces and the end of the arm. 
(iv) A piece of a cross-shaft 12 inches by 9 inches by 5^ inches, having the 
lower portions of two figures, and beneath them the head and part of the 
twisted body of a monster. One edge has a well-cut double plait, the other 
a single plait, (v) Another exhibits on one side two nimbed figures with 
their hands clasped, and on the other an eagle preening its feathers. The 
edges have well-cut knot-work, (vi) Another has portions of only two 
sides decipherable. One side has two figures precisely similar to the last, 
while a simple flat knot occurs on the other, (vii) A fragment which has 
been worked for a window sill and only shows its original use on one side. 
This has been divided into panels, each containing knot-work. One of these 
has a large, complicated plait, of which but a portion remains, while below 
it is a narrow panel crossing the shaft, with a simple four-cord knot, (viii) A 
fragment used to form the bowl of a thirteenth-century piscina. It has a 
delicate and finely worked six-cord plait on one side, but from the other the 
original ornament has been obliterated. 

All the above stones, except that now at Cambridge, are lying in the 
porch or the churchyard, and were taken out of the walls of the church 
during the restoration of 18812. 

(ix, x) Built into the south wall of the chancel, inside, are two frag- 
ments, the larger of which has two panels, each containing two figures of 
similar character to those already described. The other, much smaller, is 
part of a broader stone which has had panels, each containing three 
figures. Only the heads of one triplet and the feet of another have survived. 
(xi, xii) In the churchyard are the remains of two large and important 
crosses. One stands just outside the south door of the chancel, and the other 
some yards to the south-west of it. The base stone of the former is ancient, 
and the lower part of the shaft appears never to have been removed from it. 
The shaft is now complete for its whole length, and the only portions wanting 
are the arms or keys of the cross-head. About 1845 the upper part of this 
cross and the remaining portion of the shaft of the other, which was originally 
very much larger and sculptured in a better manner, were used as lintels over 
openings in the tower of the thirteenth-century church. They were subse- 
quently erected inside the tower, 1 but some years ago the upper portion of 
the smaller cross was added to the piece of the shaft in the base in the 
churchyard,* and the shaft of the larger one fixed into a modern base stone. 
The dimensions of the more perfect cross are : base stone, 2 feet 3 inches by 
I foot 9 inches by 2 feet ; shaft, 5 feet 1 1 inches high/ and the base to the 
top i foot 5 inches wide and 7 inches thick. On the south side the greater 
portion of the shaft is occupied with a design in which two monsters with 
their heads downwards and having prominent snouts and ears arc involved 
with interlacing bands which originate in the feet of the monsters. Rising 
to the head they form a large number of irregular loops, and returning down- 
wards seem to terminate in the mouths of the beasts. The central part of the 
crosshead is a large circular disc, and is treated similarly on both sides. The 
cross symbol is emphasised by the disc being divided into four portions, each 

> Arch. Journ. iii. 259-261. * LongstafFe, History of DarGagfon, 215. 

1 Trans. Dur. Northumb. Arch. Sat. iii. 5 I . 
219 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

of which is filled with a ' triquetra.' These are connected together so that 
the whole forms a large and symmetrical circular interlacement. The north 
side has at the foot a band of fine plait-work crossing it ; above this, in a 
panel almost square, is a curiously drawn centaur. The right arm grasps a 
spear, while the left is turned back along the body and grasps the tail. This, 
above the point where it is held by the hand, is formed into a knot of seven 
loops. In the longer panel above are two monsters with their heads upwards, 
having in the mouths of each two balls, while between the heads are two 
rings. The necks are in each case divided into two, thus forming four bands 
which interlace over the whole panels in a much more regular manner than 
similar bands on the opposite side. In the remaining upper arm of the cross 
is a piece of simple knot-work. The two side arms were cut off to adapt the 
' stone for use as a lintel. The side facing west has a monster with its head 
downwards and its body rising in undulations to the top, returning to the 
bottom again and forming a knot in the spaces left by the undulations. 

The other cross-shaft is clearly very much reduced from its original 
height, as the upper part is wanting. The remaining portion is 4 feet 
9 inches in length. It is worthy of notice that the sides have hardly any 
taper as they rise. On the side now facing east are four panels : the lower 
contains a Crucifixion, the cross of which has rectangular arms and head. 
The body of our Lord is represented standing on the ground with the face 
turned to the left. Beneath are the two soldiers, the one to His right 
holding a spear, the other an annular object on a long shaft, representing 
the sponge or cup. In the spaces above the arms of the cross the sun and 
moon are shown. The panel above is a transverse band, containing knot-work ; 
over it is a larger panel with three nimbed figures all alike, their feet turned 
sideways to the right and the hands clasped on the breast. They wear long 
tunics which descend almost to the ankles, with girdles somewhat below the 
waist. The remaining portion of the upper panel has the tails of two 
monsters, which curling outwards are reduced to bands which entangle the 
bodies. On the opposite side, now facing west, are four divisions, the lowest 
a transverse band of knot-work, above which are three equal panels, the first 
containing three figures all alike with feet pointing outwards. They wear 
girdled tunics, and the hands are bound with cords. What is apparently a 
nimbus may be a cord binding the heads, as it is a continuous band passing 
from one to the other. The panel contains above this two figures only, 
similarly vested and bound. The cord (?) passing over the heads is looped 
into three loops between the heads and beyond them. In the uppermost 
panel are two figures, their heads unfortunately much shattered. Each one 
holds in his hand a weapon in an inclined position with the point to the 
right. One weapon looks like a mace and another a spear. They are 
habited very differently from the other figures, the skirts of their tunics 
having loose folds and scallops. No doubt the whole six panels have a 
symbolical meaning, and the two figures holding weapons may be meant 
to represent soldiers guarding the five bound figures below them. 1 

The two sides are very differently treated : that now facing south has 
three divisions, the lowest containing two four-legged creatures with long 

1 The Rev. W. S. Calverley attempts to show that the sculptures on some of the crosses represent subjects 
described in the heathen sagas. Arch. Journ. xl. 143 ; P. C. H. Cumb. i. 266. 



220 




i 

3 

U 
x 



u 




a 
co 

X 

o 



>5 

I 

s 
<J 



ct 

U 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

bodies, the legs and tails of which form interlacing bands, hampering the 
bodies, which are strikingly similar to those which occur so frequently in the 
illuminations in the Lindisfarne Gospels and other contemporary manuscripts. 
The division above contains a crucified figure with the head downwards. 
The head and arms of the cross are rectangular and very broad. The feet 
are placed facing outwards and the tunic is long and girdled. Above this is 
a division containing knot-work. On the other side the lower panel has 
been obliterated. In the upper portion are two panels of well-designed and 
skilfully-executed knot-work. 

EUlingham. Built into the walls of the tower of the church are several 
pieces of cross-shafts with sculpture of this period. Three of these can be 
identified among the larger stones on the south side. They are, however, in 
such an advanced state of disintegration on the exposed surfaces that unless 
they are removed from the walls no accurate description of them is possible. 
In the porch of the same church is a very beautiful fragment of sculpture, 
but as this is an architectural detail it will be dealt with in the description ot 
the church. 

In the British Museum is a fragment of an interesting small grave- 
cover of the Hartlepool type, which originally measured about 10 inches by 
14 inches. The cross border lines and letters are all incised. The cross has 
semicircular terminations to the arms, and no doubt had a circle at the inter- 
section. In the upper part of the field were the letters A and n in large 
Roman Capitals. The A only remains. In the border, between incised 
lines, was an inscription in uncials, of which only the letters ORATE PRO 
p . . . remain. In the more perfect arm of the cross are some other and 
smaller letters, forming apparently the word nimbus. 

In the cathedral library, Durham, is a small stone from Billingham. It 
is sculptured on all its four sides. On one face a seated figure is represented 
as resting on a straight plank, great prominence being given to the knees. 1 
Beneath the figure are small remains of some scroll foliage of an unusual type. 
On the opposite face the only remaining details are the legs of a human 
figure, ' representing probably part of the figure of our Lord upon the cross.' 
A third side has portions of two panels of good knot-work, and the remaining 
side has a creature resembling a bird. 

Chester le Street. The church here contains in its walls some portions of 
pre-Conquest work, and from time to time numerous pieces of sculpture have 
been found. A number of these stood for many years in the porch, 
and about 1882 one of the finest disappeared and has been searched for in 
vain. The largest of the stones is in the room above the * anchorage.' It 
is the base stone of a memorial cross and measures 2 feet 3 inches in height, 
i foot 7 inches in width, and i foot 4 inches in depth. The sinking, to 
contain the foot of the cross-shaft, measures 14 inches by loj inches by 
3 inches, and in the centre of the bottom of it is a dowel hole 2 inches in 
diameter and 4 inches deep. The stone is rectangular and its sides are 
vertical. It is fortunately entire, except that the sculpture has been cut away 
from one of its sides. On the face a scene is represented which is thus 

1 Haverfield and Greenwell, Cat. Sculptured and Inuribtd Stones Dur., 95, No. xxix. This curious treat- 
ment of the knees is observable in the representation of the human figure at this period both on stones and in 
illuminations. It is particularly noticeable in the tenth century MS. of Cacdmon's Metrical Paraphrase. 
Arch. vol. xxiv., pi. is. z. etc. 

221 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

described by the bishop of Bristol. 1 ' The main subject must represent our 
Lord fulfilling the promise that the seed of Eve should bruise the serpent's 
head. On the highly interesting stone at Dereham in Cumberland 2 there 
are three figures in a row, under semicircular arcades, with a gross serpent 
rolling under their feet, the right foot of the dexter figure on the creature's 
mouth. At Kirkdale the serpent lies beneath the feet of the Saviour on the 
cross. At Chester le Street, as elsewhere, the serpent becomes a dragon, and 
the form of dragon selected here is of the deer-shaped type, with huge teeth. 
Its attitude betokens overthrow, while still it rears its neck and tries to tear 
the feet which trample on its head. One fore leg seems to be helpless in the 
corner of the panel, the other is held up under the head and is hampered 
by the tail. . . . The figures on each side of our Lord may have either 
of the meanings, while it is quite possible that they may mean something very 
different from both. ... If the dexter figure has a cock's head and the 
similar figure the head of the fox they will represent pride and avarice, two 
of the sins which have been named as slaying our Lord.' 3 The opposite side 
has had two large holes cut in it. The remaining surface contains an inter- 
laced design of a very rude and irregular character. The remaining side has 
a bold example of interlacing bands, in the upper part of which an indepen- 
dent circle occurs. 

The other stones are collected in the Parochial Institute, which 
is on the opposite side of a lane to the west of the church. Four of these 
are portions of cross-shafts, and are placed on small wooden pedestals against 
the east wall of the room. The one at the south end measures 33 inches by 
10 inches by 8 inches. The sides exhibit various patterns of plaited cords of 
flat and somewhat coarse workmanship. The next stone, measuring 30 inches 
by i ij inches by 8jinch.es, has on the front a tolerably well cut four-cord 
plait, the cords being double. The sides have four-cord twists. The angles 
are worked with a cable moulding. 

The next is a more important relic than any of the others, as it contains 
a figure subject, consisting of a mounted warrior on whose left arm is a large 
circular shield with a well-developed boss.* Above him are the heads of two 
dragons, pointing downwards towards the horseman. Above their bodies and 
partly upon them are the letters E A D M v N r>, the M and N being runes. 
Bishop Browne remarks that this subject represents the evil spirits being 
withstood by the Scandinavian hero, as on the cross at Gosforth in Cumber- 
land. The two panels below are boldly executed but ill designed, with 
interlacements of circular form independent of one another, the upper one 
having two concentric and independent circles, with an endless band interlaced 
with them, while the lower one consists of a circle with two pairs of diagonal 
bands, the ends of which interlace with an independent circle. The bands 
are all double. The sides have four-cord plaits of a design which occurs in 
various places, as at Brescia, Hexham, Ripon, 6 Hart, etc. 

The last of these cross-shafts measures 25 J inches by loj inches by 
8j inches, and has on the upper part of the face for about half its length a 

1 Blunt, A Thousand Tears of the Church in Chester le Street, 185. 

2 V. C. H. Cumb. i. 276. Blunt, of. fit. 185. * Arch. Mliana, x 88. 

6 Romilly Allen, Analysis of Celtic Interlaced Ornament: Proc. Sac. Ant. Scot. xvii. 225 sqq. fig. 123; 
Cattaneo, Architecture in Italy, Engl. ed. 151. 



222 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

four-cord divided plait, the rest of the surface being left plain. The ornament 
on the other three sides has been chiselled away. 

Lying in one corner of the room are a large number of detached frag- 
ments of various dates. Ten of these are pre-Norman. The largest and 
most important is half of the base stone or pedestal of a standing cross. It is 
27 inches high and 18 inches wide, and the depth of the remaining 
portion is 12 inches. The front is occupied by a large cross of the patee 
form, the centre of which is emphasised by an incised circle. Above it is a 
transverse band of knot-work, the upper portion of which has been cut away. 
The dexter side bears two human figures which Bishop Browne assumes to 
represent the Salutation or the Return of the Prodigal, for one of the figures 
is kneeling with head bent down. The sinister side has a monster or dragon 
with twisted body and a tail placed in the mouth. The remaining fragments 
are : (i) a piece 12 inches by 8 inches carved with a lacertine monster; (ii) a 
piece of a cross-shaft 16 inches by 12 inches by 9 inches, on one side a rudely- 
drawn nondescript animal, on the others simple knot-work very much worn ; 
(iii) fragment of a cross-head 1 2 inches by 1 1 inches by 6 inches, containing 
cross knot-work with double cords ; (iv) piece of a shaft 1 1 inches by 8 inches 
by 6 inches with knots on its four sides, similar to that on the lower panel of 
the 'Eadmund' stone; (v) a piece of shaft n inches by 7 inches by 9 inches 
long, knot-work on two of its sides, a key pattern on another, and a lacertine 
monster on the last; (vi) a fragment 16 inches by 1 1 inches by 7 inches, with 
large knots coarsely worked on two sides, the other two surfaces broken away; 
(vii) a fragment 1 5 inches by 1 1 inches by 7$ inches has on the face a four- 
cord plait divided, on the side is a simple looped cord, the angles worked 
with a cable moulding; (viii) a fragment 15 inches by 9^ inches by 
6J inches, knot-work on three of its sides, on the other a triple spiral 
figure and circles in the unoccupied angles. The last fragment (ix) is a 
portion of a sundial, which will be dealt with among the other sundials. 

Coniscliffe. There was a church here in Anglo-Saxon days dedicated in 
honour of St. Edwin. Traces of this building are to be found in several 
fragments of sculptured crosses built into the present church, which dates 
from the last years of the twelfth century. On the north side of the tower 
is a small fragment 8 inches by 6 inches, the exposed face of which shows a 
few loops of an undivided plait design. On the west side of the tower, about 
1 5 feet from the ground, is a stone 1 6 inches by 5 inches on the face, appa- 
rently a portion of the upper part of one side of a cross-shaft. A bead is run 
round its angles, and the design upon it begins with a four-cord plait, which 
after making four or five crossings changes into a series of interrupted knots, 
of which two remain. 

A more interesting and important relic is an early grave-cover, which is 
built in, face downwards, as a lintel in the western window in the third stage 
of the tower. The visible portion is 2 feet 6 inches long, 1 1 inches wide at 
one end and 10 inches at the other. One part of its surface is covered with 
a four-cord plait, without breaks, divided from which by three transverse 
beads is a pair of shears 9 inches long, of the form used to indicate the burial 
of a female, and a design consisting of a series of sunk triangles placed alter- 
nately point to base in parallel rows, a design commonly used in surface 
ornament in the Norman period. This is the only instance which has come 

223 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

under the writer's observation of the shears occurring in association with 
ornament which in all probability is anterior to the middle of the eleventh 
century. 

Darlington. In the fine church of St. Cuthbert are preserved the heads 
of two pre-Conquest crosses. The larger one is complete and retains a part 
of the upper portion of the shaft, showing that the head and shaft were all 
worked out of one stone. Both sides are alike and have a raised boss in their 
centres. The form of the head is Anglian, and is ornamented with a double 
continuous band which, passing the boss, is carried into each of the four 
arms, where it forms triquetras. The smaller fragment has lost two of the 
arms. The raised boss is larger than in the other cross and the interlacing 
band is single but similarly treated. 

Dinsdale. Eight fragments of pre-Conquest crosses are built into the 
walls of the porch of this church. Amongst them are two cross-heads, one 
of which has two birds upon it, and the other interlacing designs. One 
portion of a cross-shaft shows the lower part of a panel containing two human 
figures. In the chancel is the greater part of a hog-backed stone of exactly 
the same type as the stones found at Brompton in Allertonshire, Arncliffe in 
Cleveland, and Sockburn. At either end is the large muzzled bear, while on 
the sides are three separate square panels, each containing two pointed loops 
interlaced. 1 Along the top is a simple square fret. In the lower part of 
each side is a semicircular-headed recess, which occurs on similar stones at 
Brompton and Sockburn, and very conspicuously on that from Arncliffe ; * its 
purpose has yet to be explained. 8 In the churchyard is the lower portion of 
the shaft of a large memorial cross, fixed in the ground. It bears coarsely 
executed interlaced designs on a large scale. On the side facing west is the 
unusual feature of a compartment in the form of a heater-shaped shield, 
containing a curious design with triquetra terminations and small isolated 
bosses. A somewhat similar feature occurs on one of the stones at Sockburn. 

Lying near to this cross is a huge and rudely worked stone coffin with 
its lid complete. There is little doubt that this is of pre-Conquest date. 
The lid is slightly coped and along its ridge is a large plain cross in high 
relief.* 

Durham. In the city of Durham two distinct groups of pre-Conquest 
stones have been brought to light. These groups are both of unusual 
importance and interest and stand out in marked contrast to the other small 
and isolated fragments which have been from time to time discovered, but 
which have no connection with these two series. The tradition which has 
come down from Leland's time, of the bearers of St. Cuthbert's body bringing 
with them a carved stone cross from Lindisfarne 6 and setting it up at 
Durham, no doubt rests on a foundation of fact, but the identification of this 
particular cross with one in the wall of St. Oswald's church must now be 
regarded as an archaeological error of the last century. St. Oswald's church, on 
the evidence of no less than five pre-Conquest crosses found in its walls 
and vicinity, appears to have bad a predecessor, at a date anterior to the 

1 Proc. Sac. Antiq. Neivtast/e-on-Tyne, ix. 62. Haverfield and Greenwell, of. cit. iz6, No. bciv. 

8 Canon Greenwell suggests that these recesses are meant to indicate the doorways of man's last house, 
which the hog-backed stone is believed to typify. 

* Hodges, Refyuary, New ser. p. 79. ' f Symeon of Durham (Rolls Ser.), i. 101. 

224 





BILLINGHAM : FRAGMENT OF GRAVESTONE, NOW IN BRITISH MUSEUM. 



ST. OSWALD'S, DURHAM : 
PORTION OF CROSS-SHAFT. 




JARROW : FRAGMENT OF CROSS-SHAFT IN NORTH PORCH. 




DURHAM : COPED GRAVE COVER IN CATHEDRAL LIBRARY. 



To fact ffft 124, 






ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

arrival of the congregation of St. Cuthbert and the building of the first 
church on the plateau. 

The most important of these crosses was built into the west wall of the 
fifteenth-century tower of the existing church and was in two pieces. One 
piece was removed from the church to the Cathedral Library in 1880. A 
few years later another portion of the same cross was taken from the tower, 
and these two were found to fit each other. In 1895 the other stones 
forming this group were taken out of the wall of the churchyard which 
divides it from Church Street. 1 As there can be no question of their early 
date, the finding of those additional examples is an important factor in the 
history of this portion of the city. The ornamentation on the largest cross 
is well executed and extends to all four faces. Two of the designs exhibit 
the lacertine monsters already referred to in other cases. One of these has 
two beasts, their heads respectively pointing upwards and downwards, their 
bodies contorted, and the limbs and tails elongated into bands, which are 
interlaced with, and hamper, the bodies. On the opposite side the lowest 
panel also has two somewhat similar monsters, but differently treated. Their 
bodies are crossed saltire-wise and their heads and tails roll inwards in a 
spiral form. The remaining panels contain interlaced designs similar to those 
of the local type. Another cross-shaft is 4 feet 1 1 inches long, i foot 6 inches 
wide and 9 inches thick. The lower portion of the cross-head remains, and 
as the shaft is complete at the foot it is evident that the whole was worked 
out of one stone, and when complete would be about 8 feet in height. 
The knot-work is flatly executed and is of simple but effective character. 
The two sides are alike and contain two groups, each of them independent 
circles, through which four bands are plaited and joined at their ends. One 
of the narrow sides has five parallel bands interlaced at either end and at two 
intermediate places. The other side has similar bands treated somewhat 
differently. The angles have a bead moulding, which is double on the two 
broader sides. Another cross, of practically the same size, also containing 
the lower portion of the head, has on either of its sides a single ornamented 
panel consisting of two complete circles through which are passed diagonally 
four bands joined at their ends. The sides are plain. A small fragment of 
the head of a cross is I foot 10 inches long and 9 inches wide. It seems to 
be the upper and lower arm, and is ornamented with knot-work. In the 
centre is a raised boss. A fragment of a cross-shaft, 8 inches high, has a 
portion of one side and the half of the two faces. It is ornamented with 
knot-work of the local type. It was found loose under the ' Black Staircase ' 
at Durham Castle, and there is no record of its previous history. 

The most important find of sculptured stones in the city of Durham occurred 
in the spring of 1891, when the foundations of the eastern portion of the 
Chapter House, part of which had been erected during the episcopate of Geoffrey 
Rufus (1133-1140), and destroyed in 1796, were taken up to be replaced 
with new foundations. It is known that the cemetery of the monks was in 
the open ground to the south of the quire, and east of the Chapter House, 
and occupied the same spot as the cemetery of the old congregation of 
St. Cuthbert, which occupied the church at Durham from 995 to 1083. 

l Haverficld and Greenwell, tf. (it. 73, 78 ; Trani. Dur. Ntrthumb. Arch. Sor. iii. 32 and plate ; iv. 281, 
pi. 1-4. 

1 225 29 




A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

The east end of the Chapter House encroached on the site of the cemetery, 
and the memorial crosses and grave covers must have been broken up and 
used in the foundations of the new building. They consist of the heads, 
more or less complete, of four crosses, the greater portion of a large coped 
grave cover, broken into three pieces, and a smaller grave cover, with a cross 
in relief upon it. The accompanying illustrations render a minute description 

unnecessary. It will 
be convenient to 
mention them in the 
same order as that in 
which they occur in 
the Durham Cata- 
logue. 1 

(A) This is the 
largest and most com- 
plete of the series. 
The head, which is of 
the Anglian type, has, 
within a circle in the 
centre of one face, 
the Holy Lamb, re- 
presented as standing 
in front of a cross 
fixed in a base on the 
ground. In front of 
the lamb is a circle, 
the meaning of which 
is obscure, unless it is 
meant to represent 
the sun.* In the up- 
per limb is an angel 
with four wings, and 
on either side of the 
angel's head is a 
human face, looking 
outwards. The side 
limbs contain figures 
of winged monsters 
and cherubs. The 
other face has in a cir- 
cle a group of three 
figures, which no 

BACK OK PORTION OF CROSS (A) FROM THE CHAPTER HOUSE, DURHAM. d ubt re P resent S the 

baptism of Christ. 3 
In the upper limb is a bird with wings extended and a long tail. The side 

* In Canon Greenwell's Paper on these crosses, Trans. Dur. Northumb. Arch.Soc. iv. 123, plates 1-6, this 
order is reversed. 

It does not occur in any one of the examples of this emblem on the Norman tympana illustrated i 
Mr. Keyser's work. Figs. 98 to 108. 

3 A similar subject occurs on across in Kells churchyard, co. Meath. Illus. Arch. i. 165. 

226 



FROST OF PORTION OF CROSS (A) FROM THE CHAPTER Housi, DURHAM. 




in 




FRONT OF PORTION OF CROSS (C) FROM THI 
. CHAPTER HOUSE, DURHAM. 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

limbs have each the same subject, two figures holding books ; the outer 
figure is the larger, and holds a cross as well as a book. The ends of 
the arms and the sides of the upper limbs have upon them panels of interlaced 
work. 

(B) This fragment consists of a cen- 
tral portion and side limbs only. On 
one side it has the representation of a 
Crucifixion. The figure of our Lord is 
nearly all broken away. On either side 
of the cross are two figures, with the 
arms folded. In the side limbs are again 
the same figures as described in A. On 
the opposite side is the representation of 
the Baptism of our Lord as on A. 

(C) This fragment has the centre, 
one arm, and the lower limb of a cross 
head. In the centre, within a circle, is 
the Crucifixion, with a single figure on 
either side of the cross. In the side 
limb are two monsters placed in saltire, 
the heads outwards, and the bodies ham- 
pered by an interlaced band. In the lower limb is a draped kneeling figure 
holding a tree, beyond which is a long-legged bird looking towards the 
figure. The trees have terminations like bunches of grapes. On the opposite 
side the Baptism occurs again, and above it the tail of a bird, as in A. In 
the lower limbs is an animal, which may represent a lion combating with 
a snake which is biting the lion's ear. On the body of the lion are incised 

lines, representing a twisted 
band with three loops. 

All these three cross heads 
are made of the same kind of 
stone, and were probably all 
carved by the same hand, and 
at nearly the same time. 

(D) Head of a cross nearly 
complete, of much coarser stone 
and ruder workmanship than 
the others. On one face is a 
figure having arms of a length 
out of all proportion to the 
figure itself, and which are ex- 
tended and grasp the limbs of 
two monsters which occupy the 
side limbs of the cross, and are 

FRONT or PORTION OP CROSS (D) FROM THE CHAPTER HOUSE, . , j ... . , , . , 

DURHAM, involved with interlaced bands. 

In the triangular spaces above 

and below the arms of the figure there are, in those above, two birds with their 
beaks touching, while below are triquetras. On the opposite face, within a 
circle, the Holy Lamb, behind which is the cross standing on the ground, and 

227 





A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

over the back the circular object previously mentioned. The upper limb has 
two monsters involved with interlaced hands. The side limbs have knot 
work. The lower retains a small portion of the body of a monster. The ends 

of the arms have knot-work 
upon them. 

The remains of the massive 
coped grave cover are of espe- 
cial interest, and it is to be 
regretted that the whole of it 
was not recovered ; something 
like one quarter is wanting. 
The sloping sides are divided 
into panels, each of which con- 
tains an intricate design of 
interlacing knot-work. On 
the remaining end, although 
the stone itself is rectangular, 
the ornament finishes in a 
semi-circular form. The tri- 
angular spaces thus produced 
are filled with interlacements 
which accommodate them- 
selves to the spaces. Two of these are correctly worked out, but that filling 
the end space is very irregular, and the under and over principle is not 
consistently maintained. The chief interest lies in the way in which the ridge 
and hips of the coped top of the stone are treated. Along the ridge are the 
bodies of two serpents, carried parallel to one another. They descend along 
the angles or hips, whence their heads point outwards. The stone is much 
defaced on the ridge, but it is probable that the bodies crossed at the point 
where they reached its end. The tails were on the piece which is wanting. 1 
The dimensions are 4 feet 6 inches long (originally probably 6 feet), I foot 
10 inches wide, and i foot 2 inches high.* 

The larger portion of a flat grave-cover with raised cross has the sculpture 
very rudely worked. In the centre of the cross is a circle containing a cross 
patee. The upper limb is broken away. Each limb contains a figure, two 
of which are beasts and one human. They were no doubt intended to 
represent the evangelistic symbols. On the shaft of the cross is a human 
figure with wings and nimbed. A small fragment, 9 inches high, has sculp- 
ture on one of its sides representing portions of two human figures. 8 

A fragment which once formed a side limb of a cross-head, 
measuring 8j inches long, 8j inches wide, and 3^ inches thick, has well 
designed and carefully executed knot-work on the two sides and the end of 
the arm.* 



BACK OF PORTION OF CROSS (D) FROM THB CHAPTER HOUSE, 

DURHAM. 



1 Twisted serpents occur on the jambs of the western doorway of the ancient church at Monkwearmouth, 
where the tails terminate in a curious expansion instead of a tapering point. Trans. Dur. Northumb. Arth. Sw. 
i. pi. 4, 7; ReKjuary,vii. 145. 

* Trans. Dur. Northumb. Arch. Soc. iv. pi. E.F. Pre-Conquest grave covers of this form are rare. 
Boutell figures two examples from Bakewell and St. Dionys, York. Christian Monuments, 12, 14. 

* Haverfield and Greenwell, of. fit. 89, No. xxvi. 

* Found since the Catalog* was published in 1 899. 

228 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

Elivick Hall. Built into the wall on either side of the chancel arch of 
the church are two stones, on one of which is a sculpture said to represent 
the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise. The figures seem to repre- 
sent the angel and Adam and Eve, with trees above them. The other stone 
has a cross head of Anglian form in relief, with beaded angles formed by an 
incised line, and two incised circles at the intersection. The head of the 
stone is semicircular and the triangular spaces above the arms of the cross each 
contain a ' triquetra.' Below the arms are the beginnings of interlaced 
designs, consisting of four-cord plaits which have continued down the sides 
of the shaft, showing that the remaining portion is only the head of a head- 
stone or a grave-cover. 1 

Escomb. Preserved in the ancient church are five stones of the pre- 
Norman period. Two of these are portions of a cross-shaft bearing upon 
them well-designed scrolls containing birds and animals interspersed with 
foliage scrolls belonging to the same school of work as those which have been 
described as being of the Hexham type. The angles of this cross have been 
worked with a cable moulding. Another fragment has interlaced work upon 
it. There is also in the chancel a grave-cover with a plain cross in a sunk 
panel with semicircular head, on the cross are raised bosses, and on the side 
of the shaft two raised circles.* The cross has a tapering shaft and a square 
base. The other is only a small portion of a semicircular headstone of 
tapering form. It has a plain square-limbed cross worked on either of its 
sides, and is probably not earlier than the eleventh century.* On a rockery 
in the vicarage garden are one or two small fragments with interlaced work 
upon them. From the wall of a house in Escomb there has been removed to 
Durham * a small stone measuring 9 inches by 5 inches, having upon it part 
of a very beautiful design of foliage and grapes. 

Gainford on the Tees. The church here has produced a larger number 
of fragments of this period than any other in the county. Nineteen of these 
stones were removed to the Cathedral Library at Durham in 1896." The 
largest is a cross, complete, with the exception of the side limbs of the head. 
It has raised bosses on either side at the intersection. One face has a long 
panel in which are two monsters one above the other interspersed with 
knotted bands. Below is a panel containing regular plait work without any 
break." The opposite face has three panels, the upper one containing a com- 
bination of a regular plait with knots above it ; the centre one two figures 
which appear to be bound together at their waist, and the third, a rectangular 
panel containing a circular knot-work design. The sides have bands of knot- 
work, and similar ornament fills the spaces in the arms of the cross. A con- 
siderable portion of the lower part of the shaft is left plain. 

Another portion of a shaft of a large cross has upon one face two monsters 
in similar relative positions to those already described. They are in a better 
state of preservation, and have their limbs and bodies bound and hampered 
with very irregularly drawn knotted bands. The opposite face has a monster 

1 Prix. Sof. Ant. Newcaitk-on-Tjne. ' Building Newt, Nov. 28, 1879. 

* Ibid. ii. 97; Reliquary, viii. 69 ; lUtu. Arth<tologitt, i. 225 ; Baldwin- Brown, Tht Arti in Early England, 
\\. passim. 

4 Since the Catalogue of the stones there was published. 

1 Havcrficld and Greenwe!!, of. fit., Nos. xxzi-xlviii. 

' Romilly Allen, Celtic Ait in Pagan and Christian Timtt, p. 259. 

229 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

curled in spiral fashion, its body divided into three sections by parallel lines. 
Its tail divides on leaving the body, and forms a regular plait, without break, 
of double cords ; it returns and crosses the body, and disappears where the 
stone is broken. The sides have knot-work designs. 

The head of a cross, almost complete, has raised bosses at the intersec- 
tions, containing four triquetras joined together. The arms are filled with 
interlacing plaits divided down the middle. A small fragment is the central 
part of a crosshead and has an open cross in the boss and knot-work on the 
surface. A still smaller fragment is the centre of a cross-head, the circular 
boss of which contains a key pattern. Another fragment is part of a limb of 
a cross-head, much weathered, but on one face an interlaced pattern is visible. 
Another consists of a portion of the lower limb and the upper part of the 
shaft of a cross. It is ornamented with knot-work, having divided bands 
arranged in a very unusual manner. 

Two more fragments are parts of the limbs of cross-heads with simple 
but bold knot work. 

The next is a portion of a shaft of a cross. On one face is a complete 
panel and a portion of another. The former contains three figures with their 

arms raised and placed together, behind 
which passes a bar or cord which binds 
them all together. In their hands are square 
objects which may represent books. The 
broken panel contains the lower portions of 
two figures. The other face has what ap- 
pears to be the stem of a cross, tapering, 
and divided into three. 

The next is a portion of the top of a 
cross-shaft, sculptured on all four sides. On 
one face is a man on horseback, his hair 
curled behind, and a spear on his right side. 
On the opposite face is part of a figure with 
hair curled on two sides of the head. An- 
other face has the head of an animal, a com- 
plete bird, and knot-work combined with 
them. The last face has a simple knot-work 
design with a divided band. 

Four small fragments have carving on 
two of their sides, mostly of simple knot-work. One has a fret pattern on 
one of its sides. 

A portion of a grave-cover is of very unusual character. Its angles are 
beaded, one having a cable moulding, another a plaited cord moulding. On 
one of the edges is part of a much-worn inscription which appears to read : 

ALDIHESETAE. 

Two pieces of another grave-cover have on one side two bands of 
carving, the upper showing a twisted band forming a continuous looped 
cord, 1 the lower a four-cord plait with divided bands. 

Another grave-cover to be noticed here is of a very unusual form. 
It is rectangular with straight and slightly tapering sides, with a flat top. 

1 Romilly Allen, Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. xvii. 225, Fig. n. 

230, 




PORTION OF CROSS SHAFT FROM GAINFORD. 






ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

Along the top is a band with an interlaced ribbon. The ornamented side 
has an arcade of six members worked upon it. The arches are semicircular, 
and have capitals and columns beneath them. The wider end has two arches 
of the arcade worked upon it, the other a square cross patee. As one side 
is plain it is probable that this stone was placed against a wall inside the 
early church. There are still remaining at Gainford a number of stones. 
In the porch of the church are two flat grave covers, used as portions of the 
stone seats. That on the east side has a cross, with broad tapering shaft 
worked in a sunk panel with semi-circular head. The angles of the shaft 
are beaded. The cross-head is of the circular patee form, and all four 
limbs are completely developed. In the spaces between the limbs are large 
balls. The panel has beaded angles produced by grooves. 

That on the west side has a square cross patee with all the limbs equally 
developed and enclosed by a circle. The stem has parallel sides for a distance 
equal to the diameter of the circle. It then divides and forms two and 
a half lozenges before it reaches the foot. The lozenges enclose smaller ones, 
and the spaces between them become chevrons, or they may be described as 
three parallel chevroned bands produced by four incised lines. The whole 
design seems to anticipate the chevron work of the Norman period. In 
general character however it appears to be of early date, and as similarly 
formed chevrons occur on the portion of a cross-shaft in the tower, associated 
with distinctly pre-Conquest designs, there can be little doubt that this grave- 
cover also belongs to this period. 

Built into the walls of the porch are several other stones. One of these 
is a headstone with rounded top, 14 inches wide and 16 inches high. The 
bottom is left rough for inserting into the ground. The upper part has a 
sunk panel containing a small cross patee 6 inches square, with a shaft only 
i J inches high. In the north angle of the porch are two small fragments 
with some remains of sculpture with lacertine designs, but not sufficient to 
indicate what they may have been. 

Over the doorway, between the newel staircase of the tower and the 
ringing chamber, and forming the lintel to it, are two pieces of cross-shafts. 
The position they occupy only allows one side of one of them and two sides 
of the other to be examined. On one is a series of designs produced by 
incised lines, two of which are visible. One has eight chevrons with their 
points towards the centre of the shaft, the other is a surface pattern produced 
by lines crossing at angles of about 40 deg. and i inches apart, forming a 
series of small lozenges. The other stone has on the face a design very 
similar to the spiral monster with tail forming the regular plait-work 
described above. l The side visible has upon it an interlaced design with a 
series of circles looped together with a continuous band. 

At the east end of the south aisle is a small fragment measuring 7 inches 
by 7 inches on the face, with a plain knot design. On the east side of the 
exterior of the porch is another piece 16 inches by 9 inches with a six-cord 
plait of divided bands. In the same wall is another stone, which appears to be 
the edge of a grave-cover, worked with a design resembling an interlaced arcade. 

In the garden wall of the vicarage is a stone measuring 1 1 inches by 
9 inches with knot-work on the face. 

1 Havcrfield and Grcenwell, tf. cit. 99, No. xxiii. 
231 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

Hart. In the church are six portions of pre-Conquest crosses, a sun- 
dial, and two pieces of turned balusters. One of the fragments built into the 
west wall of the nave is part of the shaft of a cross, with a panel with two 
figures in relief upon it. The fragment with the best work measures 
1 8 inches by 1 1 inches by 7$ inches. From one side the ornament has been 
chiselled away. The remaining face shows that the fragment is from the 
top of a cross-shaft. The angles are beaded. The ornament begins with 
two conjoined ' triquetras,' below which is the frequently recurring design of 
three complete circles, through which four bands, placed saltire-wise, interlace 
and have their ends joined. The other face also has the design already 
described in connexion with the ' Eadmund ' stone at Ch ester- le-Street. 
In the Hart example the design is well set out, and there is a sequence 
of three loops on either side of a centre line, occupying a length of 
iij inches. On the uninjured side the same design occurs again on a 
smaller scale, but as the width is less, a sequence of four loops is required 
to fill the same length. 

Another fragment measures 15 inches by 10 inches by 6 J inches. Upon 
the uninjured face the design just described occurs again. It is divided 
into two sections by a transverse band, the surviving portions being therefore 
the lower portion of one and the upper portion of another. The sides 
contain four-cord plaits. 

Another fragment measures 17 inches by 11 inches by 7 inches. One 
face contains a panel filled with regular plait-work. Below this is the upper 
portion of the figure of a man on horseback, with a spear in his right hand 
and appearing over his shoulder. The opposite face has the same plait. 
The two sides are occupied with knot-work, one of which is No. 1 1 in 
Mr. Romilly Allen's Analysis? The other is similar to No. 106 in the 
same list. 

Another is a portion of the end of the arm of a cross with knot-work 
on the end and one of the sides. 

Another is a small fragment of a cross-shaft with knot-work on three of 
its sides. 

Another fragment has sculpture on two of its sides, one of which 
indicates that it is part of the head of a cross which had a circular cross 
patee in a circle. 

The sundial is described among the others below. 

Haughton-le-Skerne . The ancient church here was one of the last in 
the county to undergo the process of enlargement and restoration, which 
took place in 1890. In the walls of the chancel were several portions of 
pre-Conquest crosses. These were taken out, but others, which were found 
during the alterations, were unfortunately built into the walls of the porch 
and the north wall of the nave, and much of their interest has been lost. 
The two stones in the porch are small ; one shows some irregular knot-work 
on its face, and the other, not quite half of a small cross patee, is no doubt 
a portion of a grave-cover. The other stones are arranged in two groups in 
recesses in the north wall of the nave. In the western group are four 
stones, the most important being a small grave-cover or headstone, 2 feet 
long and 1 1 inches wide. It has a semicircular head and contains a cross 

1 Prof. Sac. Ant. Scotland, xvii. 232, 248. 
232 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

patee, the lower arm of which disappears in the shaft. It is represented as 
having beaded edges, but no other ornamentation. Two of the other stones 
in the same group are fragments of cross-shafts, having crudely executed 
knot-work upon them. Another very small fragment, only 8 inches long 
and 4 inches wide, appears to be a portion of the ridge of a hog-backed stone, 
as it has upon it the fret ornament which occurs on more than one of this 
class in the Durham collection. 

In the eastern group are three stones. One of these is a portion of a 
cross-shaft, measuring 4 feet in length and 14 inches in width, and about 
5 inches in thickness. The surface is very much defaced, but it appears to 
have had panels containing monsters in connexion with interlacing bands. 
The side visible has a simple interlaced design upon it. The other stones 
are all of small dimensions. One has a rudely worked key pattern, and 
another a portion of a panel with simple plait-work. The last is the most 
important of all. It is a fragment measuring 15 inches by 6 inches, and has 
upon it a beautifully executed sculpture, in a good state of preservation, of 
twisted monsters. It is remarkable that such a delicate piece of work should 
be found here, where all the other specimens are of crude and debased 
character. 

Hurworth. The church has been entirely rebuilt. A single stone, 
contemporary with the earliest church here, is in the Durham collection, and 

is here figured. It is a small 
portion of one of the upper 
angles of the base stone of a 
cross, and is i foot 3 inches 
long, 10 inches high, and 
6 J inches wide. 1 It has sloping 
sides and the usual triple bead 
on the angles. The larger face 
has a well executed key pattern. 
The other has a small portion of 
a panel filled with knot-work. 
In both cases the bands are 
divided. 

Jarrow. The classic site of 
the monastery of St. Paul still retains some fragments of the sculpture of 
this period. In the porch attached to the modern nave are several stones 
which must be dealt with in this section, although by far the larger number 
of them are detached architectural details. 

On the west side of the porch are two small stones which are possibly 
both fragments from the same cross. They contain sculpture of the highest 
artistic merit, and belong to the time when the Anglian school was at its 
zenith. One has a single whorl of a rolling scroll with trefoil and other 
foliage terminations to its stems, and involving a human figure of juvenile 
appearance, holding in the left hand a small circular shield, and in the right 
some weapon with which he attacks a creature in the scroll facing him. 
The other has double scrolls starting from a central vertical stem. The two 
whorls, which are nearly complete, have birds perched upon stems with 

1 Haverfield and Grcenwcll, of. cit. 96, No. zzx. 
I 233 30 




PORTION OF BASE STONE OF CROSS FROM HURWORTH 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

trefoil foliage terminations. On the opposite side of the porch is a portion 
of a cross-shaft with three separate designs upon it ; the upper one very 
imperfect, the intermediate one the plait mentioned as occurring at Chester 
le Street, Hart, and elsewhere ; the lower the regular plait without breaks. 

Perhaps the most interesting stone of all is given a conspicuous place in 
the centre of the group. It is part of a grave-stone, and retains the lower 
arm and shaft of a cross of the form which had square block terminations 
to its limbs and a similar block at the intersection. The surface of the stone 
round the cross is sunk and the angles of the cross beaded. The angles of 
the slab have a cable moulding, and the surface contains a portion of an 
inscription which reads: IN HOC SINGVLAR[I SIG]NO VITA REDDITVR MUNDo. 1 
A portion of the same cross appears to have been worked on the edge of an 
inscribed Roman stone, now in the Black Gate Museum, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, as it contains the side limbs and intersection of the cross, and the cable 
moulding on the angle. If this assumption is correct it would appear that 
the memorial was incorporated with the wall of some building, the stone 
which is worked on the edge serving the purpose of a bonding or tie stone, 
while above and below it were two slabs, carrying the remainder of the design. 
In the Durham collection is the stone here figured from Jarrow. It 
was found outside the churchyard to the south-west of the church. 

In the Black Gate Museum at Newcastle-upon-Tyne is another portion 
of a memorial slab with a cross upon it, in a semicircular recess. The cross 
is of the form just described as remaining at Jarrow, but has bosses which 
appear to have had interlaced work upon them in each of the five squares. 
The stone measures i foot loj inches long, i foot 9} inches wide, and 
6J inches thick. There are no traces of an inscription.* 

Monk-wear mouth. There are considerable remains of the ancient church 
in the vestry of the existing church, a large collection of fragments of various 
dates having been built into its walls. Amongst them are some architectural 
details and portions of sepulchral memorials. One is a large slab bearing 
a cross, with square block terminations to the head, the two side limbs, and 
the foot of the shaft. It bears the inscription : HIC IN SEPVLCRO REQVIESCIT 
CORPORE HEREBERICHT pRB. The angles of the slab have a bead moulding 
which has ended, just above the head of the cross, in two scrolls. There 
are two small fragments, each of which contains interlaced designs of con- 
siderable intricacy and refinement.* In addition to these is a small portion 
of a panel which has upon it the representation of a combat. The two 
figures engaged have short tunics and bare legs. The sculpture is very much 
broken and the heads are both gone. The dexter figure has a circular shield 
in the left hand. He appears to have disarmed his opponent, as a sword of 
the ' spatha ' form is doubled up and lying on the ground. 

Norton. Built into the jamb of the chancel arch of the church is a 
small fragment measuring 14^ inches by 9 inches. It exhibits portions of 
two panels containing knot-work, both incomplete. 

1 Hlibncr, Inscrif times Britanniif Christian*. Berlin, 1876; Arch. MRana (New ser.), x. 195 
xi. 27 ; zxii. 30. 

1 The dedicatory inscription at Jarrow will be dealt with in connection with the church itself. 

8 Described by the bishop of Bristol ' it comes nearer to a representation in stone of one of the marvellou 
pages of the Lindisfarne Gospels than anything else which can be shown.' Notes on Church of St. Peter, 
Monkwearmoutk, 1886, p. 13. 

234 





MONKWEARUOUTH I GRAVESTONE OF HtRhBtRIUM. 



To fact ffge 134. 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

Sockburn. The ruined church here occupies the southernmost point of 
the county. The ruins were cleared of rubbish and the Conyers porch 
repaired and roofed in 1900. It was known, before this was done, that a 
large number of remains of the pre-Conquest period existed on the site, 
for when the church was unroofed and abandoned in 1838 many fragments 
were taken from the walls. All these are now collected together in the repaired 
Conyers porch, and are arranged so that they can be examined without 
difficulty. Twenty-five are of the pre-Conquest period. For convenience 
of reference it has been thought well to take them as they would naturally 
be referred to from a plan of the porch. Facing east, and ranging from left 
to right, there are six rows of stones fixed in bases or lying on the floor. 
The others are detached fragments. The larger cross-shafts are fixed in 
stone bases, the smaller ones are cemented to the floor. The first measures 
2 feet 3 inches high, i foot wide, and 8 inches thick. Only the side facing 
west retains its ornament. In the upper part are the lower portions of the 
bodies of four serpents twisted together in pairs, while below these the surface 
is covered with an undivided plait without breaks. 

The second stone measures 3 feet high by i foot 8 inches wide by 7 inches 
thick. The remaining ornamentation is confined to the side facing west, and 
is in a very damaged condition. It seems to consist of a very irregularly 
arranged double band connected with monsters. 

The next is of a very coarse-grained sandstone and measures 2 feet 3 inches 
by i foot 7 inches by 6 inches. The ornament is again confined to the west 
face and consists of a series of circular rings forming a chain, with a straight 
band carried vertically through their centres. All are double or divided. 1 

The second row are hog-backed stones, which are all described together 
below. 

The first in the third row is a portion of the upper part of a cross-shaft 
which measures 2 feet 9 inches high, i foot i inch wide, and i o inches thick, 
and shows that the whole was in one stone, as it retains part of the lower 
arm of the cross. Carving remains on all four sides, that facing west showing 
that the head of the cross was ornamented with the usual triquetras with 
divided bands. Below this a large serpent appears, his body tied into a knot 
and his head downwards. Beneath is a man on horseback, hawking. His 
right hand holds the bridle, his left the hawk. The horse, with head inclined 
downwards, stands on a transverse twisted band. Under this is a portion of a 
scene representing a combat between two men. Their arms are crossed, and 
the dexter figure appears to be wounded in the head. Between them, and 
below their arms, is a circular shield with a boss. On the side facing east 
are again two figures apparently in combat, much damaged, but they appear 
to wear helmets. Under them is a double spiral, and below that a six-cord 
plait with divided bands. The side facing north has a very curious and 
unusual design of a chain, the links of which consist of triangular objects with 
rounded tops, and are double, or divided by a line. Only a very small 
portion of the fourth side remains. It shows the bodies of two monsters 
twisted together. 

The next measures 2 feet 2 inches by i foot 2 inches by 9 inches, and 
has upon its west face a panel containing an animal, probably a deer. Its 

1 Rorailly Allen, Prof. Soe. Ant. Scot. xvii. 125, Fig. 17. 
235 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

head, which was turned backwards, looking towards the tail, is broken away. 
The north face exhibits the legs only of two figures, and that towards the 
south the termination of a shield-shape panel. 

In the fourth row the first stone measures 2 feet 4 inches by i foot 
by 7J inches. It has a panel which contains the standing figure of a warrior. 
He has a circular shield on his left arm, and his right hand grasps a spear, the 
shaft of which rests upon the ground and the point rises above his head. He 
wears a helmet. 

The next stone is apparently not part of a cross-shaft. It measures 
1 2 inches in height, 2 feet i inch in length, and 9 inches in thickness. On 
the side facing the east are two warriors on horseback. The horses are shown 
as if trotting, their heads raised. Their tails are long and tied into knots. 
The men wear helmets, and hold the bridles in their left hands, and in their 
right long spears with the points inclined downwards. The saddles have high 
peaks at the back which end in knobs. Altogether, this is the most inter- 
esting sculpture of the series. The forms represented should be compared 
with those of the knights in the woven silk tissues which were taken from 
St. Cuthbert's body. 1 The top of the stone is broken ; the ends and foot are 
plain. The other side has a knot-work design of intricate character, but in 
an advanced state of dilapidation. It seems to consist of a six-cord plait, 
every alternate crossing of which is bound by a continuous ring. 

The fifth row has three hog-backs. 

The first in the sixth row is a portion of a cross-shaft 2 feet 1 1 inches 
high, i foot 2j inches wide, and 1 1 inches thick. It retains ornament on all 
its four sides. On that facing west is an interlaced design of a six-cord plait 
with divided bands. That facing east has in the upper part two figures very 
much damaged. Below them the plait is repeated for a short distance, and 
below this again two figures appear apparently in combat. The two sides 
have each the chain of curious triangular links previously described. In 
one the links form a simple chain, in the other they are more closely com- 
bined, each link interlocking with two others on each side of it. 

The next one measures 3 feet i o inches by 1 1 inches by 8 inches. The 
west face retains three panels, the upper one having a six-cord plait, undivided. 
The next shows a man who wore a helmet of conical form. The portion of 
the stone carrying the helmet and the head has unfortunately flaked off. The 
right hand grasps a long spear, and in the left is a short sword with a broad, 
double-edged blade. Below is a stag. The opposite face has three panels, 
with a six-cord plait in the upper one, two divided loops with pointed ends 
interlaced in the next, and in the lower a dog with curled tail and head looking 
backwards. The two sides have double looped cords,* and below them, on the 
side facing north, is a triquetra. 

The next is the largest stone in the series. It is the greater portion of 
the shaft of a tall cross and measures 7 feet in height, i foot 2 inches by 
9 inches square at the base, and 9 inches by 5! inches at the top, where it is 
broken away. For a distance of 4 feet 4 inches from the base the surface is 
plain, from which point to the top it is ornamented on all four sides. The 
character of this ornament is so unusual and of such interest that it is much 
to be regretted that the remainder was not recovered. The side facing west 

1 Tram. Dur. Nortbumb. Arch. Sue. i. 53. Romill/ Allen, op. cit. No. 12. 

236 





SOCKBURN : PORTION OF CROSS-SHAFT 
(FIRST IN SIXTH Row). 



SOCKBURN : UPPER PART OF CROSS-SHAFT 
(FIRST IN THIRD Row). 





, SOCKBURN : STONE WITH Two WARRIORS ON HORSEBACK (SECOND IN FOURTH Row). 

To fact fagt 2}6. 



ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

is divided into panels. The upper one is rectangular and is filled with a key 
pattern, the next has a six-cord plait, and the next a monster with a bushy tail 
curled over its back and a ball in its mouth. The lowest panel is in the form of 
a shield ornamented with a key pattern. Between the panels and the angle 
beads on this side is a band which is split at the angle of each panel and the 
portions interlocked, thus forming a kind of square-linked chain. The 
opposite side contains a series of interlaced monsters of intricate form. The 
side facing north has a combined knot pattern l of common occurrence, here 
particularly well wrought. The side facing south has a knot pattern similar 
to one which occurs at Gainford and other places. 8 Near the centre of the 
length the knot is curiously changed with a special form for one division. 
The angle beads are a line of barrel-shape balusters divided by narrow bands. 
Below they become plain and are carried to the centre of each face of the 
cross in the form of inverted arches, ending in heads, and similar heads are 
worked where the bands divide the angles. 

The next stone, which measures 2 feet 8 inches by I foot 6 inches by 
9 inches has a cable moulding at each angle between two beads. The east 
face contains two incised spirals; their connection with anything else it would 
be impossible to guess at. 

The last of the fixed stones is 3 feet 2 inches high, I2j inches wide, and 
9 inches thick. It is a portion of the upper part of the shaft of a cross, but is 
without ornament. 

Lying near the door of the chapel is a flat grave-cover broken into two 
pieces, 4 feet 4$ inches long, 15 inches wide, and 7 inches thick. It has upon 
its surface a cross with square terminations to the arms and head ; the foot 
being of an expanded or pyramidal form. A narrow border is carried all 
round it, beyond which the surface is ornamented in the spaces at the sides of 
the head, one filled with triquetras, and those at the sides of the shaft with a 
four-cord plait with divided bands. 

The hog-backed stones are an interesting group. The first in the second 
row is merely a fragment. The next is in two pieces, but is otherwise 
complete. It has bears at either end, which have all their four paws shown. 
Along the top is a fret pattern, while each side is ornamented with a four- 
cord plait. The next has the top broken away. It has bears at the ends, 
which occupy an unusually large proportion of the surface. Either side 
contains three panels of four-cord knots. In the base are the semicircular 
recesses. 

The next is almost a replica of that just mentioned, but of somewhat 
coarser workmanship. 

The three stones in the fifth row are of a totally different class. The 
first is only half of a hog-backed stone. It has a triple ridge and three rows 
of tegulations on each side, the points of which are of a pointed arch form. 

The next is complete and is of similar design, except that the tegulations 
arc of a triangular form. These two have their ends embraced by animals of 
nondescript form and of very minute proportions when compared with the 
large bears on the earlier stones. 

The last is one of the most remarkable existing examples of this singular 
class of memorial. It is 5 feet 7 inches long, I foot 6 inches high, 1 2 inches 

Romilljr Allen, of. (it. No. 87. * Ibid. No. 141. 

237 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

thick at the base, and 9 inches at the ends. The top is much broken, but on 
one side it appears not to have lost much of its original height. In the centre 
is a human figure, bare-headed and apparently naked, with arms extended. 
His right hand is in the mouth of a beast, apparently a lion, and surrounding 
him are other beasts and reptiles, which appear to be attacking him. The 
other side has a similar central figure, among beasts, which appear to be in a 
more quiescent state, and possibly represents Daniel in the den of lions. 

Among the detached fragments are the heads of three crosses. One of 
these has the interrupted circle connecting the arms. The sides have bosses 
at the centre, surrounding which are interlaced designs of the normal form 
used for filling the arms. The ends of the arms have the four-cord plaits. 

Another is of the patee form ; is quite plain, and has the interrupted 
circle of more pronounced character, extending almost to the extremities of 
the limbs. 

The third is again of the patee form, plain and much decayed, and 
without the interrupted circle. 

The three small fragments are not of importance. One has a dog and 
part of a human hand : another is a fragment from the top of a hog-back ; 
the last has a cable moulding on one angle. They lie on the sills of the 
east and west windows of the chapel. 

Stalndrop. In the church are a few small fragments of sculptured stones 
which have upon them knot-work designs of a late and poor type, much 
defaced. One of these is in the foundation of the easternmost twelfth 
century pier on the south side of the nave, and two are to be seen over 
the north door. 

Stainton-le-Street. The ancient church was entirely removed and a new 
one built in 1876. Taken from the walls of the old church were a number 
of stones with pre-Conquest sculpture upon them. Two of these fragments, 
both belonging to the same cross, were added to the Durham collection, and 
are here figured. The designs upon it are of some interest, as amongst them 
is the figure of a man holding a sword pointing downward, which is 
double-edged with a groove along the middle of the blade. He appears to 
wear a helmet with a pointed projection in front. He stands under a semi- 
circular arch which rests on columns with capitals. The most complete side 
has a key pattern upon it. Another has a four-cord interlaced design. Perhaps 
the most interesting detail of this stone is the astragal or bead at the angles, 
which is divided into representations of small balusters. This occurs on a 
Roman stone in the crypt at Hexham, and in some stones from St. Wilfrid's 
Church there. 1 There are several stones in the churchyard at Stainton and 
in the rectory garden. One of those in the churchyard is part of a cross- 
shaft, i foot 3 inches long, i foot 2 inches wide, and i foot thick. The 
carving has been chiselled away from one side, but the other three have 
interlaced designs. One of these designs is of frequent occurrence, and appears 
at five places in Scotland, and at Jarrow, Aycliffe, Billingham, and Hart, and is 
No. 7 in Mr. Romilly Allen's Analysis* There is also the roughly sculptured 
base of a cross having the socket for insertion of the shaft. In the garden are 
three portions of cross-shafts which are partly buried in the ground. Their 

1 A similar design is worked on an altar at Cividale. Cattanco, op. cit. 107. 
* Proc. Sec. Ant, Scot. xvii. 243-268. 

238 






SOCKBURN : PORTION OF CROSS- 
IHAFT (SECOND IN SIXTH Row). 



SOCKBURN : PORTION OF CROSS-SHAFT 
(THIRD IN SIXTH Row). 



SOCKBURN : PORTION OF CROSS-SHAFT 
(THIRD IN SIXTH Row) 



To face fagt 238. 






ANGLO-SAXON REMAINS 

uninjured sides all contain interlaced designs of somewhat poor and flat 
character. 

Winston-on-the-Tees. In the picturesquely situated church here is the 
greater part of the centre and side limbs of a cross head. On one side is 
a circular boss which has had a ring of pellets around it. The arms have two 
stags facing each other, and below the boss is a dog springing at one of the 
stags. A line of pellets is carried round the margin of the stone. The opposite 
side has the remains of a figure, with an object which Mr. Longstaffe 
conjectures to be a gridiron, and the figure that of St. Lawrence, and quotes 
a brass matrix of a seal in the possession of Mr. Abbott, of Darlington, marked 
SAVNCTE LAVRENC. 1 Dr. Haigh considers the object to be a chair or seat 
on which the figure is resting, and compares it with a similar object on one 
of the Sandbach crosses in Cheshire.' The pellets in the margin are repeated. 

SONDIALS 

The county of Durham presents an interesting series of early sundials, 
the only one of which now in situ is probably the oldest. This is on 
the south side of the nave of the ancient church at Escomb. It is in the 
south wall, placed centrally from east to west, but at a considerable height, 
at the level of the heads of the two original windows. The stone on which 
the dial is cut is 2 feet 4 inches long and i foot 6 inches high. The dial 
itself is much less than these dimensions, and is defined below by a semi- 
circular raised bead, while above it is encompassed by a serpent in relief, with 
the head to the west touching the base line of the stone. The tail is of that 
curious expanded form which appears on the serpents on the Monkwearmouth 
doorway. 1 

The dial is divided into four parts by incised lines, and the hole for the 
gnomon remains. Above it is a carved head projecting from the wall, which 
is probably also in situ.* 

Cbester-le-Street. There is a fragment here measuring 13^ inches by 
9} inches and 4$ inches thick, with slightly more than half of a semicircular 
dial indicated by incised lines. A horizontal line defines the diameter of the 
semicircle, and two parallel lines its circumference. The area has been 
divided into ten unequal portions. The mid-day line and that three divisions 
from it have a distinguishing mark in the form of a small semicircle crossing 
the lines where they end on the circumference. 1 

Darlington. Here there is a stone with a dial cut on either side of it. 
The slab is broken, but appears to have been 2 feet square and 5$ inches 
thick. It was used as the sill of an aumbry, but is now detached and pre- 
served in the church. It is described by Dr. Haigh in these words : * The 
half quarter lines, not reaching to the centre, and the six concentric circles, 
seem to invest it with a character of its own ; but I believe those only were 
designed for use which are joined to the tide marks to define the length of 
the mid-day shadow at the solstices and equinoxes ; the others are merely 
ornamental additions. A mark will be observed, though almost effaced, some- 
thing like the rune Daeg, in the same place as the Swastika at Aldborough, 

1 Arch. Mliana, vi. 24, with lithogram (tic). ' Ibid. 61. 

* BuiUiag New, Nov. 28, 1879. * lllus. Jrclxrohgiit, i. 128. 

1 Similar marb occur on dials at Inniscaltra and Kilcummin. Haigh, Tarki. Arch. Jount. v. 156. 

239 




A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

indicating the d&g-msd point sun in E.S.E. Not one of the divisional lines 
is quite accurate ; least so are those above the equinoctial.' 1 The side here 

shown was the one noticed by the 
Rev. J.T. Fowler in 1 863. The other, 
since brought to view, has eight con- 
centric circles and the rune, in much 
the same position. 

Hamster ley. In the 'church 
there is a circle with a central hole, 
but no hour lines.' * 

Hart. A fine example is here 
built into the west wall of the nave. 
It is cut on a slab i foot 6 inches by 

SUNDIAL AT DARLINGTON. X ' inches \ a11 the lines are raised in 

semi-circular section, f of an inch 

high, and divide the semicircle into eight parts. The hole for the gnomon 
remains. There are no distinguishing marks on the dividing lines. 

Middleton St. George. An early dial is here built into the south wall of 
the Early English church. 

Pittington. The dial here figured is at Pittington Hallgarth. It is 
manifestly of an early date, and is thus described by Dr. Haigh :* ' It exhibits 
six divisions of day time. It will be 
observed that the mid-day line has a 
cross-bar ; that each of the lines be- 
tween it and the equinoctial has a dot 
at about two-thirds of its length ; and 
that those and the mid-day line have 
each a little square at its extremity. 
This is a very remarkable feature. I 
think it will be admitted that we have 
here a reminiscence of a fashion of 
dialling (of which the Wallsend example 
is a relic) in which the trine marks were blocks of stone arranged in a circle 
round the gnomon.' 

Staindrop. In the wall to the north of and above the chancel arch is 
rather more than half of an early dial. It is upside down. The semicircle 
is divided into four, and is circumscribed by a raised bead. Curiously, the 
field is not left flat, but is worked with a rise towards the gnomon, the hole 
for which remains.* 

1 The Book of Sundials (enlarged ed. Eden and Lloyd, 1900), 53 ; York. Arch. 3 turn. v. 154. 

* Book of Sundials, op. cit. p. 53. 

8 Ibid. 206-7. PI. iii. at p. 144 ; Irani. Dur. Northumb. Arch. Soc. iii. 29. 

* Rev. H. C. Lipscomb, StainJrop Church and Monument!, PI. opp. p. 3 ; Rev. J. F. Hodgson, in Tram. 
Dur. Northumb. Arch. Soc. iii. 76 n. 




SUNDIAL AT PITTINCTON. 



240 




SOCKBURN : HOC-BACKED STONE. 




SOCKBURN : HOC-BACKED STONE. 





SOCKBURN : HOC-BACKED STONE. 



To fact pap 2+ o. 



THE CONTENTS OF ST. CUTH- 
BERT'S SHRINE 

PRESERVED IN THE DEAN AND CHAPTER LIBRARY, 

DURHAM 

When St. Cuthbert died on that Fame Island which is now called the 
' House Island," on 20 March, 687,* he closed a life of pain and suffering ; * 
yet his body had no rest, for it now began a wandering period which lasted, 
with intervals, till the precious burden finally reached Durham in 995. 

How old he was when he died will never be exactly known. He had 
been a monk since 651,* and we are told that he was admitted as such * ab 
ineunte adolescentia.' ' Latin dictionaries tell us that ' adolescentia ' begins 
at 14, lasting to 28. If so, assuming his age on taking the vows to have 
been 15, he would be about 51 at his death. It is not likely that he was 
much older than this ; a man of delicate frame and uncertain health, who 
lived an unwholesome life, ill-fed, recluse, emaciated how could he attain 
to what we now call old age? In fact, at 51 or 52 he was already old, 
bowed down with premature feebleness. It is true that Symeon of Durham 
tells us of a vision in which a Durham cleric saw SS. Cuthbert and Oswald 
in the cathedral, and that the former was ' aetatis mediae vir ' ; * yet his 
infirmities had made him old before his time ; and he died worn out by 
austerities and suffering. 7 

The Lindisfarne Monks, remembering how he had consented to allow 
his body to rest with them, would not leave it where he died, but brought 
him reverently to Holy Island ; 8 here they placed him in a stone cist, 
already conveniently lying there, covered him with vestments and wrappings, 
and buried him under the pavement of their church, on the south side 
of the altar.' Here he rested eleven years, till 698. 10 At that time, 
says Bede, ' the divine dispensation ' was minded to let the world know 
how glorious Cuthbert was after his death, and therefore moved the 
brethren to disinter his remains. To their reverent amazement they found 
the body still incorrupt. They invested him with new robes, given by 
Bishop Eadbercht, and placed him in a new wooden coffin, which they had 






1 See R. Surtees, Hist, and Antiq. of County Palatine of Durham, \. 5 note. 

On the same day as his friend, the anchorite Herbert. Bede, Hist. Ecel. lib. iv. cap. xxvii. 

Bede, Vit. Cudb. cap. jnmi. 

When he entered Melrose, having seen a vision of St. Aidan. See Vita Anon. sec. 8 (printed in BeJae 
Of. Hist. Min., rec. J. Stevenson, Engl. Hist. Soc.) and Symeon of Durham (Rolls Series), i. 21. 

1 Bede, Hist. Eccl., lib. iv. cap. rxv. 

Sy. Our. (Rolls Series), i. 102. See also ibid. i. 104, 231, 232. 

1 Bede Vit. Cudb,, cap. zzxvii. 8 Bede Hut. Eecl., lib. iv. cap. xxvii. 

Sym. Dur. (Rolls Series), i. 35. 10 Bede, Hut. Eftiet., lib. iv. cap. zzviii. 

I 2 4 I 31 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

previously prepared and adorned with carving ; in this they left him unburied 
on the pavement of the south side of the altar in their sanctuary. 1 

This new coffin of 698 is the chest of which Durham Cathedral still 
possesses many interesting fragments. 8 It is no marvel that a thin, attenuated 
frame, like that of St. Cuthbert, resisted decay, and remained, to the wonder 
of mankind, as a ' corpus incorruptum ' for ages. 8 

Here the body lay undisturbed till the northern invaders began to 
threaten the coast. At first the south of England had offered more temptations ; 
yet Northumbria was nearer home, and Lindisfarne was specially attractive ; 
there was easy access to it, and for those who had the command of the sea it 
was an excellent resting-place before or after invasions. It had, too, a 
monastery tempting for plunder. So after taking York in 867, the Danes 
pushed up northwards by land. Though checked awhile by the Tyne, their 
advance soon went on again, till in 875 Halfdene threatened Lindisfarne. 4 
The bishop and monks were powerless ; they gathered up their cherished 
relics, placing in St. Cuthbert's wooden coffin (as Simeon of Durham tells 
us) 6 the head of St. Oswald the king, some bones of St. Aidan, and remains 
of past bishops of Lindisfarne. With these they crossed to the mainland, 
and the long wandering began. Their drifting movements brought them at 
last to the mouth of the river Derwent in Cumberland, 6 where Workington 
now stands. There they shipped the coffin, with a copy of the four gospels 
on the saint's breast, on board a little sailing vessel, and set out for Ireland. 
A storm arose before they had gone far, and they were driven towards the 
Scottish side of the Solway Firth ; here, in the tossing of the boat, the MS. 
went overboard. They then abandoned the attempt to cross to Ireland, and 
landed on the Scottish coast. Three days later the MS. was found on the 
sands at Whithern in Galloway, at low tide. This relic of St. Cuthbert still 
exists in safe keeping in the British Museum. 7 Wandering began again : in 
883 they were at Crayke in Yorkshire ; thence Guthred, who had been made 
king of Northumberland through a vision of St. Cuthbert, invited them 
to return to the north. They set out, and found a home at Cuneacestre 
(i.e., Chester-le-Street), of which place Eardulf, the last bishop of Lindis- 
farne, became bishop. The Northumbrian king bestowed on the saint ' all 
that land which lies between Wear and Tyne,' the cradle of the later magni- 
ficent Palatine princedom. Here it was that king Athelstan made to 
St. Cuthbert many splendid gifts ; among them, apparently, the Winchester 
stole and other fine stuffs, which still remain to us. 8 Here St. Cuthbert's 
body remained till 995, when a fresh invasion caused it to be once more 
removed. 9 It was taken by Aldhun, last bishop of Chester-le-Street, to 
Ripon, and tarried there from spring to autumn. Then, peaceful days 
intervening, it was brought northwards again, the bearers aiming at either 
Chester-le-Street or Lindisfarne. But marvellous guiding led them to a 
desolate site, the strong peninsula of Dunholm, where Aldhun built a little 
wattled church to shelter the saint and his treasures ; 10 we are told that a 

1 Bede, Hist. Eccles. lib. iv. cap. xxviii. 

2 Of this there can be no question. See Sym. Dur. (Rolls Series), i. 249, and Haverfield and Greenwell, 
A Catalogue of the Sculptured and Inscribed Stones in the Cathedral Library, Durham (Durham, 1899), 134. 

There are well-known instances of bodies drying up without decay, e.g., that of Charles I. 
* Sym. Dur. (Rolls Series), i. 56. 6 Ibid . j. 57. 8 ibid. i. 63 seq. 

Ibid. i. 66 and 67 note. Ibid. i. 75. Ibid. i. 78 seq. and ii. 136. 1<> Ibid. i. 79. 

242 



THE CONTENTS OF ST. CUTHBERT'S SHRINE 




ST. CUTHBERT'S COFFIN : OUTER LID. 




ST. CUTHBERT'S COFFIN : INNER LID. 




ST. CUTHBERT'S COFFIN : FRAGMENTS OF WOOD SHOWING ARCADINC. 

243 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

larger building, called the White church, followed soon ; and finally a stone 
church was erected into which, in 998, the saint's body in the ancient coffin, 
with the other relics, was reverently brought, and deposited in the place of 
honour. 1 Here, save for a year of panic in 1069-1070, when the body was 
taken to Lindisfarne on the approach of William the Bastard, 3 St. Cuthbert 
has ever since rested in safety. 

Durham cathedral cherishes many relics of the saint ; and these we will 
briefly describe, beginning with the coffin of 698. 

THE COFFIN OF ST. CUTHBERT 

No contemporary account exists of the carvings 8 on this remarkable 
relic. They are inaccurately described, towards the end of the twelfth 




ST. CUTHBERT'S COFFIN : MODEL RESTORED. 

century, by Reginald, a Benedictine of the Durham House. 4 Reginald 
perhaps confused the figures on the wooden chest with the embroidered or 
woven work still to be seen on the robes in which the saint's remains were 
wrapped. 6 

The outer coffin of St. Cuthbert 6 is of oak (' de quercu nigra,' says 

Reginald), not shaped specially to carry a 
body, but a nearly rectangular oblong, a little 
wider at the head than at the feet. The mea- 
surements of it are, length, 6 ft. 8 in. ; breadth 
(at the head), i ft. 5 in. ; (at the feet), i ft. 
4 in. ; and depth i ft. 5! in. Originally it 
had two lids, the inner lid apparently sup- 
ported by cross-pieces which rested in grooves 
in the sides of the coffin. A false bottom 
was added in 1 1 04 to keep the other bones 
clear of the saint's body. 7 The two lids, 
the four sides (two long and two short) 
alone have work on them, chiefly, though perhaps not altogether, by one 

i Sym. Dur. (Rolls Series), i. 82. * Ibid. i. 100, and ii. 189. 

8 The anonymous author in the De miraculis et transMonibus, printed in Sym. Dur. (Rolls Series), i. 229, 
gives no account of the carvings when the coffin was seen in 1 1 04. 

4 Reginald of Durham, Lib. de admirandis Bead Cudb. virtutibus (Surtees Soc., vol. i.). The chapters xl. 
to xliii. are given in the Appendix to Raine's St. Cuthbert (Durham, 1828). 

6 Reg. of Durham, cap. 43. He speaks of ' beasts, flowers, and images.' The coffin has the symbols 
of the Evangelists, the lily of Gabriel, and many figures. 

6 See the account in Haverfield and Greenwell, Catalogue of the Inscribed Stones in the Cathedral Library. 

7 Reg. of Durham (Surtees Soc., vol. i.). 

244 





ST. CUTHBERT'S COFFIN : GROOVES FOR 
CROSS-PIECES SUPPORTING THE INNER LID. 



THE CONTENTS OF ST. CUTHBERT'S SHRINE 





Q 

I 





Q 

co 
a 

as 

a 
o 




CO 



245 






A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

hand. The designs were incised in the wood with a fine knife or chisel which 
made V-shaped grooves ; sometimes a small gouge was used to make softer 
and rounded lines. No traces of either of the two bottoms of the chest 
remain. The carvings are a remarkable example of early Anglian work ; 
they are executed with a freedom and accuracy of stroke which tells us that 
the artist was a master in his simple art. There is no hesitation in the work, 
no second cut, no slip over the grain, no sign of weakness in it or note of 
indecision. 

The bottom was fitted to rebates in the sides, and to grooves in the 

ends, and the sides were also rebated to take 
the ends, and all parts of the coffin were held 
together, as Scandinavian work still is, with 
wooden pegs ; l of these several remain. With 
the saint's body were stored, at various times, 
miscellaneous remains of north country saints, 8 
collected for the most part by Elfrid Westoue, 

ST. CUTHBERT S CoFFIN : GROOVE . r 1 ill 1 1 i 1 

AND REBATES. sacrist of the cathedral, early in the eleventh 

century. 3 Elfrid was wont to travel up and 

down the north, an ecclesiastical bagman trafficking in relics, which he placed 
in wealthy churches. As he distributed them he took toll of them, and 
reverently deposited his prizes in Durham Cathedral, and chiefly in St. Cuth- 
bert's shrine. 4 He shamelessly stole from the monks of Jarrow all that 
portion of Bede's skeleton which still reposes in a later tomb in the Galilee 
of the Cathedral. 6 

No coffin, except that of 698, seems ever to have been used for the re- 
mains ; Reginald of Durham, describing the events of 1 104, says that the coffin, 
' externally carved with very marvellous graving,' was the original chest pre- 
pared by the Lindisfarne monks. On cleaning the fragments of this coffin 
which had been left since 1827 in one of the library cupboards, it was found 
(as had been noticed by Mr. Raine) that there were runes as well as Roman 
lettering over the figures ; the workmanship of both alphabets is the same. 6 

The outer lid of the coffin has, in the middle, the figure of our Lord, 
standing bare-footed, holding the Gospels with His left hand under His robe ; 
the book, like the seventh-century Evangelistaries still preserved in the 
Cathedral library, is nearly square ; the right hand is on the breast, apparently 
(though the wood is broken here) not raised in blessing. This figure, 
alone of all, has curled hair on both sides of the face. He is specially marked, 
as is also the Christus in the Virgin and Child, with a cruciferous nimbus ; 
He wears a robe reaching to the ankles. Above His head to the left 
is a winged man or angel, symbol of St. Matthew ; to the right is the 
winged lion, signifying St. Mark ; under his feet are St. Luke's bull and 
the eagle of St. John. The names of Matthew, Mark, and John are 
in runes. 

Of the inner lid, which could be lifted by two iron rings, one of 

1 Haverfield and Greenwell, Catalogue, 1 39. 
8 At the flight of 875 many precious relics were taken. Sym. Dur. (Rolls Series), i. 57. In 1 104 only 
the head of St. Oswald was allowed to remain. Ibid. i. 255. 

Ibid. i. 87. * cum patris Cuthberti corpore.' Ibid. i. 88. 

Ibid. i. 88, and Reg. of Durham (Surtees Soc. i.), cap. 26. 

See Haverfield and Greenwell, Catalogue, 152, and plates at the end. 

246 



THE CONTENTS OF ST. CUTHBERT'S SHRINE 




ST. CUTHBERT'S COFFIN : HEAD WITH FIGURES OF ST. MICHAEL 
AND ST. GABRIEL. 




ST. CUTHBERT'S COFFIN : FOOT WITH FICURBS OF VIRGIN AND CHILD 

247 




A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

which still remains, only a few fragments are left. They are enough to show 

that it was inscribed with a simple cross on two steps. 1 

The right side of the coffin is inscribed with six archangel figures, 

simple and somewhat monotonous in pose; 
they also all have the right hand on the breast, 
with variations in the ringers ; their left hands 
all carry books, with the hand under the robe. 
There is one variation ; the Archangel Gabriel 
holds in his right hand the traditional lily. 
Their hair is all curled, and carried down on 
to the left shoulder only. The names Raphael 
and Urial alone remain. 8 

The left side of the coffin contained, in a 
double row, fourteen figures, the twelve Apostles, 
together with St. Paul and (probably) St. Bar- 
nabas. Twelve figures now remain, in whole 

ST. CRT'S'C!! F F, N : IRON R, NG . Or in P art ' These are treated much in the 

same way as the Archangels. St. Peter comes 

first, with the double keys. There are slight variations here also in the 
fingers on the breast, and St. Paul is specially distinguished by a beard, 
while he has no flowing hair at all. There was room for two more figures 
at the end, but this portion of the plank is altogether lost. 8 

The larger end, at the head, has two Archangels Michael and Gabriel. 
To give a kind of composition to the piece, Gabriel carries his book in his 
right hand. 

Lastly comes, at the foot, the most interesting of the series the very 
nai've and simple representation of the Virgin and Child. 4 

This pourtrayal of the Virgin and Child, carved about 696,' is among 
the earliest Western examples of a subject destined to become so common 
afterwards in religious decoration. The infant Christ is not blessing ; in 
His left hand He holds a kind of roll, perhaps to indicate the Gospel 
message; His nimbus is cruciferous, while that of the Virgin is plain. She 
wears a dress with closely-fitting sleeves, and her right hand is laid across the 
knees of the Christ, the fingers of the left hand just show on His shoulder. 

These remnants (with a half-sized model of the coffin) are preserved 
in the Cathedral Library. If it seems wonderful that in the seventh century, 
on a far away island, such work was possible, it should be remembered that 
these Anglian monks took their inspiration and learning from the Irish 
Christians, who have left us splendid examples of their skill both in 
caligraphy and in illumination. One needs no better examples of their 
art than the Evangelistary of St. Cuthbert, now in the British Museum ; 
it is a very fine specimen of the work of the Lindisfarne monks of this 
period. In fact, as Dr. Greenwell tells us, they felt, together with their 
missionary fervour, a deep devotion to the learning and art of the West, 

1 See Haverfield and Greenwell, Catalogue, 155. 

8 The others are certainly Gabriel, who holds the lily, and probably Michael, as he appears alone with 
Gabriel on the larger end of the coffin. For the other two there is choice between Chamial, Zadkiel and Jophiel. 
8 See Haverfield and Greenwell, Catalogue, 149. 

4 What is left of the ' Maria ' is in Roman character, the ' Jesus Christus ' in runes. 
6 He was buried in 698, but the coffin had probably been prepared before this. 

248 



THE CONTENTS OF ST. CUTHBERT'S SHRINE 







(ii) 



LV[/\\ 





VKIA 




VMIA 



(IV) 






IX 

i 




j 

V 


^ 


Jilh 
11 lU 


-PET f< 


X 


J 

s 


3 


1 


M 1 A r* '". 

}[ I/HO 







(VI) 



AUDREY 



PVS 




THOM/& 
DA 




INSCRIPTIONS ON THB COFFIN 



(I) Head : [S]cs Michael, [G]abrixl. (II) Outer lid : Matheus, Marcus, Lucas, Johannis. (Ill) Right side : 

Raphael, Scs Uriafl], Scs , [Ch]uraia[l](?). (IV) Foot : [M]ar[ia], IHS XPS. 

(V) Left side, upper row : Petrus, Jacobus, Johannis, Andreas. (VI) Left side, lower row : [Philip]pus, 
Bar[tholomeus], Thomas, Pa[ulus], Matheae. 

I 249 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

touched with Irish influences ; they aimed by simple piety and con- 
secrated skill to impress the facts of the Christian faith on the simple 
Northumbrians. 

A large number of fragments of wood, found with the coffin, await 
arrangement. One series, when put together, forms an arcade of semi- 
circular arches ; it may be part of the outer case mentioned by the 
anonymous writer in the Bollandist Acta Sanctorum, as existing at the time 
of the translation in 1104. Or it may have been made at that time. 1 
Other pieces of mouldings may belong to the coffin of 1 542. 

THE BODY OF ST. CUTHBERT 

Whether or no Durham Cathedral is still in charge of the genuine 
remains of St. Cuthbert is a question that has often been discussed with 
some unnecessary warmth. We shall find that very little certain evidence 
is to be had ; the question rests on circumstantial arguments, and these always 
leave things in some doubt. This case, however, is one in which the 
balance of probabilities will be found to strengthen the belief that the bones 
found in the Cathedral in 1827, and seen again in 1899, are those of the 
saint. The contrary view can neither be proved nor disproved. The state- 
ment that the Benedictines of the Cathedral House removed the saint and 
concealed him in some other part of the Cathedral, while they substituted 
for him the bones of a monk taken from the ' Gentry Garth ' hard by, is still 
often made. It is said that between 1537 and 1542 St. Cuthbert's body 
was reburied somewhere near the west end of the Cathedral, and that either 
' St. Cuthbert's treasure ' or his body, or relics of him, (for all these phrases 
are used of it) formed a secret and a mystery which at the time of the Re- 
formation was entrusted to three Benedictines ; and that these brethren, when- 
ever one of them died, appointed another ; and that thus the secret has been 
faithfully kept from the sixteenth century to our days. 3 The three are well 
known in the Benedictine Order. Sir Walter Scott in the early part of last 
century, when visiting Mr. Surtees at Mainsford, often came over to 
Durham, and must have heard this tradition ; for he refers to it in the well- 
known lines of Marmion : 3 

He chose his lordly seat at last 
Where his Cathedral huge and vast 

Looks down upon the Wear. 
There deep in Durham's gothic shade 

His relics are in secret laid, 

But none may know the place, 
Save of his holiest servants three, 
Deep sworn to solemn secrecy, 

Who share that wondrous grace. 

This is the Benedictine tradition. 

The 'secular tradition' is found in a MS. of the seventeenth century, 
which was in Archbishop Eyre's hands in 1867; it is also in a paper ii 

1 Haverfield and Greenwell, Catalogue, 155. 

8 Those interested in the subject should read Rev. W. Brown, Where is St. Cuthbert Buried? (Durhan_ 7 
1897); Monsignor Eyre (Archbishop of Glasgow), The History of St. Cuthbert (London, 1887); Canon 
Fowler in Arch. 57, i. 1 8, 19 ; and Raine, St. Cuthbert (Durham, 1828). 

8 Scott, Marmion, ii. 14. 

250 






THE CONTENTS OF ST. CUTHBERT'S SHRINE 

the handwriting of Bishop Maire (1725 1766). l These two papers state 
definitely that the precious treasure is the body of St. Cuthbert ; they say 
that it lies under the second and third steps of the staircase leading to the 
Bell Tower, and one of the MSS. adds that it was near the great clock. 
When this became known to the Chapter in 1867 a large and thorough inves- 
tigation took place, both near the staircase leading to the great clock in the 
south transept, and also at the stairs in the north-west tower which flanks the 
west end of the nave, a tower in which some of the bells were formerly 
hung. Nothing was found in either place. On the other hand the Bene- 
dictine tradition points to some spot in the western part of the nave, not far 
from the font. 8 These traditions may now be left while we consider the chief 
matter that is, the probability that the body was not removed, and that the 
bones now lying in the vault of 1542 in the platform behind the Neville 
screen are the actual remains of St. Cuthbert. The known history of this 
body is short. Three commissioners 8 of Henry VIII., probably in 1537,* 
going their rounds in search of Church treasure came to the Cathedral. We 
are told that the chest containing the saint's body was broken into by a 
goldsmith with a great hammer, and that in so doing the man broke one of 
the saint's legs. After this the remains were deposited for some time in the 
Revestry ' of the church c till such time as they did further know the king's 
pleasure' It was during this period that pious monks are said to have 
carried the body away, substituting for it a skeleton taken from the Gentry 
Garth. We have two accounts by eye-witnesses of the burial of the ancient 
coffin with a body in it ; those who saw it detected no change. The bills 
for making the vault and for carrying out the burial are still in the Cathedral 
Library. 7 The body was laid in an ordinary vault ; and into the walls of it 
were built the blue stones or ' marble ' as they are commonly called, which 
had been at the base of the destroyed shrine. 8 Over the body they first 
placed a large slab on which was engraved in bold lettering the name of 
* Ricardus Heswell, Monachus,' who had been buried in the Gentry Garth 
in the fifteenth century ; and above this, on the surface, a large blue marble 
ledger stone without inscription. The marks of the feet of earlier worshippers 
may still be plainly seen on both sides of this slab. 

Here the coffin lay undisturbed till 1827. Then the Chapter ordered 
investigations. In the broken coffin they found the bones closely wrapped 
in ancient robes, among which were discovered several valuable relics of 
St. Cuthbert, which had escaped the keen eyes of the commissioners. These 
things answer to certain of the treasures enumerated at the opening which 
took place in 1 104.' Mr. Raine, 10 an eye-witness in 1827, who unfortunately 

1 Both are quoted in Arch. Ivii. (i.) \j, 1 8. * Ibid. 19. 

* See Rites of Durham (Surtees Soc. crii. loz). * Ibid. 284. 

1 Pulled down in 1802. ' Rites of Durham (Surtees Soc., cvii. 103). 

* Durham Account RO//J, iii. 742 (Surtees Soc., xcii-ciii.). 8 Arch. Ivii. (i.), 14, 16. 

* Sjm. Dur. (Rolls Series), i. 252, 253 : Abbot Richard, of St. Alban's (1097-1119), was present at the 
translation of 1 1 54, and the account of the event given by Matthew Paris is important. Abbot Richard had 
a withered arm, which was miraculously restored by touching St. Cuthbcrt's body. The account is as 
follows : While the holy and undecaycd body of the said Confessor was being lifted by the head and feet to 
be transferred (to the new shrine), and was bending in the middle and threatened to collapse, Abbot Richard, 
who was standing by, marvelling that it was flexible as though the saint were merely asleep, sprang forward, 
and casting away his crozier, supported the body by the middle in his arms ; and straightway the arm which 
before had been useless was restored entirely by the touch of the holy body. From this it seems dear that 
the saint was taken out of his coffin in the process. Vitae Viginti Trium S. A. Abbatum (cd. Watts) 1006. 

10 Raine, St. Cutkbert (Durham, 1828). 

251 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

infused far too much local feeling and prejudice into his descriptions, enumerates 
no less than six coverings or wrappings : on the outside a fine linen sheet, well 
waxed ; then a somewhat thin and delicate robe of silk, with the figure of 
what he styles an Anglo-Saxon knight on a ground of amber and ornamental 
parts of leaf-gold ; thirdly, a robe of thick soft silk, with ' St. Cuthbert's 
birds ' the eider ducks, and other things woven into it ; fourthly, an amber 
silk robe ; then for fifth and sixth coverings, two more silken robes, one of 
purple and crimson, the other of damask, also of the same colours. 1 In the 
midst of these wrappings (under the three upper ones) lay hidden the re- 
markable 'Cross of St. Cuthbert'; there were found also the remains of a 
portable altar, an ivory comb, and the beautiful tenth-century stole, etc., of 
Bishop Frithstan of Winchester. There was also a ring, commonly called 
St. Cuthbert's ring; this, however, is not earlier than the thirteenth century; 
it is kept with great honour at Ushaw. 

After all that seemed valuable had been removed to the Cathedral 
Library and the fragments of the coffin had also been stored away in a cup- 
board, the remains were placed in a rough box of deal planks carelessly put 
together, and again buried in the vault. 

When in 1899 Dr. Greenwell 3 had undertaken to piece together, so far 
as was possible, the fragments of the coffin, he asked leave to have the vault 
re-opened to see whether any bits of carved work had been thrown back into 
it in 1827. Some few portions, all small, of the carved wood were found 
and fitted into their places ; the most of the wood was either in minute 
fragments or in dust. In other respects the re-opening was of value. 8 

Though the coffin of 1827 had broken asunder under the pressure of 
rubbish over it, the bones of the chief body were found arranged loosely in 
their natural order. There was also a second skull resting on the saint's arm, 
that of St. Oswald. On examination of the bones there was found remaining 
on them throughout portions of ligaments and considerable remains of the 
' periosteum membrane,' a kind of skin which enwraps the bones and is so 
delicate of texture and substance that it rapidly perishes if exposed to damp 
earth or to the moisture of ordinary decay. 4 This fact, to which two 
qualified anatomists testified, at once disposes of the suggestion that this 
skeleton had been taken out of the Centry Garth by the monks; for the monks' 
burial-yard was damp, and bones lying there could not have retained this 
delicate membrane. It is most improbable too, that when such a substitution 
took place the valuable vestments and other wrappings should have been left, 
six deep on the body ; or that they should have failed to secure the cross or 
the ancient comb and the most interesting portable altar. At any rate, 
the fact is that the position of the cross found under three of the wrappings 
is a direct proof that these had never been disturbed. 6 

Then it was observed by Canon Fowler that in one of the eye sockets 
of the skull was a something of which he says, ' I could distinguish not only 
the exsiccated muscles diverging from a point at the back, but the circular 
form of the iris, and the rows of the roots of the eyelashes I have 

1 Raine, St. Cuthbert (Durham, 1828), 194. 
8 Haverfield and Greenwell, Catahgue, 133-156. 

8 See Arch. Ivii., (i) 1 1. Canon Fowler was present, as also the writer of this article. * Ibid. 20. 

s All these were found in 1827. Reginald of Durham (Surtees Soc., i.), c. 41, mentions a gold fillet, and 
Rame says there were traces of a mark that might have been left on the skull by contact with gold. 

252 



THE CONTENTS OF ST. CUTHBERT'S SHRINE 

no doubt that it was a shrivelled eyeball, including the lids.' 1 If this is so, 
it is surely a strong confirmation of the original drying up without decay of 
the 'corpus incorruptum." When the bones were laid out for us and counted 
up, before being deposited in the new oaken coffin, it was found that only 
one important member was missing, one of the thigh bones ; this may be 
the 'leg' which was broken by the goldsmith with his hammer. Dr. Selby 
Plummer 8 says that 'the partially worn though otherwise perfect condition 
of the teeth, the conditions of the lower jaw, the partial ossification of the 
larynx, the comparative thinness and lightness of the scapuhe, warrant us in 
assigning the age of their owner as of about fifty-five years of age,' which also 
corresponds closely enough to what we know respecting St. Cuthbert's age at 
his death. Perhaps the most striking confirmation of the relation between 
this skeleton and the original records is this ; in Bede's Life of St. Cuthbert* 
we are told that after a great crisis the Saint recovered his health, save that 
a tumour which had been external then ' took an internal direction and troubled 
him all the rest of his life.' For when the bones were examined by us we 
saw in the breast-bone a well-marked deep hole which had been eaten out 
by a long and obstinate tumour; over about half the mouth of this hole 
a piece of bone had grown, showing that much time had elapsed during 
the progress of the malady. Dr. Plummer also adds that on this bone 'were 
many perforations, due to some ulcerative process." In many ways it is 
probable that St. Cuthbert was a great sufferer throughout his life ; and the 
skeleton answers exactly to the descriptions of the ancient records, which show 
us a man old before his days, oppressed with ill-health, and of a consumptive 
tendency. And finally, contemporaries tell us that St. Cuthbert was ' neither 
very tall nor very short,' and the skeleton as we carefully measured it was 
about- five feet eight inches long. 6 

These are cumulative probabilities which incline the mind towards a 
belief that we have here the remains of St. Cuthbert. Future discovery, or, 
it may be, the revealing of the Benedictine secret, may compel us to think 
otherwise ; as it is, the sum of proof is strongly in favour of the genuineness 
of the remains, though proof positive is wanting. 

THE HEAD OF ST. OSWALD* 

The history of this relic is briefly this : After the battle on the Maser- 
field in 642 in which the King fell, 8 his remains were brutally treated by 
Penda, the triumphant pagan king of Mercia; his head was stuck up on 
a pole ; King Oswio later on took it down.' He carried it to Lindisfarne, 
where it was received as a most precious relic. When the monks were forced 
to take flight thence in 875, they tell us that they placed the head in 
St. Cuthbert's coffin, 10 and William of Malmesbury adds that 'the head is 
said to be held between the arms of the ever blessed Cuthbert.' l In the 
translation of 1104 it is said that the head was restored to its place by the 

1 Arch. Ivii. (i), 21 note, but see Rainc, Sf. Cuthbert, 214. * Ibid. 23 note. 

Ibid. 20. * Cap. 8. * Arch. Ivii. (i), 10. 

Ibid. 23-24. 7 See Reginald of Durham (Surtccs Soc. i.), cap. 42. 

8 Bede, Hut. Eccl., lib. iii. cap. ix. Ibid. cap. xii. 

10 Sym. Dur. (Rolls series), i. 57. u Ibid. i. 53. 

253 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

side of St. Cuthbert. 1 This skull shows proof of such a violent death as 
befell St. Oswald in the battle of Maserfelth. 3 It has a tremendous cut on the 
skull, which must have killed him, inflicted by a sharp sword or axe ; and 
there is also a second wound on the head, 8 perhaps inflicted after death, when 
Penda savagely wreaked his anger on it. 

THE CROSS 

This ancient and most interesting relic was found in 1827 under three 
thicknesses of silk on- the skeleton. It is of gold with four equal arms ; of 
a type of workmanship well known to be that of the seventh century, as may 
be seen by comparison with other and dated pieces of jeweller's work in 
France or Belgium. In the centre it has a large reddish stone, or possibly a 
substitute in glass for a garnet, and under this a cavity which probably con- 
tained a relic. There is a corresponding stone in each angle and twelve 
smaller stones on each branch. One of the limbs has been broken off and 
riveted on again in early times : it has a ring through which a gold chain 
was passed. This ring is of much later workmanship ; and under it may be 
discerned a thin loop in gold wire worn through and replaced. 

The inner ornament is not enamel : it is formed of some quasi-mosaic 
pieces of stone or glass set in a thin edging of gold. 

The discovery of this cross, hidden away for ages (for Reginald of 
Durham, in his minute description of the contents of the coffin, does not 
mention it), provides one of the strongest confirmations of the genuineness of 
this skeleton. It points to a high probability that the inner vestments, etc., 
were never disturbed till 1827;* and it is evident that if they were left un- 
touched the remains within them could not have suffered a secret translation. 



ST. CUTHBERT'S COMB 

The anonymous author writing of the translation of 1104 says that the 
monks then replaced by the side of St. Cuthbert's body 'a great ivory comb,' 
and Reginald of Durham 5 says 'The comb is perforated in the middle so 
that almost three fingers may be inserted into the hole. The length of it 
bears a suitable proportion to the breadth. For the length is almost equal to 
the breadth, save that for ornament there is a slight difference. From lapse 
of time it has got a reddish tinge ; the whiteness of bone which naturally 
belongs to it is changed into a ruddy tint.' This comb was found in 1827 
lying among the folds of one of the uppermost robes, on the lower part of 
the saint's breast. On careful examination the comb was found to be certainly 
ivory, not wood ; it has been skilfully fastened together again, for it was very 
fragile and much broken. It does not appear to have been originally buried 

1 It is fair to add that there is a skull at Epternach, an Anglo-Saxon settlement in Luxemburg, which a 
said to be St. Oswald's head. See Bede (ed. Plummer), ii. 157. 

8 Ibid. Sym. Dur. (Rolls Series), i. 255, and Bede, of. cit., lib. iii. c. 9. *Arch. Ivii. (i), 25. 

4 The outside robes were removed at the translation of 698, but ' quae carni illius proxima aderant 
prorsus tangere timebant.' Sym. Dur. (Rolls Series), i. 36. Then ' involutum novo amictu corpus, novaque in 
theca reconditum, supra pavimentum sanctuarii posuerunt.' Bede, Hist. Eccl., lib. iv. cap. xxviii. Some 
robes were taken away and others added in 1 104. S. D. i. 255. 

6 Reginald of Durham (Surtees Soc.), i. cap. 42. 

254 




ST. CUTHBERT'S CROSS ({). 




ST. CUIHBERT'S COMB 



To fact fag, 



THE CONTENTS OF ST. CUTHBERT'S SHRINE 

with the saint ; we hear of it for the first time in the account of the doings 
of Sacrist Elfrid, son of Westoue, about 1022, who made a new comb for 
the saint's body, which is probably the comb now preserved in the Library. 

THE PORTABLE ALTAR 

Of all the relics the most puzzling is this altar, on which there is an 
undecipherable inscription. It is simply an oaken board covered with silver, 
forming a flat plate or tablet about five inches broad and four inches and a 
half high. On this the elements were placed for consecration. 

It is mentioned as being in the coffin by the anonymous monk and by 
Reginald ; it is certainly coeval with St. Cuthbert. The oaken board was 
covered with a too delicate silver plate fastened on by small silver nails. 
This is unfortunately in a very bad state. Round a circular ornament in the 
middle ran a bold inscription which has hitherto baffled ingenuity. There 
exists also on the back of the original oaken slab a seventh-century inscription 
carved in the wood with a sharp tool. It runs thus : 

IN HONOR (EM). . S. PETRU. 

It seems that the carver never thought of putting St. Peter's name in 
the genitive case, and that it is a kind of' Lapidary Latin ' blunder. Under 
these words are cut two crosses of unusual shape ; they are long and fine, 
tapering away to a point. 

The silver work has been transferred to a new oaken slab. On the front 
of this portable altar there are many puzzles. In the middle (or nearly in the 
middle, for it is nearer to one side than the other) is a circular centrepiece 
with beautifully interlaced work of a very early date forming perhaps a 
decorated cross in the middle. There is also a very clear cross half-way up 
the left side ; there is nothing to tell us whether there were any crosses (to 
make up the symbolic five) on the corresponding places on the other three 
sides ; it looks as if there were not. Each corner is occupied by an 
interesting ornament, and a fine beading runs all round the plate. The 
centrepiece had a bold inscription. Mr. Raine says it is Greek in Latin 
letters ; there seems little truth in this statement. Calculating the space and 
the size of the letters, about six to seven letters are missing at the beginning 
of the inscription and about the same number at the end. The letters 
remaining are only eight in number, with two curled marks between them, 
which may mean abbreviations for m or iam ; but it is more likely that they 
are simply divisions between the words. Outside the central boss there are, 
at the top, two very plain letters, O H. The letters which remain are fairly 
clear, excepting the first, which was so near destruction that it has suffered 
damage. Indeed, the first and second letters may be read either as a double I 
(there is such a letter on the back of the original slab) ; or they may be a U 
or a V ; they may also be such an N as we see on the back ; they might, 
but not probably, be part of an H. Earlier in the inscription there is 
apparently the lower part of an O, with room for about two letters between 
it and the double I. 

Reproducing the letters as we have them, they run thus : 



o . . . . IIAIECIERA 
255 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

There is no sign, as Raine would have it, of a Greek r at the beginning, nor 
of a <coi, nor is there any * et.' l 

BISHOP FRITHSTAN'S STOLE AND MANIPLE 

The history of these rare and beautiful specimens of early needlework, 
now about a thousand years old, and still almost as bright as they were when 
they passed put of the artists' hands, is happily preserved for us on the work 
itself. For both the Stole and the Maniple bear the inscription ' Pio 
Episcopo FrrSestano,' as well as the name of the giver, '^Elffled fieri precepit.' 
Frithstan was Bishop of Winchester from 909* to 931, when he resigned ; 
he died in 933. He was a man of much piety, and became a local saint. 
Rifled was the second wife of Edward the Elder, 8 and died not later 
than 916. 

This, then, gives a proximate date for this beautiful piece, and the place 
also where it was worked. It was probably the work of the ladies of the 
new Nunminster of Winchester, under guidance of Queen Rifled, as a tribute 
of their affection for the saintly bishop. 

Soon after Frithstan's death, King Athelstan, son of Edward (though not 
by Queen Rifled),* was called up to the north, and as he passed through 
Chester-le-Street B he worshipped at the shrine of St. Cuthbert, 6 and presented 
to the saint * a stole and maniple 7 which St. Etheldreda gave to St. Wilfrid 
in a small chest,' as we are told in the enumeration of relics. 8 Reginald of 
Durham also, speaking of the year 1 104, says that ' he was decorated with a 

stole and fanon their inner portions are hidden under the tunic 

and dalmatic, but the extremities (which are in sight) appear to be of most 
costly workmanship.' * 

The stole, which is now in five pieces, has kept much of the brilliancy 
of the gold thread, and shows very skilful handling throughout. The 
groundwork is of thread of gold 'real gold thread' (Mr. Raine says), not 
silver-gilt ; the figures and ornaments, inscriptions, etc., have been worked in 
with the needle on spaces left for them ; the border on either side is woven. 

Of the stole the middle point is occupied by a quatrefoil enclosing the 
Lamb of God with a nimbus. It bears also the inscription ' Agnus Dei.' 
From this the figures descend to right and left, each with its own inscription, 
in letters scattered on the ground so as to avoid a stiff scroll ; the whole stole 
is decorated with full-length figures of the prophets of the Old Testament : 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Amos, Obadiah, Hosea, Joel, Habakkuk, Jonah, 
Zechariah, one whose name is lost, and, lastly, Nahum. On the front of one 
of the ends is a half-length St. John the Evangelist, and at the back ' /Elfflasd 
fieri precepit,' and on the other end a half-length figure of St. Thomas with, 
on the reverse, ' Pio episcopo FrrSestano.' 

The maniple is in similar work, though the details differ. In the 
middle, here also, there is a quatrefoil in which is worked by the needle a 

1 See Raine, S/. Cuthbert, 201, 202, particularly the plates at the end of the volume. 

3 Anglo-Sax. Chron. gives date 93 2 as the date of his death, but see Sym. Dur. (Rolls Series), ii. 1 24. 

8 times Hist. (Rolls Series), i. 478. * Ibid. 

' The shrine was there from 833 to 995. Sym. Dur. (Rolls Series), i. 75. 

7 Ibid - i- Z". Durham Account Rolls (Surtees Soc.). ii. 4.33. 

Reg. of Dur. (Surtees Soc. i.), cap. xli. 

256 




ST. CI'THBERT'S PORTABLE ALTAR (|). 






BRACELET OP GOLD THREAD 

AND RED SILK FOUND IN 
ST. CUTHBERT'S COFFIN (J). 




PORTION OF MAMPLE FOUND IN 
ST. CUTHBERT'S COFFIN (). 



To fact fagt 156. 



THE CONTENTS OF ST. CUTHBERT'S SHRINE 

hand outstretched from a cloud, with the inscription, ' Dextera Dei.' On the 
one side is Pope Gregory the Great in act of benediction, and below him his 
companion Peter the Deacon ; under these the maniple ends with a square 
containing a half-length figure of St. John Baptist, with a second ' Pio 
episcopo FriSestano.' On the other half there is St. Sixtus the Pope, and 
beneath him Lawrence the Deacon ; and on the square end is, on the 
front, a half-length figure of St. James the Apostle, with again the inscription 
* jfElfflasd fieri precepit.' At each end of the maniple there hangs a fringe 
of crimson or purple. 

There were also found, a part of Athelstan's gift, a girdle and two 
bracelets in similar work, but without figures. 1 A second maniple of a 
later date was also discovered. 

PIECES OF SILK CLOTH 

In addition to the Frithstan vestments, the Library has also some remark- 
able fragments of those five silk-woven pieces of ancient work, which have been 
photographed full size and painted by hand by Mr. T. J. Williamson ; they 
can be studied at South Kensington. The careful reproduction is more distinct 
than the fragmentary and faded remains themselves, though preserved with 
great care at Durham. That there is anything left to us is really due to 
the infinite painstaking of Dr. Greenwell, the Cathedral Librarian. In 
this, as in many another case, he has enormously enriched the Library by his 
skill, knowledge, and devotion to antiquity. It has always been said that the 
scenes of the Saint's life are here brought in the sea, the eider-ducks, or the 
solan geese, the porpoises, the rabbits ; these, it was thought, proved ' that the 
silk had been woven for St. Cuthbert ' and at Lindisfarne. It is far more pro- 
bable that these incomparable fragments were presents brought from the East, 
from Persia perhaps, or Syria, or from orientalised Sicily. It is, most pro- 
bably, Persian work of the eleventh century. One knows how intimate was 
the intercourse between East and West in old times ; and the texture and 
manner of ornament is not western, but oriental. 

i. The largest piece remaining is in thick soft silk. It appears to have 
been a square, some part of the edging of it being still there ; the general effect 
of colour, though much faded, being purple and crimson. The pattern of 
this piece is chiefly confined within a circle of about two feet in diameter, 
with a bordering in the circle of grapes and conventional leaves with pears, 
or more probably mangoes, in couples, and other eastern fruits ; at the top 
are 'golden apples,' i.e. oranges. The interstices between the repetitions of the 
pattern are filled up with two geese (or more probably ducks) pecking at 
bunches of grapes which fall from a vase or bracket standing on a pedestal. 
Inside the circle, for nearly one-fourth of the height, is the sea, wherein swim 
six fishes, and four ducks float on the water. Arising out of the sea between 
the birds the upper part of the circle is filled with what may have been meant 
for a great vase, standing on a base which rests on the sea ; or it may perhaps 
be a conventional boat, with high ends rising almost to the top of the 
circle and crowned with two large ornaments of pine-apple form. Much 
of the space between these points is unhappily lost ; there is enough to show 

1 Sym. Dur. (Rollt Scries), i. ill. 

i 257 33 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

that it was filled up with a bunch of oranges, with foliage above, and an 
ornamented belt of embroidery running from one side to the other and ending 
in tasselled flowing folds gathered together on the outside. If it is a vase, 
the base of it is easy to make out, though there seems to be no top to it. 
The colours of this piece have been most brilliant. 

2. This is the most curious piece. It covers a large surface and the 
subject is repeated. There is in the middle a large circular plate with eight 
lobes, and between the outer and inner borders a pattern which looks at first 
sight rather like an oriental inscription, though it is nothing but ornament. 
Inside this border is a horse and his rider. The horse is unconventional, but 
drawn naturally ; it has trappings and hanging bells, its tail is tied up, and on a 
saddle with stirrups the rider sits holding the reins in his right hand ; both reins 
are on the right side of the horse's neck ; the bit is a kind of muzzle, on, not in, 
the mouth. On the rider's left wrist a hawk is perched with wings extended 
and a long, broad tail. The bird's head is distinctly hawk-shaped. Under the 
horse is a very well-designed dog of the greyhound or ' whippet ' type. The 
man wears no armour nor any sword ; he sits looking out full face, with a 
peaked beard. 1 The ground of the silk is parseme with conventional oriental 
flowers and cypress trees such as one sees on a Persian carpet to this day. 
The whole piece has a double border composed of two lines of rope or chain 
with a succession of identical stiff ornaments ; beyond this border comes a 
row of well-drawn rabbits, and beyond this a fringe or braid of the same 
colour fastened to the silk by the needle. This striking pattern of man, 
horse, falcon, and dog, in a circular lobed cartouche, is twice repeated. 

3. A piece of silk, still of most brilliant colouring, mostly crimson 
and purple. Above these seems to have been an urn, now only indicated, 
supported by two face to face winged beasts, lions or griffins, whose heads 
are gone. In this piece the main figure, repeated thrice on the portion of stuff 
preserved, is a two-headed peacock, standing in front of the spectator, with the 
eyes and brilliant colours of his tail filling up all the space behind him. 

4. The next fragment is a piece of silk, with a cruciform pattern often 
repeated, in the same purple and crimson colours. 

5. And lastly a silk piece of little ornament ; it is amber coloured and so 
arranged that the threads of it appear to give alternately a light and a dark tint, 
so creating a kind of wavy look on the surface. This piece was bordered by 
a ribbon of thick lace rather more than an inch in breadth with a pattern 
woven on it, very like, as Mr. Raine says, the * Coach-lace ' of his time. 2 

Of these coverings of the saint's body some were certainly added in the 
days of Reginald of Durham. He minutely describes the robes which were 
then taken away and replaced by choicer work in still finer silk. It is these 
substituted pieces that are preserved and carefully treasured in the Library of 

Durham Cathedral. 

' 

1 In the church of St. Pol de Bate (an island off the north-west coast of Brittany) the writer discovered : 
fragment of very ancient needlework with this same subject treated in a similar way. It is said to be a 
part of the famous stole of St. Pol, with which the saint led a wicked and hungry dragon to its death. Be this 
as it may, the work is very ancient and curious ; the cure of the parish said that the embroidery was oriental. 
The St. Pol horseman rides a horse with hardly any trappings ; the bridle is treated in the same way, without 
a bit ; but the dog, instead of being a tiny ' whippet,' is a huge boar-hound. The most remarkable point 
about the Batz figure is the fact that the feet of the horse are toed very distinctly ; the horse itself is better 
drawn than ours ; otherwise, the subjects are identical. St. Pol was a Celtic priest who had crossed over from 
western England to Brittany in the sixth century. * Raine, St. Cuthbert, 1 96. 









PORTIONS OF BISHOP FRITHSTAN'S STOLE (-J). 






BISHOP FRITHM ' 
MANIPLK (i). 



ENDS OF BISHOP FRITHSTAN' STOLE (}). 



r 



BOLDON BOOK 

record known as Boldon Book affords the elements of a 
picture of the social and economic conditions of the bishopric of 
Durham at the close of the twelfth century, which, although it 
may not be complete, will, as far as it goes, be accurate. The 
nature and contents of this document have not always been correctly 
described. It has been an accepted commonplace to say that Boldon Book 
is the Domesday of the palatinate ever since Sir Henry Ellis printed the 
record among the appendixes to the official edition of Domesday Book. And 
yet this saying is far from representing the actual state of the case 
would, indeed, that it did so. Boldon Book approaches more nearly the 
type of a rental or extent than that of a survey 1 in the sense in which the 
word is used in connexion with Domesday Book, and although it appears to 
describe itself as a survey, it is in reality no more than a polyptichum designed 
to meet the administrative needs of a great estate. It is not even what we 
might under the circumstances have hoped for a chartulary. The antiquity 
of the see and the peculiar position of the bishop, which was already passing 
from landlordship to sovereignty, 1 made the preparation of a true chartulary at 
once difficult and superfluous. The * patrimonium Sancti Cuthberti ' was 
already formed and organized, and the traditional record of it preserved in the 
Durham Chronicle and a few forged charters. 8 Moreover, since the great 
re-adjustment at the close of the eleventh century, by which a convent of 
monks was introduced into the cathedral church and the endowment of the 
see divided between them and the bishop * the appointment, as they would 
have said across the Channel, of a * mensa episcopalis ' and a ' mensa capitu- 
laris ' there was none to bring the bishop's rights seriously into question. 
The far-off royal government was destined not to molest him for two centuries 
to come, and then the bishop would have his answer ready, a warrant better 
than Warenne's rusty sword, and yet consisting essentially of general words 
which, by exception, would succeed in ousting the king. So the legal side of 
Boldon Book is scarcely apparent, and its economic side consists of what is 
rather a report on the conditions of a great estate than the survey of a county. 
Still it may be fairly assumed that what went on in the bishop's vills was 
equally going on in those of the prior or the lay barons, and that Boldon Book 
therefore affords enough material for a number of generalizations with regard 
to what we may call the Third Estate of the bishopric at the close of the 
twelfth century. Something may be said as well about the social superstruc- 

1 'Fecit Dominus Hugo Dunolmensis Episcopns in presentia sua et suorum dcscribi omncs reddiros totius 
Episcopatus sui assisaset consuetudines, sicut tune erant et ante fuerant,' Bullion Book (Surtees Soc.), p. I. 

1 Lapsley, Co. Pal. of Dur. chs. i. ii. v. 

8 Sjmeon of Durham (Rolls Scries), 2 vols. ; Liber Vitte Eccleiitf Ditnelmeniit (Surtees Soc.) ; and Canon 
Greenwell's valuable discussion of the subject in FeoJarium Prioratui Dunelmm'u (Surtees Soc.) (henceforth 
FeoJarium), prcf. 

* Greenwell, loc. cit. 

259 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

ture but here we shall get small help from Boldon Book, and must proceed 
cautiously by means of inference and analogy, making use of the meagre 
supply of documents at our disposal. It will be convenient, then, to proceed 
from the bottom upward, to study and classify the information that Boldon 
Book affords before attempting to supply that which it withholds. 

To this end we may begin with the organization of the agricultural 
community. It is desirable here to fasten our attention on the vill rather 
than the manor, for our interests are economic rather than legal, and the 
question of the formation of the manors of the bishopric is very largely a legal 
one. Still it is a matter which we cannot afford to neglect, and it may be 
well to interrupt our main inquiry at this point in order to ask ourselves what 
was the meaning of the word ' manor ' in the bishopric, and how the thing 
which the word represents came into being. The Domesday manor was far 
less definite and regular an institution than that of the fourteenth century, but 
whatever the manor of the eleventh and twelfth centuries may or may not 
have been, one point is clear, its constituting element was the vill. Either the 
manor composed itself of vills or else it decomposed vills into manors. In a 
general way the first of these processes is characteristic of the north of 
England, the second of the south. 1 The vill is an institution more permanent 
and more stable than the manor. It is older withal, and stands in a closer 
relation to the land and its inhabitants. 

With this statement of the general difficulties of the case we may turn to 
examine the particular problem presented by Boldon Book and the other 
evidence at our disposal. Briefly it may be stated on this wise, how and 
when were the bishop's vills grouped or arranged in those economic and 
judicial units styled manors ? Since the bishopric was omitted from the 
Domesday survey and not afterwards included in the regular administration of 
the kingdom, whether judicial or financial, it will be seen that any argument 
drawn from the fiscal or administrative purpose of the Domesday survey will 
not necessarily fit our case. Nor, as we have seen, may we argue as though 
Boldon Book, in respect to its aim and result, were on all fours with Domesday 
Book. The chief aim of the Conqueror's inquest was to facilitate the collec- 
tion of danegeld, a tax that was not raised in the bishopric of Durham,* 
and the two documents are separated by a century which saw the lapse and 
disappearance of that impost. We must seek, then, some other explana- 
tion ; we are debarred from assuming that it was financial pressure that 
grouped men and lands about some house which was responsible to the 
king for his geld. 3 

We may conduct our inquiry most conveniently by observing the now 
classical method of proceeding from the known to the unknown. The known 
in this case consists of the rich series of episcopal halmote rolls which begin 
in the year 1345.* These documents record the doings of those loca~ 

1 Pollock and Maitland, Hist. ofEng. Law, 1st ed. i. 597, 598. 

2 Lapsley, Co. Pal. of Dur., 29$, 296. 

3 This convenient hypothesis, put forward by Professor Maitland (Dom. Book and Beyond, 128), is not 
now generally accepted, see Tait in Eng. Hist. Rev. 1897, 770 ff; Round in ibid. 1900, 293 ff. ; and Vino- 
gradoff, The Growth of the Manor, bk. iii., particularly pp. 300 ff. 

4 These MSS., which are preserved at the Record Office and at Durham, were thoroughly examined 
by Messrs. Hardy and Page, on behalf of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, with whose permission they have 
very kindly placed at my disposal several volumes of transcripts. For the convenience of those who wish to 
verify statements occurring in the text I give the references to the originals. 

260 



BOLDON BOOK 

tribunals which we are accustomed to think of as manorial courts, but it is 
very noticeable that the word * manor' does not occur in them until the Middle 
Ages are past. They begin normally with the formula ' Pleas of the halmote 
of A, held at such a place on such a day.' All the halmotes of the bishopric 
were held by the bishop's steward, either in person or by deputy, 1 who for 
this purpose made a circuit, called the ' turnus halmotorum,' three times a 
year. The court was ordinarily held at a certain vill about which a number 
of others were grouped. This arrangement is extremely important for our 
purposes, and will presently be considered in greater detail when we deal with 
the matter in its economic aspect. At present it should be remarked that for 
judicial purposes the arrangement was very elastic. Thus in the pontificate 
of Bishop Hatfield (13451381) there are three instances of the halmote of 
Sadberge being held at Stockton. 1 This is particularly striking, for Sadberge 
had, as we shall presently see, a greater unity than any other subdivision of 
the episcopal estates. Then in Bishop Skirlaw's time (13881405), the court 
of the Middleham group was held sometimes at Middleham and sometimes at 
Sedgefield, another member of the same group. 1 In the eleventh year of the 
same pontificate the halmote for four vills belonging to the Easington group 
was taken at Sadberge.* Twice in the same pontificate Durham, usually 
grouped with Chester, was taken at the court held at Easington.' These 
appear to be the only cases of such redistribution in the fourteenth century, 
but there are numerous instances of it in the records of the fifteenth and later 
centuries. In the fifteenth century, indeed, there is a striking case of a single 
court being held for all the bishop's vills.' Finally, the records of all these 
transactions were returned into the bishop's chancery, where they were 
engrossed and became part of the official records of the whole palatinate. 
Now the obvious inference from all this would be that the bishops were 
dealing with their vills as members of one vast manorial estate, or let us say 
rather of a great franchise which was 5 manorial in so far as its proprietor 
exercised rights of landlordship over certain parts of it. But no sharp line, it 
would seem, was drawn between the exercise of these rights and those of a 
political and administrative character in virtue of which the bishop enjoyed 
his regality. But things can not always have been in this condition. Several 
considerations enter into the account, and we must try to discover at what 
time and under what circumstances the bishop became the landlord of the 
vills in question, whether there was not some economic reason for their 
arrangement in the way we have seen, and how they were administered before 
the development of the complicated palatine judiciary. 

Before dealing with these questions we must follow the fortunes of the 
word 'manor' in connexion with the vills of the bishopric. In the survey 
made by Bishop Hatfield at the close of the fourteenth century, 7 we find that 
vills are grouped not in manors but in wards, a term which commonly 
answers to the hundreds and wapentakes of other counties. 8 Still within 

1 Lapsley, Co. Pal. ofDur. 78 ; Dur. Cursiton Rec. No. 42, m. I. Rec. Off. 

1 Ibid. No. 12, fols. 121, I29d, i82d. Ibid. No. I3,fol$. I4d, I24d. 

Ibid. fol. 2gid. * Ibid. No. 13, fols. 354, 396. 

Ibid. No. 16, fol. 252. ' HatfitU Sure. (Surtees Soc.), 1857. 

8 In the general receiver*! roll of Bishop Fordham (who succeeded Hatfield) the onus of every ward is 
given followed by the quota of the vills comprised in the ward, the manorial arrangement appearing only from 
the order in which the vills are enumerated. Ibid. 260-275. 

261 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

these four wards the arrangement of the vills corresponds to that of the 
halmote rolls, and as we shall see presently to that of Boldon Book as well. 
The term 'manor,' however, occurs in Hatfield's Survey, where it is applied 
to single vills held by free tenants, and seems to be equated with 'villa'. Thus 
at Easington under the rubric * Liberi Tenentes ' we read ' Walterus de 
Edirdacres tenet manerium de Edirdacres per certa servitia.' l On turning to 
Hutton we find under the same rubric the following entry : ' Henricus de 
Essh tenet villam de Huton . . . per servitium forinsecum.' * The next 
document in chronological order is the great receipt roll of Bishop Beck, the 
earliest account roll of the palatinate that has survived to us. 8 This records 
the issues of the bishop's manors and accounts for receipts from manorial 
bailiffs and for the expenses incident to holding the ' turnus halmotorum.' 
Then there is the long series of the prior's halmote rolls, beginning in 
1 296,* and these again avoid the term ' manor,' although they show a judicial 
organization practically identical with that of the bishop's vills. Then quite 
early in the thirteenth century we get in the record of the testimony taken 
in a great law-suit a mention of a manor belonging to Bishop Philip 
(i 197 I2o8). 5 And it is recorded that on the resignation of Bishop 
Nicholas de Farnham in 1 249 the manors of Stockton and Easington were 
assigned to him for his support ' cum omnibus eorundem maneriorum 
membris, pertinenciis et libertatibus.' ' This is particularly interesting 
because Stockton and Easington were the heads respectively of two of those 
halmote groups which we shall have presently to examine. Finally, if we 
turn to the national records we shall see that the king's officers had no 
difficulty in finding manors in Durham. After the death of Bishop Pudsey 
in 1195 the keepers of the temporalities accounted for the tallage of the 
manors of the bishopric, but, as appears from the detailed list which follows, 
the money was raised from the vills individually and not in manorial groups. 7 
Again, in the earliest extant pipe roll the keepers in like manner are account- 
ing for the cost of stocking the bishop's manors and. for certain manorial 
profits which seem to have been the result of a tallage. 8 

Yet in spite of all this the word ' manor ' does not occur in Boldon Book ; 9 
the vill was the unit of the survey, and in like fashion the division of St. 
Cuthbert's patrimony between the second Norman bishop and the monks 
was made on a basis of vills, and not manors. 10 

What then shall we say ? That the manor did not exist in Durham in 
the twelfth century ? But there was something that the king's officers 
treated as a manor, and the manor was not unknown in the next century. 
We cannot on the other hand suppose that the manor, as the term was 
understood throughout the kingdom, was to be found in the bishopric. For 

1 HatfielTs Siirv. (Surtees Soc.), 127. * Ibid. 153. 

8 Printed in Boldon Book (Surtees Soc.), App. pp. xxv-xxxix. 

* Dttr. Halmote R. (Surtees Soc.), 1889. ' Attestaciones Testium, etc., in Feuf. 224. 

1 From a document issued by a papal commission composed of three English prelates, in Historite Dunel- 
mensts Serif tores Tres. (Surtees Soc.), 1839, App. No. lix. The local chronicler in recording this transaction 
mentions the ' maneria episcopalia ' ; Graystanes, vi. in ibid. p. 42. 

Pipe R. 8 Ric. I. in Boldon Book (Surtees Soc.), App. pp. vi. vii. 

8 Ibid. 31 Hen. I. in. ibid. App. pp. i-iii. 

The single instance of the use of the term in the Whickham entry is almost certainly no part of the 
original record, vid. inf. App. No. ii. 

10 See Canon GreenwelTs instructive account of this transaction in Fend. pref. xvi ff. 

262 



BOLDON BOOK 

one thing, the institution that was occasionally called a manor had nothing to 
do with the bishop's financial administration. To what extent may we regard 
it as having served administrative and judicial ends ? 

We have suggested that in the fourteenth century and later the halmote 
groups in Durham lacked the individuality of the contemporary manor 
owing to a system of judicial administration which regarded them all as 
forming part of a single great estate and subject to a single tribunal which, 
although presided over by a single officer and constituted under a single 
authority, was for convenience sake held in various places. Now owing to 
very different reasons something of the same sort may have been true at a 
much earlier period. The tradition of the formation of the patrimonium of 
St. Cuthbert is preserved in the eleventh-century compilation known as the 
Historia de Sancto Cuthberto, and the twelfth-century chronicle that goes by 
the name of Symeon of Durham. Although we must make a large allowance 
for the bias of these documents, and the fact that they contain only the reflection 
of vanished grants or instruments, we may still draw from them the main lines 
of the development. The franchise of the see that was to be Durham began in 
grants of land in what are now Northumberland and York. The bishop's 
authority extended itself over the intervening region between Tyne and Tees 
as forming part of his diocese. To this authority was added, either by 
prescription or direct grant, some immunity (sake and soke) in the same 
region. This political power (quite independent of any proprietary right 
growing out of landlordship) seems at first to have been disregarded by the 
Danish invaders, and then as they settled and assumed Christianity to have 
been admitted and even perhaps extended. 1 Meanwhile the bishops seem to 
have been extending their proprietary rights in the region in question by 
purchase, perhaps by grant, and further by some form of internal coloniza- 
tion. We get only indirect notice of this last and most important method, 
but it may fairly be inferred from certain passages in the Historia Ecclesia? 
and the Historia de Sancto Cuthberto. Bishop Egred gave to the see Gainford 
and its appurtenances from Tees to Wear, * quarum ipse conditor fuerat,' 
says Symeon : * * et . . . sedificavit duas villas . . . et dedit eas,' says the 
Historia.* 

The development of the political side of the franchise has been traced 
elsewhere/ One thing is clear, at the time of the Norman Conquest and 
probably much earlier the bishops were holding a court, a single court, in 
which all their judicial business was transacted and which did not begin to 
develop and subdivide until the second half of the twelfth century. Such a 
tribunal would have included all those subjected to the bishop's jurisdiction 
whether for tenurial or political reasons ; but until the palatine judiciary 
began to develop upon the pattern of the royal judiciary this distinction 
would naturally not be taken into account. 

1 So much we may gather from the obviously legendary transactions ascribed to the Danish Guthred 
and King Alfred, and from the striking passages in the Hist, de S. Cuth. 'Nam Ethred tupradictui 
abbas emit a prxfato rege Guthred, et a Danorum ezercitu, qui sibi sub eo terram diviserant, has villas 
et eas Sancto Cuthberto contulit.' ' Eodem tempore Cuthardus, cpiscopus fidclis, emit de pecunia sancti 
Cuthberti villam quac vocatur Ceddesfeld, et quicquid ad earn pertinet, praeter quod tenebant tres homines, 
Aculf, Ethelbriht, Frithlaf. Super hoc tamen habuit cpiscopus sacam et socnam.' Symeon of Durham (Rolls 
Scr.), i. 107, 208 

1 Ibid. i. 53. Ibid. aoi. 

* Lapslcy, Co. Pal. ch. r. 

263 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

It has been argued that the organization and definition of manorial 
courts was by no means early, but followed and imitated that of the criminal 
jurisdiction of the sheriff. That originally, in short, there had been but 
a single court or halmote for all the tenants of the manor. 1 Now if we apply 
this theory to the bishop's estates which the rapid development of his 
sovereignty and the machinery for its application in the twelfth century 
would have left in a direct and proprietary relation to him, and remember 
the absence in the bishopric of any normalizing fiscal system, we may well 
regard the episcopal halmote courts as a case of arrested development. The 
great estate, as apart from the great franchise, would continue, in principle at 
least, to be administered as a single whole. 

Thus in the bishopric the financial force which contributed to the 
formation of the manor did not exist and the judicial element had been 
reduced to a minimum. It had, however, a certain importance. In practice 
it must have been convenient to hold the halmote from place to place on the 
plan which we have seen was customary in the fourteenth century. Such an 
arrangement would naturally take account of any pre-existent grouping or 
arrangement of vills, such as a parent community and its offshoots, or a 
cluster of intercommoning vills, or the like. Where a court was held for a 
number of vills that already had some principle of cohesion they would 
obviously be drawn more closely together, for the business of the halmote 
was almost as much administrative as judicial, and all sorts of common affairs 
were regulated there. Then, following the custom of the kingdom, such 
groups with newly developed or intensified solidarity might in the course of 
the thirteenth century come naturally if not very accurately to be described 
as manors. 

If this hypothesis prove acceptable, it will still be necessary to account 
for the economic, as we have endeavoured to account for the judicial, forma- 
tion of the episcopal manors, to show what earlier element of cohesion had 
held the clusters of vills together. Here, fortunately, we have rather more 
material at our disposal. The arrangement, as was natural, seems to have 
been primarily a matter of vicinity, and this would include of course new 
vills that sprang up on the waste land surrounding the elder ones. Then, as 
will presently appear, certain vills were chargeable in pairs or larger groups 
for services and renders, an arrangement which is in some cases older than the 
Norman Conquest. Such a condition is quite what we should expect to find 
when we remember that in the bishopric there was no uniform pressure 
of taxation, no such fiscal system as was imposed on the rest of the 
kingdom by the Domesday survey, which, whatever may be the details, 
must still be regarded as a dynamic process in the formation of the English 
manor. 

This matter may best be illustrated by a comparison of the disposition 
of the vills in the fourteenth-century manors with their arrangement in 
Boldon Book. 

Houghton Group in Halmote Rolls : Bishopswearmouth, Ryhope, 
Burdon, Herrington, Newbottle, Morton, Wardon, Houghton. 

Vills in the Boldon Book : Wearmouth and Tunstall ; Ryhope and 

1 Maitland, Stltct Pleat in Manorial Ceurtt (Seldcn Soc.), Introd. ; Vinogradoff, VIMnage In England, 
362-376. 

264 






BOLDON BOOK 

Burdon ; Newbottle, Biddick, and Herrington ; Houghton, Warden, and 
Morton. 1 

Here our test works out very neatly. The vills forming the manor of 
Houghton follow one another in order in the Boldon survey, moreover they 
all have some further connexion. Wearmouth, Ryhope, and Burdon, came 
to the bishop together as part of a reputed grant by King Athelstane.* In 
Boldon Book the vills are arranged in the groups indicated. Wearmouth and 
Tunstall are surveyed together, work, render, and have their demesne in 
common ; and this is true also of Ryhope and Burdon. The third group is 
connected by a common pinder and common mills. Warden and Morton 
are dependent on Houghton, where they work and with which they have a 
pinder in common. They all conform, moreover, to the Boldon or corn age- 
paying type, and fit in therefore with that general classification of vills of 
which we speak elsewhere.* 

Easington Group in the Halmote Rolls : Sherburn, Cassop, Shotton, 
Shadforth, Easington. 

Vills in the Boldon Book : Easington, Thorp, and Shotton ; North 
Sherburn, Shadforth, Cassop, Trillesden, and Whitwell. 

Here again we find an economic connexion between the vills which go 
to form this manor. Easington, Thorp, and Shotton were grouped as early 
as A.D. 901, when Bishop Cutheard granted them to Elfred, son of 
Birihtulfinc, in return for services,* and in the Boldon survey they follow one 
another. The first two are connected by common renders, services, and 
demesne. The second group is described in Boldon Book as Quarringtonshire, 
and appears to have an organic connexion. Whitwell would be a new vill 
erected in this region for its tenant William. In Hatfield's Survey it is being 
held as a sub-manor by the Master of Sherburn Hospital, 1 and would there- 
fore not be enumerated as one of the bishop's vills in the Halmote Rolls. 
Trillesden also would seem to be an offshoot or member of Cassop.* Finally 
the whole cluster conforms, as in the case of Houghton, to the Boldon or 
cornage-paying type. 

Chester Group in the Halmote Rolls : Ryton, Whickham, Whitburn, 
Cleadon, Newton, Plawsworth, Boldon, Chester, Urpeth, Gateshead, Fram- 
wellgate. 

Vills in the Boldon Book : Chester and Urpeth ; Gateshead, Boldon, 
Newton, and Plawsworth ; Cleadon and Whitburn ; Whickham ; Ryton and 
Crawcrook. 

Here the connexion of the minor groups is more apparent than that of 
the whole. The villeins of Urpeth plough and harrow at Chester, and 
although the entries are widely separated in Boldon Book, there is no doubt 

1 The manorial grouping as derived from the episcopal halmote rolls is necessarily only approximate, 
rid. sap. p. 261 I have given what seems to be the most usual or generally recognized arrangement of vills. 
Cf. Durham Halmote R. pref. p. viii ff. 

1 Symeoti of Durham (Rolls Ser.), i. in. 

* There are some apparent exceptions to this. The villeins of Biddick are firming their rill at special 
terms. Newbottle contains only cottiers and is a member of Herrington. Wardon and Morton in like 
manner contain only 'firmarii,' and are members of Houghton. I cannot account for the omission of Tunstall 
and Biddick, both of which are duly recorded in HaifieU'i Survey (Surtees Soc.), pp. 135, 153. Biddick is 
there recorded as being held by charter. 

* Symeoti of Durham (Rolls Ser.), i. 208. 

* Hatfielfi Surv. (Surtees Soc.), 150. Ibid. 

I 265 34 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

of the connexion between the two vills, particularly as the mill of Urpeth 
(which was at farm) occurs immediately after the Chester entry. The 
second group is more doubtful. If the Newton in question be the Newtona 
juxta Dunolmum of Boldon Book and Hatfield's Survey, it would be like 
Plawsworth, which immediately follows it in both records, an off-shoot of 
Durham. If, however, it be Newton juxta Boldonam, it would be an 
off-shoot of Boldon, having no connexion with Plawsworth or Durham. 
Cleadon and Whitburn are connected both in Boldon Book and Hatfield's 
Survey ; they have a common demesne and work and render together. 
Whickham, Ryton, and Crawcrook follow one another in similar fashion, but 
Boldon Book places them at some distance from the main group to which 
they are seen to belong. But the villeins of Whickham did carriage-service 
between Gateshead and Durham, and Ryton and Crawcrook have the obliga- 
tion of carting wine in common. Framwellgate, another offshoot of Durham, 
does not appear in Boldon Book. With this exception, and that of Gateshead, 
Chester and Plawsworth, where details are lacking, the vills belong to the 
Boldon type. 

Middleham Group in the Halmote Rolls : Sedgefield, Cornford, 
Middleham. 

Vills in the Boldon Book : Sedgefield and Butterwick ; Middleham 
and Cornford. 

This group presents no difficulties and requires little comment. It was 
already a great soke in the tenth century when Bishop Cutheard bought 
for St. Cuthbert ' Sedgefield and all belonging to it.' l Middleham and 
Cornford, which are surveyed together, follow immediately on the Sedgefield 
notice in Boldon Book, and although the Butterwick entry stands at some 
distance, the vill is charged with the service of ploughing at Sedgefield, 
of which it appears in Hatfield's Survey as a dependent. 8 

Stockton Group in the Halmote Rolls : Carlton, Hartburn, Norton, 
Hardwick, Preston, and Stockton. 

Vills in Boldon Book : Hardwick ; Norton ; Stockton, Hartburn, and 
Preston ; Carlton. 

Both Carlton and Norton seem to have formed part of the patrimony of 
St. Cuthbert.* In Boldon Book Stockton, Hartburn, and Preston are grouped ; 
the first two have a demesne in common, and a single pinder serves for all 
three. Hardwick, on the other hand, stands between Sedgefield and Middle- 
ham, but as it is in the hands of a tenant its services are not enumerated, 
so that we cannot tell what connexion it may have had with the present 
group, nor determine whether it belongs to the Boldon type to which all 
the rest excepting Carlton conform. 

Darlington Group in the Halmote Rolls : Cockerton, Whessoe, 
Haughton, Blackwell, Bondgate-in-Darlington. 

Vills in the Boldon Book : Darlington, Blackwell, Cockerton, Haugh- 
ton, Whessoe. 

This grouping goes back to the alleged grant of Styr son of Ulf, at the 
end of the tenth century.* 

1 Symeon of Durham (Rolls Ser.), i. 208. * Hatfielfs Sure. (Surtees Soc.), 1 86. 

8 Symeon of Durham (Rolls Ser.), i. 215, 220 ; Liber Vita, 57. 
4 Ibid. i. 212. 

266 



BOLDON BOOK 

The vills of Oxenhall and Little Haughton are connected with Dar- 
lington by services which they have to render there, but they do not figure 
in the Halmote Rolls, although they reappear in Hatfield's Survey, where they 
are held as sub-manors. 1 The whole group, however, is intimately connected 
in the general classification of vills and forms, as we shall see, the second or 
agricultural type. 

Auckland Group in the Halmote Rolls : Ricknall, Middridge, Heigh- 
ington, Killerby, West Thickley, West Auckland, Redworth, Coundon, 
Byers, Escomb, East Thickley, Newton Cap, Bondgate-in-Auckland. 

Vills in the Boldon Book : New Ricknall and Ricknall Alia ; Heigh- 
ington and Killerby ; Middridge and Thickley ; Newton-by-Thickley (West 
Thickley in Hatfield's Survey) ; Redworth and Old Thickley ; North Auck- 
land, Escomb, Newton, and West Auckland ; Great Coundon, Little 
Coundon, and Binchester ; Byers. 

The grouping of these vills in Boldon Book comes out very clearly. The 
Ricknalls have a common demesne, but they stand in the Survey between 
Carlton and Darlington. Heighington and Killerby have the demesne, or at 
least the hall, in common. Middridge and Thickley have a common demesne 
and common pasture. Old Thickley, we are expressly told, was made of the 
land of Redworth. Then North and West Auckland, Newton, and Escomb, 
form a sub-division known as Aucklandshire, the terms of their tenure are 
alike, and they have certain obligations in common. The Coundons and 
Binchester are also connected, the first two by a common demesne, and the 
last, although separated in the Survey, by ploughing services at Coundon. 
Byers appears in Boldon Book as an assart held by a free tenant in connexion 
with the vill of Hunwick. Bondgate-in-Auckland, like the settlement of 
the same name in Darlington, is later than Boldon Book. 8 All these vills, 
except Redworth, the Ricknalls, and the Coundons, conform to the Boldon 
type. 

Sadberge Group in the Halmote Rolls : Sadberge and Newbiggin. 

Sadberge was not acquired by the Bishop until after the composition of 
Boldon Book, and it does not therefore appear in that record. Bishop Pudsey 
purchased it from Richard I., who had held it as a manor with a wapentake 
appurtenant.* Its manorial organization was therefore complete when it 
came under the Bishop's control. 

Wolsingham Group in the Halmote Rolls : Stanhope, Lynesack, 
Bishopley, Bedburn, Witton, Hamsterley, Wolsingham. 

Vills in the Boldon Book : Wolsingham and Rogerley ; Broadwood ; 
Stanhope. 

The case here is curious, for all but two of the vills composing the 
manor have come into being since the composition of Boldon Book. A little 
attention to the type of the chief vills gives the explanation. Wolsingham 
and Stanhope are the typical forest vills, and the manor no doubt grew and 
increased as more and more forest land was taken under cultivation. In 1 183 
these vills contained an unusually large number of tenants, who, if they were 

1 HatfieLTi Stirr. (Surtees Soc.), 7, 9. 

1 Canon Green well conjectures that the name ' which is not uncommon in some of oar older towns, it 
derived from the bond-tenants living in that street.' Hatfitlft Sure. (Surtees Soc.), 277. 

* 'Mancrium nostrum de Sadberge cum wapentagio ad idem mancrium pertinente,' Cart. Ric. I. in 
Serif Kret Trti. (Surtees Soc.), App. No. xl. Cf. Coldingham, cap. ix. in ibid. p. 14, and App. No*, xli. xlii. 

267 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

not actually free, still formed no part of the villein community, and paid rent 
instead of rendering services. Under these circumstances, with an abundance 
of waste land and a population more readily mobilised than the ordinary 
villein class, the rapid growth of new vills, which naturally retained a 
connexion with the parent settlement, is readily accounted for. 

Lanchester Group in the Halmote Rolls : Benfieldside, Billingside, 
Butsfield, Satley, Broomshields, Kyo, Pontop, Broom-with-Flass, Roughside, 
Rowley, Lanchester. 

Vills in Boldon Book : Lanchester. 

Lanchester, like Wolsingham and Stanhope, was a forest vill, and the 
same opportunity for growth would exist here as there. These new places 
are duly recorded in Hatfield's Survey. 

Bedlington Group in Halmote Rolls : Bedlington, East Sleckburn, West 
Sleckburn, Cambois. 

Vills in the Boldon Book : Bedlington, West Sleckburn, Netherton, 
Choppington, Cambois, East Sleckburn. 

The region known as Bedlingtonshire is locally situated within the 
county of Northumberland. It came to the see, like Sadberge, en bloc and 
by purchase, and seems as early as 901 to have had a certain organization. 1 

From all this we shall be safe to conclude that from a pretty early time 
the bishop's vills had for administrative and possibly judicial purposes been 
arranged in groups which a later age had no difficulty in recognizing as 
manors. What went on within these groups or how far they entered into the 
public law relations of the bishopric are questions which it is easier to put 
than to answer. The difficulty is that we are dealing with a single great 
estate, the lord of which is also ' in loco regis ' in the county in which it lies. 
It is hard to be sure, then, whether in any doubtful case the bishop is 
exercising lordship or sovereignty, and one is fain to exclaim with the per- 
plexed thirteenth-century reporter whom this double status confounded, 
' Quo teneam vultus mutantem Protea nodo.' * Unhappily we cannot tell 
how the bishop dealt with other people's manors, whether when a tax was 
raised it was levied on the manors or on the vills composing them, or in 
what relation the manorial courts stood to the palatine judiciary. General 
taxation in the bishopric was irregular, extraordinary, and probably of late 
introduction, 3 and the late and meagre judicial records which we command 
afford no illustration of the second point. The earliest sheriffs account is of 
the fourteenth century, and, as we have seen, the Halmote Rolls do not begin 
until the same period. All we can say then is that for financial purposes 
the bishop dealt with his own estates on the basis of vills, not of manors. 
The inference therefore remains that manorial organization existed solely for 
purposes of local administration, whether agricultural or judicial. In these 
circumstances it may be assumed to have come into existence as early or as 
late as the like organization of the rest of the kingdom. The name, of 

1 Emit etiam idem cpiscopus (sc. Cuthardus) de pecunia sancti Cuthberti villam quae vocatur Bedlingtun 
cum suis appendiciis, Nedertun, Grubba, Twisle, Cebbingtun, Sliceburne, Commer (Symeon of Durham (Rolls Ser.), 
i. 208). On the identification of these names see the same work in Mr. Hodgson Hinde's ed. of Symeon (Surteej 
Soc.), 1868, p. 147. 

8 Rot. Cur. Reg. 7-8 Joh. No. 36, m. 13-, printed in Albrev. Plot. (Rec. Com.), 94, and in full in 
Lapsley, Co. Pal. of Dur. 313-31 4. The quotation b of course from Horace. 

* Lapsley, op. tit., 116-120, 271-275. 

268 



BOLDON BOOK 

course, will not be earlier than the Norman Conquest, but the organization 
of a great estate with a court for its tenants will long precede that event, and 
whatever immediate effect William I.'s financial and administrative measures 
had upon the English manor must have been lacking in Durham, where that 
institution followed a free development. 

We may now return to our task of drawing from the evidence of Boldon 
Book some coherent account of the social and economic life of the bishopric 
at the close of the twelfth century, and for this purpose we shall pass in review 
first the various classes of the rural population and then the land on which 
and by which they lived. The fulcrum of the mediaeval rural economy was 
the villein community, those who tilled the soil in common for their own 
benefit and for that of the lord to whom the land belonged. Whatever other 
elements might compose the village population and they were many and 
various the villeins with their land remained the core and centre of the 
community, constituting what German scholars have happily called the 'engere 
Gutsverband.' A free tenant might hold the demesne at farm from the lord, 
but it was the villeins who worked the land. On the other hand, the village 
would contain a cloud of minor tenants, farmers, cottars, bordars, crofters, and 
perhaps a few bondmen, but the open fields, in which these men had little or 
no portion, were worked by the villeins, who were obliged to make over a 
share of the produce to the lord. 

The system upon which the bishop's land was held and worked was 
essentially the same as that obtaining throughout the greater part of England 
at this time, and known to modern writers as the open-field system. 1 In 
return for the use of the land the villeins owed their lords certain renders in 
money and kind and certain days of labour on his demesne, together with 
other services generally specified. The amount and nature of these renders 
and services, however, were conditioned by the environment of the community, 
and seem at the first glance to have differed from vill to vill. An attentive 
reading of Boldon Book, however, makes it clear that in respect to the nature 
and rate of their obligations the Durham vills may be arranged in a few 
definite classes, and by following this order we shall best illustrate the question 
in hand. First, there are four definite types, namely, pastoral, agricultural, 
and forest vills, and the nascent boroughs. Beside these there is a fifth class 
in regard to which Boldon Book gives us less information, recording the profit 
or value of the vill only, without enumerating its services and renders. 
Sometimes we are told that the vill is held by a tenant of the bishop, or 
again the tenant is not named and there is merely a note that such a vill 
renders so and so much, or finally a vill is described as owing so much 
military service, generally expressed as the fractional part of a knight's fee. 
Thus we have three subdivisions of the fifth class. 

Boldon is typical of what, for reasons which will presently appear, we 
have called the pastoral vill. The community here consists of twenty-two 

1 Durham was a county of open fields and nucleated villages. An acquaintance with the open-field 
lystem of agriculture may be assumed in view of the abundant literature of the subject which has appeared in 
English in the course of the past thirty yean. See particularly E. Nasse, The Agricultural Community of the 
Middle Ages, trans. H. Ouvry, 2 ed. 1871; F. Secbohm, The English Village Community, 4 ed. 1890; 
C. M. Andrews, The Old English Manor, 1892 ; W. Cunningham, English Industry and Commerce, vol. i. (4 ed. 
1905) ; W. J. Ashley, Economic Hiitory, vol. i. J ed. 1894 ; Maitland, Domtsdaj Bk. and BtyonJ, 1897 ; c 
A. Mcitzen, Siedelung und Agrarvieien, ii. 97-140. 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

villeins (villein households or holdings would more nearly represent the 
actual state of things) holding thirty acres 1 of land apiece. Every villein 
owed certain regular and certain special services. Three days a week 
throughout the year he must work for his lord, but exceptions were made 
for Easter and Whitsun weeks and the twelve days between Christmas and 
Epiphany. Then, in the autumn, when the lord's mowing was to be done, 
the villein and his whole household, except the housewife, must do four days 
of special work, also he must reap three rods of the oat-field and plough and 
harrow the stubble, but at this time the burden of week-work was removed. 
Then there were certain obligations incumbent upon the whole community 
of the villeins. Every village plough must work and harrow (the plough- 
team is what is meant, the instrument made little difference) two acres of 
the demesne, but while this labour was proceeding week-work was again 
suspended and the men received a dole of food. Every pair of villeins was 
required to construct a booth for the annual fair held on St. Cuthbert's days 
in March and September. The whole villein community might be required 
to construct every year, if need were, a house forty feet long by fifteen wide, but 
then they would be excused from ' averpenny,' a money payment in commu- 
tation for carrying service otherwise required of them. Turning from services 
to renders we find that every villein owed 2s. 6d. for scot and \6d. for aver- 
penny, and rendered as well half a chalder of oats and five cartloads of wood 
for fuel and two hens and ten eggs. Finally the whole vill rendered ijs, 
cornage and one milch-cow, and this is the distinctive mark of the pastoral 
vill, for cornage, as it will shortly be contended, is characteristic of a com- 
munity which is, or at least which has been, primarily pastoral. This class 
includes forty-five vills distributed throughout the four wards into which the 
bishopric is divided. 3 

We have called the second type of vills agricultural rather because it 
wants the distinguishing pastoral mark of cornage than because it is more 
exclusively agricultural than the first class. Darlington is the representative 
of this type. The villeins there hold forty-eight bovates, but their number 
is not recorded ; it would either be forty-eight or twenty-four, more probably 
the latter, as the virgate of two bovates was the normal peasant-holding. 
Their services are not arranged as at Boldon, under week-work and boon- 
work. The community as a whole has the duty of mowing the Bishop's 
meadow and making and carting his hay, and also they must enclose 
his yard (curia) and copse. They render the customary services at the 
mills, and three times a year they must cart wine, salt, and herrings. Then 
_ 

1 This must be the sense of the words, ' ii bovatas terra de xxx acris,' although of course they could bear 

another meaning. Mr. Seebohm, Village Community, 68-69, reac ^ s tne passage so, and we know of course that 

the virgate of thirty acres was the normal peasant-holding. Cf. VinogradofF, Villainage in England, 238 ff. 

* I. Chester Ward. Boldon, Newton, Cleadon, Whitburn, Whickham, Crawcrook, Great Usworth. 

II. Easington Ward. Wearmouth, Tunstall, Ryhope, Burdon, Easington, Thorpe, Shotton, North 

Sherburn, Shadforth, Cassop, Herrington, Hutton, Sheraton. 

III. Stockton Ward. Sedgefield, Middleham, Cornford, Norton, Stockton, Hertburn, Preston, Butter- 
wick. 
IV. Darlington Ward. Heighington, Killerby, Middridge, Thickley, North Auckland, Escomb, 

Newton, West Auckland, BrafFerton, Binchester. 

V. Bedlingtonshire. Bedlington, West Sleckburn, Netherton, Choppington, Cambois, East Sleckburn. 
The vills of Bedlingtonshire seem to have compounded for many or most of the Boldon ser- 
vices. North and West Auckland with Newton and Escomb had certain forest obligations which 
placed them half way between the Boldon and Stanhope types. 

270 



BOLDON BOOK 

one load of wood had to be carted for every bovate, and when the bishop 
travelled an indefinite amount of carnage service might be required of the 
villeins. There was no render in kind, but every bovate had to pay 5*. All 
of the vills of this type are situated in the Darlington ward. 1 

The distinctive mark of the third class is service in the forest or in 
connexion with the bishop's great autumn * battue ' known as the * magna 
caza.' Stanhope, the typical forest vill, contained twenty villeins holding a 
bovate apiece and paying every man zs. on his land. They were responsible 
for the usual agricultural services and for carriage as well, but part of the 
latter duty consisted in conveying game to Durham and Auckland. Then 
at the time of the ' magna caza ' the whole villein community was required 
to build and furnish the bishop's temporary lodgings, consisting of a kitchen, 
a larder, and a kennel. The villeins of the neighbouring Aucklandshire 
completed the encampment by supplying a hall sixty feet by sixteen, a 
chapel forty feet by fifteen, a buttery, store-room, chamber, and privy ; and 
by enclosing the whole temporary settlement with a hedge or fence. These 
Stanhope tenants, moreover, were obliged to find whatever litter might be 
required and to fetch the bishop's supplies from Wolsingham. Tenants of 
other forest vills furnished ropes and dogs for the ' battue.' Services of this 
sort, as well as the keep (and we may suppose the training) of dogs and 
horses, and the care of the deer in their breeding season, were not confined to 
the villeins, but were required, as we shall presently see, of the tenants in 
drengage as well. 1 

The boroughs of the bishopric will receive the separate treatment which 
they demand in another part of this chapter. They are introduced here, 
however, on account of their agricultural aspect, which was still prominent, 
one might well say predominant. It is mainly as agricultural communities 
that they figure in Boldon Book. Most of them, indeed, were of Bishop 
Pudsey's creation, and, with the exception of Durham, may be regarded as 
very rudimentary municipalities. 

Over against the four well-defined types which we have been examining 
stand the vills of which we know no more than their value, their services and 
renders having been for one reason or another left unrecorded. These, again, 
may be arranged in three subdivisions, although if the details were known 
any one of the vills so grouped might conform to one of our first three 
general types. The fourth type is excluded, for the erection of a vill into a 
borough would not be passed over in silence. In the first place, there are 
thirty-seven vills held of the bishop by tenants whose names are recorded in 
Boldon Book. Six of these are held, feudally, either by knight-service or in 
alms. 8 Sixteen more are held by a service which, as will presently be argued, 
is a form of drengage.* The tenants of the remaining fifteen hold either by 
some form of fee-farm, consisting of a money rent, or else by the bishop's 

1 Darlington, Blackwell, Cockerton, Great Haughton, Whcssoe. 

* The list of the forest vills follows. It It to be noted that the cornage-paying vills of Aucklandshire are 
included as having forest-services. They form part, therefore, of two classes : 

I. Darfington ffard. Stanhope, North Auckland, West Auckland, Escomb, Newton. 
II. Clutter Ward. Lanchester, Iveston, Marley, Britlcy, Tribley, Holmcside. 

* Pcncher, Edderacrcs, Trimdon, Muggleswick, Reyermore, Farnacres. 

* Plawsworth, Little Usworth, Washington, Little Burdon, Twizell, Heworth, Ozenhall, Thickley 
(Newton), Lutrington, Hcnknoll, Cornsay, Hedley, Edmondbyers, Hunstanworth, Hcrrington, Sheraton. 

271 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

favour, and upon sufferance. 1 Three of these vills are noted in Hatfield's 
Survey as paying cornage, and might therefore have been assimilated to our 

first class. 8 

In the second place, Boldon Book enumerates fourteen vills which render 
a money payment only. 8 Since there is no mention either of a tenant or of 
the services and obligations of the villeins, three possible explanations are 
open to us. We may believe that the vill was in the hands of an unnamed 
tenant who would be holding by fee-farm, or that it was being farmed for a 
term of years either by an individual or by the villata, or body of villeins. I 
am inclined to think that the first is the true explanation, partly because 
either of the other arrangements would lack the relative permanence of fee- 
farm, and partly because they occur and are specifically described in other 
parts of Boldon Book. But the capriciousness of records of this kind in such 
matters makes it almost impossible to argue from their silence, or to ascribe 
much self-consistency to them, and it will be safer therefore to regard these 
vills simply as held in some sort of farm. 

Finally, there are five vills which, although no tenant is named, are 
recorded as rendering the fractional part of the service of a knight's fee. 4 Here 
we must suppose either that there was an unnamed tenant or that the vill was 
in the bishop's hand ready to be granted out in return for the specified ser- 
vices, which would then be in reality a valuation. 

It is clear, then, that in essentials the villein community did the same 
manorial work in all parts of the bishop's estate, although the adjustment 
and some of the incidents of their renders and services differed with their 
environment. The most difficult and perhaps the most important of all of 
these incidents, the exact nature of which now demands our attention, is the 
render known as cornage. 

In the medieval records, whether national or local, that relate to the 
four northern counties of England, the term cornage' occurs with some 
frequency from the twelfth to the fourteenth centuries. The question of the 
origin and nature of the institution to which this term applied has been 
discussed with various degrees of learning and acumen since the time of 
Littleton, without, unhappily, producing any explanation that has passed 
unquestioned. The truth is that the documents at our disposal appear to 
contradict one another, to lack self-consistency. The term cornage would 
seem to describe now one thing, now another, according to the date of the 
document or the region from which it emanates, and yet there is evidence 
of an original and underlying unity which cannot be disregarded. 

Here we must restrict ourselves to the discussion of the Durham evidence, 
although we may presently indicate some ways in which the general antinomy 

1 Newton-by-Durham, Pelaw, Picktre, Newton-by-Boldon, Hardwick, Grindon, Ketton, Hunwick, 
Frosterley, Consett, Heley, Migley, Langley, Smallees, Stella. 

2 Whitwell, Herrington, Sheraton. 

8 Chester, School Aycliffe, Old Thickley, Harperley, Medomsley, Edmondsley, Crook, Pokerley, Newsham, 
Barford, Hulam, Cornhill, Newbiggin, Upsedington (Ladykirk). 
Ulkill's Biddick, Tillraouth, Heton, Twysell, Duddoe. 

6 Other terms were also employed : ' geldum ' or 'cornagium animalium' in thePife-RoUo/j l Hen. I. (Rec. 
Com., 1833); 'gablum animalium 'in a chart. otHen.l.,4bbrev.PIac. (Rec. Com., 181 l),66b,67a ; 'noutegeld' 
in Pipe-Roll for the Cos. ofCumb., Westmorland, and Dur., during the Reigns of Hen. II. , Ric. I., and John (Soc. 
of Ant. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1847); ' hornegelde,' Bracion't Note Bk. (1887), No. 1,270; cf. V.C.H. 
Cumb. i. 314-315. 

272 




BOLDON BOOK 

might be reconciled. 1 The earliest texts come from the reign of Henry I. 
They consist of a charter of Bishop Ranulf Flambard,* restoring to the prior 
and convent certain lands of which he had deprived them, and the king's 
confirmation of that charter. The bishop conveys, inter alia, 'Burtun cum 
solitis consuetudinibus ' ; the King is more explicit: 'cornagium de Bortona 
quod Unspac tenet, scilicet, de unoquoque animali ad.' 8 Here, then, is a point 
of departure ; cornage was a payment made by a vill not by the lord of the 
vill on beasts at the rate of twopence per head. The natural inference 
that in this case at least the payment was made for the right to pasture cattle 
would be confirmed by the fact that in 1296 the * communitas ' of Burton 
was permitting the tenant of every bovate in the vill to turn out two beasts 
on the pasture.* After the death of Flambard, in 1128, the see was vacant 
for five years, and its revenues therefore figure in the national accounts. In 
the Pipe Roll of 31 Henry I., accordingly, we may read in the account of 
Geoffrey Escolland, who was keeper of the temporalities sede vacanfe, ' de 
cornagio animalium episcopatus, iio/. $s. 5^.' 6 

It must not be supposed, however, that all the bishop's vills paid him 
for the pasture of their cattle and that cornage was therefore a universal 
institution and a source of considerable revenue. This may be shown from 
testimony of Boldon Book. It will be remembered that the Boldon entry, 
after enumerating the rents and services of the villeins, adds, ' Tota villa reddit 
ijs. de cornagio et i. vaccam de metride.' The bishop's unfree tenants at 
Boldon, that is, are making a payment for what we have inferred to be the 
right to pasture cattle, and, further, are making it partly in money and partly 
in kind, by the render of a milch cow. The villeins of many other of the 
bishop's manors were also paying cornage. It should be noted, moreover, 
that with a few exceptions, which will be dealt with presently, this obligation 
rested on the unfree only. In Boldon, in 1183, there is no doubt that 
cornage is merely an incident of unfree tenure, a seignorial due, and, if 
compared with others, not a very important one.* 

Now this due, and here is a point of importance, was not incumbent on 
all the manors of the bishopric. Boldon Book deals with, roughly, about 
141 vills ; of these, thirty are noted as rendering cornage and a milch cow, 
and form, therefore, as we have already seen, a distinct type or class. Nine 
more may be added because, although they pay no cornage, they render 
either the milch cow or ' castleman ' (an incident distinct from cornage, but 

!For a more general discussion of the subject than can be undertaken here, see Littleton, Tenures, 156, 
with Coke's comment ; Neto Natura Brevium, 8vo, London, 1652, p. 200 ; Hutchinson, Hiit.of Dur., i. 147, 
lii. 1 13-1 14 ; Surtees, ibid. i. 252, iii. 152 ; Hodgson, Hist. ofNorthumb., i. pt. i. pp. 258-263 ; Greenwell, 
in Boldon Bk. (Surtees Soc.), gloss, s. v. 'cornage,' and HatfieliTs Surv., p. 278 ; Secbohm, Engl. Village Community, 
68-72 ; Crump, in Palgrave, Diet, of Political Economy, i. 426-427 ; Maitland, in Engl. Hist. Rev., v. 627, ft, 
and Domesday Bk. and Beyond, 147 ; Vinogradoff, Villainage In England, 295 ; Hall, in Red Bk. of the Exch., 
ii. pref. ccxxxvi.-ccl. ; Round, Commune of London, 278-288; Wilson, in V.C.H. Cumb., i. 295-335; 
Lapsley, in Amer. Hist. Rev., ix. 670-695. 

* Flambard became Bishop of Durham in 1099 ; he was deprived in noo, restored in 1107, and died 
in 1128 ; W. Stubbs, Reg. Sac. Angl. (2nd ed. Oxf., 1897), 41 ; Le Neve, Fasti Eccl. Angl., ed. by T. D. 
Hardy (Oxf., 1854), iii. 282-283 ; J- H. Ramsay, Foundations of Engl. (Lond., 1898), ii. 256. 

1 Both charters are printed in Feodarium, 145 note ; cf. ibid. 149 note. 

*Dur. Halmote R. (Surtees Soc.), 12. 

1 Pipe Roll 31 Hen. I. (Rec. Com. 1833). A translation of the part of the record referring to Durham 
may be read in Canon Greenwcll's edition of Boldon Bk. (Surtees Soc.), App. pp. i-iii. 

The bishop took from Boldon 55*. scot and 28/. 6d. averpenny, as against iji. cornage plus 6s., the 
regular tariff of composition for the milch cow. 

i 273 35 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

characteristic of the type), or, as in the case of Norton, are relieved from 
cornage ' pro defectu pasture.' Further, fourteen vills, having compounded 
for all or nearly all their service for a money payment, might be regarded as 
doubtful. Still, as one of these is noted in Boldon Book itself as paying a 
composition for cornage, and two others in Bishop Hatfield's Survey, a four- 
teenth-century record similar to Boldon Book, it may be inferred that the rest 
are of another class. Finally, thirty-nine vills in Boldon Book are held of 
the bishop in chief, and here the services are not enumerated ; but on turning 
to Hatfield's Survey we find that only three of them are paying a cornage 
composition. This rough calculation shows that of the 141 vills enume- 
rated in Boldon Book only forty-five, or less than one-third, are of the 
cornage type. 

At the close of the twelfth century, then, cornage in Durham was an 
incident of unfree tenure in certain specially situated vills. It was being paid 
partly in kind and partly in a money payment specifically described as the 
composition for the render of a cow (vacca de metride), indicating that the 
institution was already ancient and had been made the subject of at least a 
partial composition. 1 From the nature of the evidence connecting cornage 
at every turn with cattle and pasture we are led to the inference that it was 
a payment made for the agistment of cattle, and from the survival of the 
render of a milch cow that it had originally consisted of an annual render of 
cattle, perhaps a proportion of the increase of the herd. 

On the other hand, Littleton says, * It is said that in the marches of 
Scotland some hold of the king by cornage, that is to say to wind a horn to 
give men of the country warning when they hear that the Scots or other 
enemies are come or will enter England.' * It has been the fashion to deride 
this as fantastic, as indeed it is, but there is no question that cornage is 
described as a tenure in documents relating to all the northern counties 
except Durham ; and some form of serjeanty, probably connected with forest 
service, the note of which, so to say, was horn-blowing, occurs in various 
parts of England throughout the Middle Ages. 8 An Oxfordshire manor was 
held by the service of blowing a horn to keep a certain forest, and a similar 
tenure which Camden noted at Bradford, in Yorkshire, was still in existence 
when Gough was editing the Britannia at the end of the eighteenth-century. 4 

The difficulty is serious, and one is quite prepared to admit that those 
who contend that cornage in England was a seignorial due and was never 
anything else ought to show some way of accounting for the perplexing 
talk about cornage tenants in the other northern counties. It is impossible, 

1 The word 'gild,' used in connexion with cornage in the forms 'geldum animalium,' 'noutegeld,' and 
horngeld, is in itself an indication that a composition had occurred ; in this sense it is used interchangeably 
with ' mal,' as in ' malmannus.' See Vinogradoff, op. fit. 293. An illustration of this may be seen in a kind 
of glossary of hard or barbarous words occurring in legal documents which seem to have been current in 
mediasval England. It was subjoined to the custumary of the soke of Rothley in Lincolnshire (1312), and 
at Durham it was written into the ' Registrum Primum' of the Dean and Chapter, under the rubric, 
' Exphcatio vocum veterum.' The passage is as follows, ' Gildi hoc est quietum de consuetudinibus servilibus 
qua: quondam dare consueverint sicuti HorncbilJ. . . . Hernchild [hornbiel, and hornegeld in the Durham copy], 
hoc est quietum de consuetudine exacta per talliam per totam Angliam terram scilicet de quacunque cornuta 
bestia [de omni bestia cornuta, in the Durham copy].' See Vinogradoff, loc. cit. ; Arch., vol. xlvii., pt. i., QQ ff. : 
Boldm Bk. (Surtees Soc.), App. p. lv. 

8 Coke, Second Institute (many editions), Par. 156. 

T. B. Trowsdale, in The Reliquary, xx. 157-160 (I owe this ref. to Prof. Gay, of Harvard). 
These cases, the first of which is from Harl. MSS., No. 34, are cited by Mr. Trowsdale. 

274 



BOLDON BOOK 

however, to undertake this without disregarding the limitations of the present 
work, which confine one to problems arising within a single county. 

We return now to our Durham evidence only to find that we may not 
yet congratulate ourselves that we have reached the whole truth about cornage. 
Some disconcerting texts remain to be examined. In the first place, Boldon 
Book affords several instances of freemen paying cornage, a fact which appar- 
ently traverses our theory that cornage was distinctively an incident of unfree 
or villein-tenure. But if we suppose that, like many other such incidents, 
this charge had by the twelfth century got itself fastened to the soil, and in 
such a way, indeed, that every bovate in any vill was answerable for a fixed 
portion of the cornage of that vill, then the difficulty disappears. If a free 
tenant held several bovates in a corn age-pay ing vill he would naturally not be 
grouped for the purpose of cornage with the villeins, nor, on the other hand, 
would the bishop be deprived of his due by reason of his tenant's status. 
Again, the same reasoning would hold in case the whole or the fraction of a 
cornage-paying vill was granted to a freeman. With this hypothesis in mind, 
we may examine the passages referred to. At Heighington there are sixteen 
villeins, each of whom holds two bovates ; these render among other things 
* %6s. de cornagio ' and one milch cow. Now follow two striking passages : 
' Hugo Brunne tenet, quamdiu uxor ejus vixerit, ii. bovatas pro iis., quos 
reddit ad cornagium . . . Simon hostiarius ibidem tenet terram quae fuit 
Utredi, cum incrementis quas Dominus Episcopus ei fecit usque ad Ix. acras, 
et reddit pro omnibus i. besancium 1 ad Penthecostem.' Now the first of these 
gives us the cornage rate at Heighington. It was is. on the bovate, and the 
words ' reddit ad cornagium ' certainly suggest a contribution to some larger 
sum. Further, the phrasing of the text suggests a beneficial rating. Simon 
held as much as 60 acres, but he paid only zs. for Utred's holding and the 
addition which the bishop had made. Utred no doubt made the same 
render for the smaller tenement which contained, of course, less than Simon's 
60 acres. Let us suppose that it contained (or was rated at) just half, that 
would be 30 acres, or to put it otherwise, 2 bovates. We are somewhat 
justified in this assumption because it tallies with the render of zs, which were 
paid as a contribution, we can scarcely doubt, to the cornage of the vill. For 
observe that at the rate of is. on the bovate the sixteen villeins would pay 
only 32.*., 4_r. short of the recorded cornage of the vill. Now if you add the 
4_r. from the two free tenants you have exactly the sum, 36^. A similar case 
occurs as Escomb, where our formula may again be tested. There are 
fourteen villeins, ' quorum unusquisque habet i. bovatam, et reddit et operatur 
omnibus modis sicut villani de North Aclet.' At North Auckland each 
villein rendered iqd. cornage. Now at Escomb 'Elzibrid tenet dimidiam 
bovatam, et reddit . . . yd. de cornagio'; that is, at the rate of igJ. per 
bovate he is one penny short. The case of Herrington is very instructive. 
The entry reads as follows : ' Duae partes de Heringtona, quas Hugo de 
Hermas tenet, reddit (sic) zos. de cornagio et ii. partes i. vacca? de metride,' 

1 i.e. 21. See the entries under Grindon, Heighington, Stanhope, and Farnacrcs. At Stanhope the best 
texts give the value of the bcsant as 4/.,t>ut this is a slip. At Farnacres we get 'besancium vel iis.' The Liber 
Pit* affords a similar proof, ' Aernisius de Aluertone . . . unum bisantium ... vel ii. solidos,' p. 107, cf. 82, 
83. In 1227 the dean and canons of Chichester were paying an annual due of 1 besant or zi., Cal.of Chart. R. 
i. 34. I am indebted to Prof. Gross for this reference ; cf. BoIJtm Bk., App. p. liii. ; Trice Martin, Record 
Interpreter, 180. 

275 



A HISTORY OF DURHAM 

etc. Observe that it is not the tenant Hugh who is described as paying the 
cornage and the proportion of the milch cow, but the two parts of the vill 
which he holds. This corroborates our inference that cornage had become a 
burden on realty. Sheraton, again, is a case similar to Herrington. John 
holds one-half of the vill ' pro iii. marcis, et est quietus de operationibus et 
servitiis,' in return for Crawcrook, which he had quit-claimed to the bishop. 
' Thomas tenet aliam medietatem de Shurutona et reddit 30^. de cornagio, et 
dimidiam vaccam de metride,' etc. Finally, there is a curious case at Whit- 
well. 'Whitewell, quam Willelmus tenet in escambium pro terra quam 
Merimius tenebat in Querindune, reddit dimidiam marcam.' Now the group 
of vills known as Quarringtonshire had pasture and paid cornage, and it is 
probable, therefore, that when the exchange was made this incident would be 
reckoned in the composition at which William was holding the new land. 
On turning to Hatfield's Survey we find this expectation confirmed. The 
manor of Whitwell there figures as a member of Quarrington. The Master 
of Sherburn Hospital holds the manor and the pasture and renders inter alia 
2s. for cornage. 1 

We may conclude, then, that as early as the time of Bishop Pudsey's 
survey cornage had begun to lose its original character as an incident of unfree 
tenure, and to assume that of a burden on realty, so that where a freeman 
received from the bishop a holding in a cornage-paying manor, or the whole 
of the manor, he would be responsible to his lord for a proportion or the 
whole of the cornage of the manor. Fortunately, we have a case illustrating 
this change. In the middle of the twelfth century Laurence, prior of 
Durham, conveyed to a certain Roger the land known as Pache, a member of 
Monkton, one of the most ancient parts of the ' patrimonium S. Cuthberti.' 
One of the conditions of tenure was, ' quod pro tota hac terra . . . pro 
cornagio dabit 2s. in anno, scilicet, ad festum Sancti Cuthberti, et pro metreth 
quantum ad eandem terram pertinet, ad festum Sancti Martini.' * This land 
was returned to the convent in 1347 by a certain Walter Smyth. 8 In 1373 
Thomas Willi was holding of the prior in Monkton eighty acres of land 
' quondam Walteri Smyth de Monkton quas solebant reddere scaccario 2s. et 
pro cornagio 2od.' * 

Here, then, the cornage payment has fastened to the soil, has become a 
burden on the land, a part of the ' forinsecum servicium,' the obligation, that 
is, which the land owed to the king (in this case to the bishop), regardless of 
what other tenurial relations might have been established in connexion with 
it. In that phrase lies the key to the later history of cornage in the bishopric. 
The changes which occurred after the Norman Conquest acted on cornage as 
on other institutions, fastening it to the soil. In such vills as remained in the 
bishop's hand cornage continues to be paid by the villeins. 6 In the vills that 
were granted out by him it became a part of the forinsec service which his 
tenants rendered him and which, no doubt, they collected for themselves from 
their unfree tenants. This point also may be illustrated by texts. In 1183 
the vill of Great Usworth was in the bishop's hand ; the villeins rendered 

1 Hatf ells Surv. (Surtees Soc.), 150. FetJ. 11411. 

8 Ibid. The editor, Canon Greenwell, cites but does not print the charter. 
4 Dur. Halmote R. (Surtees Soc.), i. 119. 
6 e.g. Hatfield's Surv. (Surtees Soc.), 100, 129, 142, 183. 

276 



BOLDON BOOK 

3OJ. c de cornagio ' and one milch cow. In 1 384 ' Willelmus de Hilton miles 
tenet ii partes villas de Magna Useworth, et Alicia de Moderby terciam 
partem dicta? villas per servitium forinsecum, et reddunt per annum ad iiii 
terminos usuales I os. lidem Willelmus et Alicia . . . reddunt pro cornagio 
dicta? villas per annum, ad festum Sancti Cuthberti in Septembri, 3OJ. lidem 
reddunt pro i vacca de metrith, ad festum Sancti Martini, 6/.,' l etc. The 
omitted portions contain a list of money payments for the renders and services 
of the villeins as recorded in Boldon Book. Like cases will be found at 
Iveston, Sheraton, and Herrington.' 

Let us bring together now the results of our examination of the Durham 
evidence. In the first place, whatever the origin of cornage may have been, 
it was, when we meet with it in the documents of the twelfth century, an 
incident of unfree tenure. Further, it was not universal in the bishopric, but 
occurred only in such vills as had pasture, and here it represented at once the 
villeins' recognition of their lord's proprietorship of the pasture and a payment 
for the use of it by their cattle. This payment, it would seem, had originally 
been made in kind out of the annual increase of the herd, but in the twelfth 
century was already compounded for a money payment and the render of a 
milch cow. Then we have marked in the twelfth-century documents the 
tendency of this payment to fasten itself to the soil and become a burden on 
the land without regard to the status of the holder. Finally, from later 
documents we have been able to assert the predominance of this tendency 
which caused cornage or rather the money composition for cornage and the 
milch cow together to merge in the forinsec service of such lands as were 
charged with this burden. 

Certain other results, no less important because they are negative, may 
also be stated as the outcome of our inquiry. We have seen no warrant for 
describing cornage as a tenure such as might be co-ordinated with socage or 
serjeanty or the like. It was rather one of many incidents of villein-tenure 
peculiar to such vills as enjoyed certain advantages from their lord. Again, 
we have met with no reason for connecting cornage with any special form of 
military service incumbent on the entire bishopric. That is on the face of it 
impossible, because cornage was not universal. This last objection, again, 
will hold against any attempt to describe cornage as a general impost or tax. 

The terms * yolwayting ' and ' michelmeth ' occur four times in Boldon 
Book, always in the sense of some villein services which have been commuted 
for a money payment. These obligations rested on the villeins, and on the 
villeins only, 8 of Heighington, Killerby, Middridge, and Thickley. It is 
noticeable that these vills are all of the cornage-paying type, all situated in the 
Darlington ward, and all members of the same manor, that of Auckland.* 
Yolwayting had been compounded for at the rate of is. per capita, michelmeth 
at 4</. 6 These payments all recur in Hatfield's Survey,* and were therefore 
surviving in the fourteenth century, but they are not mentioned in any other 

1 Hatficlfi Surv. (Surtces Soc.;, 102 

* Ibid. 119, 15*, 157. This point is very strikingly illustrated by the Northumberland texts, which are 
brought together and discussed in Amer. Hiit. Rev. ix. 678-680. 

* The entry in Canon Greenwell's text of Boldon Book which describe* the cottiers of Heighington as 
Miociatcd with the villeins in the payment of yolwayting is an interpolation, vid. inf. App. No. ii. 

* Vid. sup. pp. 267,